2019年11月14日 23:12:55|来源:国际在线|编辑:ask问答
TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201610/470015Ten years ago, I had my first exhibition here.10年前,我在这里举办了第一次展览。I had no idea if it would work or was at all possible,当时我对于能否成功毫无信心,but with a few small steps and a very steep learning curve, I made my first sculpture, called ;The Lost Correspondent.;但经过几次尝试后,我进步很快,我完成了第一件雕塑作品,名为“失落的记者”。Teaming up with a marine biologist and a local dive center,通过与一名海洋生物学家和当地潜水中心的合作,I submerged the work off the coast of Grenada, in an area decimated by Hurricane Ivan.我将这个雕塑沉到了格林纳达的海底,飓风伊万曾经摧毁过那个区域。And then this incredible thing happened. It transformed. One sculpture became two. Two quickly became 26.之后不可思议的事情发生了。它发生了大变化。一尊雕像变成了两尊。两尊很快变成了26尊。And before I knew it, we had the worlds first underwater sculpture park.在不经意间,世界上第一个水下雕塑公园就诞生了。In , I moved to Mexico and started by casting local fisherman.年,我搬到了墨西哥,开始以当地渔民的形象进行创作。This grew to a small community, to almost an entire movement of people in defense of the sea.这些雕像渐渐形成一个小规模社区,几乎完整呈现了一场人们保护海洋的运动。And then finally, to an underwater museum, with over 500 living sculptures.最后,它们都被送到了海底物馆,一共有超过500尊生机勃勃的雕塑。Gardening, it seems, is not just for greenhouses.看起来,园艺不一定只能出现在温室里。Weve since scaled up the designs: ;Ocean Atlas,; in the Bahamas, rising 16 feet up to the surface and weighing over 40 tons,之后我们将设计升级了一个层次:“海洋巨人”,在巴哈马完成,高16英尺,重量超过40吨,to now currently in Lanzarote, where Im making an underwater botanical garden, the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean.目前位于兰萨罗特,我在那里建了一座水下植物园,是大西洋里的第一座。Each project, we use materials and designs that help encourage life;每一件作品,我们都使用对动植物友好的材料和设计,a long-lasting pH-neutral cement provides a stable and permanent platform.用酸碱中性的坚固水泥,制作结实耐用的平台。It is textured to allow coral polyps to attach.质地适合珊瑚虫附着。We position them down current from natural reefs so that after spawning, theres areas for them to settle.我们将雕塑沉入靠近珊瑚礁的水下,这样(珊瑚虫)产卵之后,能有地方供卵附着。The formations are all configured so that they aggregate fish on a really large scale.排列的方式也经过设计,这样能使聚集过来的鱼群达到一个很大的数量级。Even this VW Beetle has an internal living habitat to encourage crustaceans such as lobsters and sea urchins.就连这辆大众甲壳虫内部也是一个栖息地适合甲壳纲动物生活,比如龙虾和海胆。So why exhibit my work in the ocean? Because honestly, its really not easy.为什么我要把作品在海底展出呢?因为说实话,这事一点也不轻松。When youre in the middle of the sea under a hundred-foot crane, trying to lower eight tons down to the sea floor,当你立在海里,头顶上是100英尺高的起重机,试着将8吨重的东西放到海底,you start to wonder whether I shouldnt have taken up watercolor painting instead.你可能会想,当初为什么没去学水画呢?But in the end, the results always blow my mind.但是,最后的结果总能让我惊喜。The ocean is the most incredible exhibition space an artist could ever wish for.海洋是最理想的展出场所,是艺术家梦寐以求的。You have amazing lighting effects changing by the hour, explosions of sand covering the sculptures in a cloud of mystery,那里有时刻都在变化的光影效果,盖住雕像的细沙,仿佛神秘的面纱,a unique timeless quality and the procession of inquisitive visitors, each lending their own special touch to the site.静止在时光之外,还有数量众多好奇的参观者,每一位都会在上面留下自己特殊的印记。But over the years, Ive realized that the greatest thing about what we do, the really humbling thing about the work,但随着时间流逝,我才意识到这件事的伟大之处,它充满了谦卑的情怀,is that as soon as we submerge the sculptures, theyre not ours anymore,从我们将雕像沉入水中的那一刻起,它们就不再属于我们,because as soon as we sink them, the sculptures, they belong to the sea.因为从下沉的那一刻开始,这些雕像,就归属了海洋。As new reefs form, a new world literally starts to evolve, a world that continuously amazes me.随着新的珊瑚礁形成,一个新的世界开始进化,那是一个不断带来惊喜的世界。Its a bit of a cliché, but nothing man-made can ever match the imagination of nature.也许这话有点陈词滥调,但人造之物,终究比不上大自然的鬼斧神工。Sponges look like veins across the faces. Staghorn coral morphs the form.海绵动物看起来像脸上的血管。鹿角珊瑚组合成美丽的形状。Fireworms scrawl white lines as they feed. Tunicates explode from the faces.火蠕虫进食后留下了白色的线条。海鞘在雕像脸上,仿佛花朵绽放。Sea urchins crawl across the bodies feeding at night. Coralline algae applies a kind of purple paint.海胆在夜晚爬过雕像的身躯进食。珊瑚藻将雕像涂成某种紫色。The deepest red Ive ever seen in my life lives underwater.我见过的最深的红色就位于水下。Gorgonian fans oscillate with the waves. Purple sponges breathe water like air.柳珊瑚随着水流翩翩起舞。紫海绵像呼吸空气一样呼吸海水。And grey angelfish glide silently overhead.灰色的天使鱼在头顶安静地游过。And the amazing response weve had to these works tells me that weve managed to plug into something really primal,我们从这些作品里获得的回应是神奇的,我们成功地将作品嵌入了大自然原始的进程,because it seems that these images translate across the world,这些图像看起来能被全世界理解,and thats made me focus on my responsibility as an artist and about what Im trying to achieve.这使得我得以专注于艺术家的职责,专注于我想达成的目标。Im standing here today on this boat in the middle of the ocean,今天我站在这里,在大洋中央的一艘船上,and this couldnt be a better place to talk about the really, really important effect of my work.我觉得这是个绝佳的位置,来讲述我的工作最最重要的意义所在。Because as we all know, our reefs are dying, and our oceans are in trouble.因为众所周知,我们的珊瑚礁在死去,我们的海洋遇到了大问题。So heres the thing: the most used, searched and shared image of all my work thus far is this.下面重点来了:到目前为止,我的所有作品中被引用,搜索和分享最多的是这幅图像。And I think this is for a reason, or at least I hope it is.我想这是有原因的,或者至少我希望是这样。What I really hope is that people are beginning to understand that when we think of the environment and the destruction of nature,我希望人们开始明白,当我们在思考环境污染问题时,that we need to start thinking about our oceans, too.不要忽略海洋。Since building these sites, weve seen some phenomenal and unexpected results.从建立这些公园开始,我们就看到了许多神奇的意想之外的结果。Besides creating over 800 square meters of new habitats and living reef,我们为海洋生物创造了超过800平米的新栖息地和活的珊瑚礁,visitors to the marine park in Cancun now divide half their time between the museum and the natural reefs,此外,去坎昆海洋公园的游客开始将一半的时间用在参观物馆和珊瑚礁,providing significant rest for natural, overstressed areas.让那些游客压力过大的自然区域能够得以喘息。Visitors to ;Ocean Atlas; in the Bahamas highlighted a leak from a nearby oil refinery.这是到巴哈马参观“海洋巨人”的游客在展示附近炼油厂泄漏的原油。The subsequent international media forced the local government to pledge 10 million dollars in coastal cleanups.随后迫于国际媒体的压力,当地政府拨出1000万美元来清理海滩。The sculpture park in Grenada was instrumental in the government designating a spot -- a marine-protected area.而格林纳达的雕塑公园,在政府选址建立海洋保护区时发挥了重要作用。Entrance fees to the park now help fund park rangers to manage tourism and fishing as.公园门票被用于资助公园巡逻员监控游客数量和量。The site was actually listed as a ;Wonder of the World; by National Geographic.这个公园还被《国家地理》杂志列入“世界奇迹”名录。So why are we all here today in this room? What do we all have in common?那么我们今天为什么会相聚在这里呢?我们有什么共同点吗?I think we all share a fear that we dont protect our oceans enough.我认为,我们都心怀忧虑,担心我们对海洋的保护做得不够。And one way of thinking about this is that we dont regard our oceans as sacred, and we should.为什么会这么认为,原因之一是我们没有将海洋看作神圣之地,这很不应该。When we see incredible places -- like the Himalayas or the La Sagrada Família, or the Mona Lisa,当我们看到美妙的景色时--比如喜马拉雅山或者圣家堂,甚至是蒙娜丽莎,even -- when we see these incredible places and things, we understand their importance.当我们看到这些奇妙的景色或者物品时,我们懂得它们的重要性。We call them sacred, and we do our best to cherish them, to protect them and to keep them safe.认为它们是神圣的,我们视其为珍宝,尽力保护,生怕有任何闪失。But in order to do that, we are the ones that have to assign that value;但要做到这一点,我们就需要站出来,赋予它们价值,otherwise, it will be desecrated by someone who doesnt understand that value.否则,它们可能就会被那些不懂其价值的人破坏。So I want to finish up tonight by talking about sacred things.所以,最后我想谈谈神圣的东西。When we were naming the site in Cancun, we named it a museum for a very important and simple reason:当我们给坎昆的这个地点命名时,我们之所以称其为物馆,原因很重要却也简单:museums are places of preservation, of conservation and of education.物馆的功能是保存,保护和教育。Theyre places where we keep objects of great value to us, where we simply treasure them for them being themselves.物馆是用来保存珍宝的地方,以便我们能在那里欣赏它们。If someone was to throw an egg at the Sistine Chapel, wed all go crazy.如果有人在西斯廷小教堂扔鸡蛋,我们都会强烈谴责。If someone wanted to build a seven-star hotel at the bottom of the Grand Canyon, then we would laugh them out of Arizona.如果有人想在科罗拉多大峡谷底部建一家七星级酒店,我们会把他们踢出亚利桑那州。Yet every day we dredge, pollute and overfish our oceans.然而我们每天都在糟蹋海洋,开采,污染,过度捕捞。And I think its easier for us to do that, because when we see the ocean, we dont see the havoc were wreaking.我觉得这也可以理解,因为当我们望向海洋的时候,我们看不到我们造成的破坏。Because for most people, the ocean is like this.因为对大多数人来说,海洋看起来是这样的。And its really hard to think of something thats just so plain and so enormous, as fragile.很难想象,海洋如此纯粹,如此巨大,却又如此脆弱。Its simply too massive, too vast, too endless. And what do you see here? I think most people actually look past to the horizon.它太过广袤无垠,无边无际。你们能看到什么?我觉得大部分人会直接望向远处的地平线。So I think theres a real danger that we never really see the sea, and if we dont really see it,因此我觉得有件事很危险,那就是我们从未真正看清海洋,而如果我们没有看清,if it doesnt have its own iconography, if we miss its majesty, then theres a big danger that we take it for granted.没有对海洋形成全面的认识,没有看到它的雄伟庄严,那我们就会(把向海洋索取)视为理所当然,这很危险。Cancun is famous for spring break, tequila and foam parties.坎昆是一个著名的春假旅游地,以龙舌兰酒和泡泡轰趴闻名。And its waters are where frat boys can ride around on Jet Skis and banana boats.年轻人在那里骑快艇,或者坐香蕉船滑水。But because of our work there, theres now a little corner of Cancun that is simply precious for being itself.但由于我们在那里的工作,现在坎昆有那么一个小小的角落,因为保持了自然原貌而备受珍视。And we dont want to stop in Grenada, in Cancun or the Bahamas.我们并不满足于在格林纳达,坎昆或者巴哈马止步。Just last month, I installed these Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the Thames River, in central London, right in front of the Houses of Parliament,就在上个月,我将“启示录四骑士”放在了泰晤士河,就在伦敦市中心,正对着国会大厦,putting a stark message about climate change in front of the people that have the power to help change things.我想把气候变化的信息明确地传递给那些有能力做出改变的人。Because for me, this is just the beginning of the mission.对我而言,这仅仅是一项长期任务的开始。We want to team up with other inventors, creators, philanthropists, educators, biologists, to see better futures for our oceans.我们打算联合发明家,创作家,慈善家,教育家,生物学家,为我们的海洋创造更好的未来。And we want to see beyond sculpture, beyond art, even.我们想做的不仅仅是雕塑,甚至不仅仅是艺术。Say youre a 14-year-old kid from the city, and youve never seen the ocean.假设你是一名14岁的城里孩子,从未见过海。And instead of getting taken to the natural history museum or an aquarium,我们不打算带你去自然历史物馆,或者水族馆,you get taken out to the ocean, to an underwater Noahs Ark, which you can access through a dry-glass viewing tunnel,而是带你到真正的海洋,到一艘水下的诺亚方舟,你可以通过一个透明的玻璃观景通道进入其中,where you can see all the wildlife of the land be colonized by the wildlife of the ocean. Clearly, it would blow your mind.在那里,你能看到陆地上的野生动植物雕塑,被海洋生物当成了殖民地。显然,这会让你大开眼界。So lets think big and lets think deep. Who knows where our imagination and willpower can lead us?因此,让我们尽情想象吧。谁知道我们的想象力和意志力能将我们带往何处?I hope that by bringing our art into the ocean,我希望,我们将艺术品放入海洋,that not only do we take advantage of amazing creativity and visual impact of the setting,不仅仅能因为奇妙的创意和视觉冲击而获得回报,but that we are also giving something back, and by encouraging new environments to thrive, and in some way opening up a new同时我们也能有所回馈,创造新的环境(让海洋生物)实现繁荣发展,以全新的方法or maybe its a really old way of seeing the seas: as delicate, precious places, worthy of our protection.也许是回归最古老的方法来看待海洋:海洋是精致而优雅的,值得我们保护。Our oceans are sacred. Thank you.我们的海洋是神圣的。谢谢大家。201706/515457

In the last decades of the 13th century,在十三世纪的最后几十年里 the nations of Britain found their voices loud, confident and defiant and they were raised against England.不列颠各国的民族意识开始觉醒 民族独立的呼声一浪高过一浪 群起反抗英格兰的统治The people of Snowdon assert that even if their prince should give overlordship of them to the English King,斯诺登的人民坚决认为 即使他们的君王 向英格兰俯首称臣they would refuse to do homage to any foreigner of whose language, customs and law they were ignorant.他们也绝不会效忠外夷 毕竟 两个民族在语言 风俗和法律上都迥然相异On account of the endless perfidy of the English and to recover our native freedom,鉴于英格兰屡次背信弃义 为重获自由the Irish are compelled to enter a deadly war.爱尔兰不得不卷入一场血雨腥风For as long as but a hundred of us remain alive,We will yield in no least way to English dominion.吾之国民 倘一息尚存 誓不屈于英格兰之淫威We fight not for glory, nor riches, nor honour,but for freedom.吾之战斗 不求荣 不图利 不为誉 唯求自由We know these voices. Theyve been with us a long time now.这些话我们都耳熟能详 它们早已流传千古 All the same, its a shock to hear them this early,尽管如此 听到历史深处的古人to discover the politics of birthplace uttered with such passion and such pain.喊出捍卫故土的口号 爱国之情 伤国之痛 依然让人震惊Once said, they could not be unsaid.此言一出 势在必行 /201610/469272

Grab it like that, put it onto the hook,and then literally just wrap it in the web.这样把它抓住 挂到钩上 然后只要用蜘蛛网把它缠住就行The golden orb spiders web is said to be almost as strong as Kevlar and has been known to trap birds.据说金刚蛛所织的网 强度接近凯夫拉尔纤维 甚至可以用来捕鸟Okay, lets get back on the raft.The raft.好啦 我们回木筏上吧 回来了Thing is, you can never switch off in these swamps.在沼泽里 你绝对不能有丝毫的懈怠Switch off for a moment,You shoot down the wrong end of the food chain in a place like this.一刻也不行 在这种地方 你很有可能就成为别人的囊中之物Its not human if you dont feel a little bit scared floating down a river thats got a lot of crocs in it when youre just on a little raft.乘着一叶小筏 漂荡在一条充斥着鳄鱼的河上 此情此境 是个人都会胆寒Its just cause you are so vulnerable.因为自己实在是太脆弱了Youre definitely not the king in waters like this.That title belongs to the salty.这片水域绝不是你的地盘 而是那些咸水鳄的But, you know, its all about trying use that fear,use it to sharpen you and not let it overtake you.但是 你需要利用这种恐惧 在它的洗礼下 战胜心中的不安A little bit of fear is no bad thing.有一些畏惧之情并不是坏事The river has opened up to a deep billabong.Fish should be larger and more plentiful here.小河进入了一片幽深的死水潭 这里应该有许多大个头的鱼Time to try my rod and bait,But there are lots of crocs around.该试试我的渔具了 但周围埋伏着许多鳄鱼Theres a freshwater crocodile on the bank here.河岸边有一头淡水鳄Look. Just on the bank,a freshwater crocodile Sunning on the rock.看 就在岸边 一头淡水鳄 趴在石头上晒太阳201701/488512

Around 3 million deaths a year are linked to outdoor air pollution, but new research might have found a way to combat the problem.每年约有300万人死于室外空气污染,但新的研究可能找到了解决问题的方法。A new study found B vitamins could offset the negative health effects that come from breathing fine particulate matter. 一项新的研究发现,维生素B可以抵消吸入细颗粒物质对健康的负面影响。The research focused on PM2.5, a pollutant that can cause sinus irritation, heart attacks and even premature death in some cases.这项研究的重点是PM2.5,这种污染物在某些情况下可能引起鼻窦刺激、心脏病发作甚至过早死亡。Researchers exposed 10 volunteers to polluted air from downtown Toronto for four weeks without vitamins. The air samples were fed through a face mask.研究人员连续四周将10名志愿者暴露在多伦多市中心受污染的空气中,没有补充维生素。空气样本通过面罩进行提供。Then, subjects were given a series of B vitamins while being exposed to the same pollution for another four weeks. The results showed the supplements reduced the negative effects by 28-76 percent.然后,志愿者被给予一些维生素B,同时另外四周暴露于相同的污染中。结果表明,补充维生素B将负面影响降低百分之28到76。Pollution is a growing health hazard, and cities across the globe struggle with levels of PM2.5 well above whats considered safe to breathe.污染是一个日益严重的健康危害,全球各地城市应对PM2.5的水平远比被认为安全呼吸的高。While this study did have encouraging results, the team behind it acknowledges the trials limitations. Aside from the small sample size, the researchers dont know the exact dose of vitamins needed to halt the negative health effects.虽然这项研究取得了令人鼓舞的成果,但它背后的团队承认了试验的局限性。除了样本量小外,研究人员还不知道需要维生素的确切剂量来停止负面健康效应。The researchers think future studies should increase the sample size and focus on areas with even higher pollution, like China or India.研究人员认为,未来的研究应增加样本容量,聚焦污染更为严重的地区,如中国或印度。译文属。201703/498061

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