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2019年12月10日 12:35:05 | 作者:问医面诊 | 来源:新华社
栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201505/374251You might not think answer to such simple questions would change the world.But it did.你可能认为解答这么简单的问题 并不会改变世界 但世界确实因此而变了Because Newton realize there was a force outwork deep within the fabrique of the universe.因为牛顿悟出 宇宙结构深处有股力量that makes all objects attract one another: the force of gravity.会让所有物质彼此吸引 这就是重力Gravity works not just on Earth but throughout the cosmos.不只是地球上有重力 整个宇宙都有And its strength depends on just a couple of fundamental things:而其强度取决于两个基本条件The mass of the objects and their distance apart.物体的质量 以及它们之间的距离To find these answers,Newton invented a completely new mathematical language,called...The calculus.为找出 牛顿发明了全新的数学语言 称为 微积分You dont need to know how it works,but it wasnt bad...for a 23 year old.你不用明白其原理 但能有这种成就就已很了不起 对于一个23岁的年轻人来说Scientists all over the world still use it every day.全世界的科学家每天仍在运用微积分Newtons work,made it possible to predict everything 牛顿的成果让我们得以预测所有事物from the orbits of planets around the stars.从行星绕行恒星的轨道and the precise timing of eclipses to the trajectories of raindrops.日食的精确时间 到雨滴降落的轨迹201601/420697The diet above had about 4 ounces of grains and half上述饮食大约含4盎司谷物,它们中半数of them were whole grains, assuming that the items是全谷类,即这些东西事实上were in fact made from whole grains.There were是从全谷物制成的,饮食中包括approximately one and half cups of vegetables and大约一量杯半的蔬菜和about one cup of fruit.In addition the child in大约一量杯水果,此外,例子中那个孩子our example consumed over 2 cups of skim milk,摄入了超过2量杯的脱脂牛奶2 ounces of meat and 40 minutes of activity.2盎司的肉,并进行了40分钟的活动In our example the child chose to eat all of the foods在这个例子中,这个孩子吃了所有给他offered and their diet wouldnt be too bad.By eating准备的食物,这份饮食不算很差,通过吃breakfast and lunch at school the child would have学校的早餐和午餐,这个孩子会吃到consumed foods from every food group.In addition每一个食物组中的食物,此外most children also eat at least one other snack and多数孩子在家还会至少吃一个别的零食supper at home.Given all this the child in our和一顿晚餐,综合上诉因素,例子中的孩子example would have been able to meet each goal将能够达到每一个食物组设定的for every food group.However, the example given每一个目标,可是,给出的例子显示的is showing an ideal day where most children would毕竟是理想状态的一天,多数孩子很有可能likely fall somewhere just below this ideal goal for在某处达不到这个为食物选择设定的food choices.As mentioned the whole grain cereal,理想目标,刚才已经提到了,全谷麦片the wheat b, the green peas, the mandarin oranges,小麦面包,青豆,蜜橘the skim milk and the ham are choices that are more脱脂牛奶以及火腿,是更靠近金字塔toward the base of the pyramid while a muffin,基底的选择,相比之下,小松饼a cookie, fruit juice and potatoes may be more饼干,果汁和土豆可能更加靠近towards the tip of the pyramid.Earlier we talked金字塔的塔尖,早些时候,我们谈到了about how childhood obesity is soaring and how儿童肥胖的数量是如何猛增的,以及儿童childrens diets do not typically meet all the food的饮食是根本没有响应食物指南金字塔的guide pyramid recommendations.The point of所有推荐的,我们活动的重点在于our activity was to show that school lunch is definitely告诉大家学校的午餐其实并不应当not solely to blame for the serious problem.As you成为这个严重问题的替罪羊,因为你看到了saw our example school lunch provided some我们的例子中学校午餐提供了一些whole grains, fruits and vegetables. The activity also全谷物,水果和蔬菜,这个活动同时也showed you how complex it is to plan a meal that告诉大家准备一餐饭是多么复杂的程序meets all those specific requirements.School lunch要满足所有具体的要求,学校的午餐is not a terrible thing that is causing childhood并不是洪水猛兽,它并没有造成儿童时期的obesity.The obesity issue is a complex issue that肥胖,显然,肥胖问题是一个复杂的问题obviously has many factors.Some of these factors有许多因素共同导致了它,其中一些因素包括include the activity level of the children, genetics,儿童的运动水平,遗传family lifestyle, competitive foods, fast food,家庭生活方式,竞争性食品,快餐television advertisements, nutrition education,电视广告,营养教育school lunch and examples set by role models.学校午餐,以及行为榜样的示范作用As you can see many variables affect the health status你可以看到,有许多变量在影响着我们国家of our nations children but think about this:儿童的健康状况,但请再想一想:the national school lunch program provides lunch国家学校午餐计划在每个上学日为to more than 31 million children each school day.超过三千一百万孩子提供午餐Schools reach over 95 percent of all children between学校会接触并影响到5到17岁之间所有孩子中the ages of 5 and 17. Obviously meals at school超过95%的孩子,显然,学校的饮食play a critical role in developing childrens eating又在儿童饮食方式的养成中扮演了相当重要的patterns.They provide one half to one third of many角色,他们所提供的占到许多学生每日students daily nutritional needs.It just makes sense营养需求的三分之一到一半,因此,采用to use the national school lunch program as a means国家学校午餐计划是有意义的,这种方式能够to show Americas youth what a balanced nutritional告诉美国的年轻人一顿营养均衡的用餐究竟meal looks like and what a perfect opportunity to reach是怎样的,这是多么好的一个机遇the greatest number of Americas youth at one time可以让最多数量的美国年轻人同时参与by teaching them nutrition education in the classroom在教室和餐厅对他们进行and in the cafeteria while encouraging营养教育,同时鼓励他们进行physical activity.体育锻炼201504/367924

Unlike laws made by humans,the laws of nature cannot ever be broken.不同于人所制定的法规 自然法则永远不可违背Thats why they are so powerful and,when seen from a religious standpoint,controversial,too.所以它们的威力才会如此强大 而从宗教观点来看 也才会充满争议if you accept, as I do,that the laws of nature are fixed,若你和我一样认同 自然法则永远不变then it doesnt take long to ask,what role is there for God?应该很快就会发问 上帝的角色为何This is a big part of the contradiction between science and religion.这就是科学与宗教抵触的重大论点And although my views have recently made headlines,虽然我的观点近期成为头条it is actually an ancient conflict.但其实这是由来已久的争议Back in 1277,Pope John XXl felt so threatened by the idea of laws of nature that he decreed them a heresy.回到1277年 教皇约翰21世 深感自然法则思想的威胁 于是颁布教令指其为异端邪说Unfortunately,that did nothing to change the law governing gravity.无奈这无法影响重力法则A few months later,the palace roof collapsed and fell on the Popes head.数个月后 宫殿的屋顶崩塌 落在教皇头上But organized religion soon found a solution.但高度组织化的宗教 很快就找出了解决之道For the next few hundred years,接下来数百年it was simply stated that the laws of nature were the work of God,他们声称 自然法则是出自上帝之手and God could break them if he wished to.只要上帝有意就能打破201603/429531

If we wanted to make a cloud entirely from scratch,wed first need a fleet of jumbo jets or several hundred hot-air balloons to haul hundreds of tons of water up to the sky.And then,somehow,wed need to disperse all that liquid into a mist of droplets small enough to float.如果我们想从零开始造一朵云出来,首先我们需要一队喷气式客机,或是几百只热气球,将大量的水运到空中,然后我们需要通过某种方法,把这些水变成细小到能够漂浮的水雾。In short,it wouldnt be easy.And yet,our atomosphere manages to pump out one cloud after another all over the world at altitudes of up to 20 kilometers above sea level,using water and fuel carried all the way from Earths surface.Cumulus clouds,for example get their start when solar energy evaporates water from oceans,plants,and soil by breaking the bonds that hold water molecules together.总之,这很难办到,但是,我们的大气层可以,世界范围内选出一朵又一朵的云,在海拔20千米的高空,从地表弄到所有的水和燃料,例如,积云的形成,首先太阳能破坏水分子间的连接,让它们从海洋,植物体内,和土壤中的水分蒸腾出来。As the patch of air above collects moisture and heat,cooler heavier air sinks around it pinching it off and pushing it aloft like an invisible hot air balloon.Surprisingly,this balloons cargo doesnt weigh it down-in fact,the more water vapor it collects before lift off,the lighter it gets.As weird as that sounds,its because water vapor is a gas just like the nitrogen and oxygen that make up most of the atmosphere.上层的空气将水分和热量凝聚,冷空气下沉将它们包裹在一起,像一只无形的热气球带着水和热升向空中,神奇的是,热气球承载的货物不会导致坠落,事实上,在起飞前,热气球搭载的水分越多,它就越轻盈,这听上去很诡异,事实上水蒸气和组成空气的氮气,与氧气一样都是气体。Basic physics dictates that a given volume of gas the same number of molecules regardless of what those molecules are.And water is made of H plus h plus O,which is lighter than both two Ns and two Os.So warm,humid air is even more buoyant than warm,dry air.As the invisible balloon goes up,the falling pressure outside allows it to keep ballooning,which sps out its internal heat and lowers its temperature.基础物理定律:一定体积的气体,分子数相同,无论哪种分子都一样,水是由H+H+O组成的,比两个N和两个O轻,因此热的湿空气要比热的干燥空气要轻,随着无形的热气球上升,外部降低的气压会让它保持膨胀,这会分散它的内热,导致降温。Eventually,the air at the top cools enough for the water vapor there to condense into droplets,which look from after like a thin wisp of cloud.And as the rest of the balloon rises,water vapor continues to cool and condense at the same altitude,creating a flat bottomed cloud that appears to grow upward out of nothing.最终,顶部的空气温度降低到足以令人其凝结成水珠,从远处看就像薄薄的一片小云,随着热气球剩余部分的上升,水蒸气继续在相同的海拔高度处冷凝,形成一朵平底云,这朵云就像是凭空长出来的。Whats more,as the condensing water vapor molecules bond together into liquid droplets,they release the energy they absorbed from Earths surface when they evaporated.This heats the surrounding pocket of air,giving it lift and sucking more moist air up behind it,which cools and condenses and releases heat,which fuels lift and strengthens the updraft.Even in small cumulus cloud,the total energy released from condensation is huge-equivalent to about 270 tons of TNT.此外,随着冷凝的水蒸气凝结成水滴,它们会释放出从地表蒸腾时吸收的能量,这些热能充盈于气囊里,令其上升,同时带动下方空气上升,这些空气冷却,凝结并且释放热量,能量上升,上升气流增强,即使只是一小朵积云,冷凝所释放的总能量也大得惊人,大约相当于270吨TNT。And if the supply of water vapor is much larger,the energy released can produce stratosphere high pillars of cloud wigh violent updrafts,fierce electrical storms,and grapefruit sized hailstones.Not good weather for hot air ballooning.如果水蒸气的供给足够多,所释放的能量就可以形成平流层高度的云柱,伴随着猛烈的上升气流,造成猛烈的雷暴,下起葡萄柚大小的冰雹,这对热气球而言,可不是好天气。201505/376886

Im walking with the gods-Im in the gallery thats got objects from the time when Britain was part of the Roman Empire,around 1,700 years ago.我正穿梭于众神当中,大英物馆中有一个展厅专门陈列约1700年前不列颠处于罗马帝国统治时期的文物,其中有一系列神像:Here is Mars, theres Bacchus with his wine cup, Pan piping on a silver dish... and now Ive arrived at what looks like another pagan god, this time in mosaic.一个小型战神马尔斯,一个端着酒杯的酒神巴克科斯,一个在银盘上吹笛子的潘神,还有一个看起来也像是某个异教神的马赛克图案。Its a shoulder-length portrait.这是一幅齐肩人像,Hes roughly life-size, clean shaven, has fair hair swept back, and hes wearing a tunic and a robe tightly wrapped around his shoulders.大小相当于真人,画中人的胡子剃得很干净,金色的头发往后拢着,穿着束胸外衣,长袍紧裹肩头。But which god is this?但这是哪路神明?Theres a clue, because this is a man with a monogram.有一个线索,因为有个字母能够揭示他的身份。Behind his head are the two Greek letters chi and rho and that tells me at once who he is, because theyre the first two letters of the word Christos, and this is in fact Christ.在他头部后方还有两个希腊字母chi和rho,这让我们立刻了解了这名男子的身份:这是希腊文“christes”的首字母,而我们所看到的正是耶稣最早的图像之一。Its one of the earliest images we have of him anywhere, and its an astonishing survival-made not for a church in the eastern Mediterranean or in Imperial Rome, but for the floor of a villa in Dorset, somewhere around the year 350.它并非东地中海或罗马帝国的某座教堂的物品,而是公元350年前后多塞特某座别墅的地板装饰,能留存至今极为不易。 201506/380981


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