2019年09月21日 07:22:51|来源:国际在线|编辑:城市信息
Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Otters in the wild野生水獭Beguiling carnivores欺骗性的肉食动物A muse to poets, a mystery to scientists诗人的灵感,科学家的谜团Poets dig my style诗人尽挖我的风采Otter Country: In Search of the Wild Otter. By Miriam Darlington.《水獭国度:搜寻野生水獭》米丽亚姆·达林顿著。Written in prose as sinuous as the creatures themselves, “Otter Country” is a celebration of Britains wild otters. These elusive animals have fascinated Miriam Darlington, a poet, since childhood, when she first “Ring of Bright Water”, Gavin Maxwells classic 1960 tale about living with otters. “Never mind the slippery reality it portrays,” she writes, “the spell of its otters took hold of me long ago and I still long to see one in the wild.”《水獭国度》是部英国野生水獭的颂典,其散文式风格如水獭自身一般流转。诗人米丽亚姆. 达林顿从她儿时第一次读到《闪亮的水环》开始, 便对这种神秘动物非常着迷,这本书是加文·马克斯韦尔20世纪60年代创作的经典小说,讲述的是一个与水獭共处的故事。“千万不要介意其光滑的外在”她写到,“水獭的魔力早已将我牢牢吸引,我现在仍然渴望能在野外看到水獭。”This mesmerising book describes her year-long quest across Britain, from Devon to Scotland, Cumbria to Wales, through seductive wild places and changing seasons, for a glimpse of otters and to meet people who dedicate their lives to them.这是一本让人爱不释手的书,描述了她在英国长达一年的搜寻水獭之旅,从德文郡到苏格兰,再从坎布里亚到威尔士,穿过魅人的原野,亲历季节变迁,就为一睹水獭容颜和遇到致力于水獭研究的人们。The otter was one of the earliest carnivores. Its ancestral genus Mionictis, first roamed the Earth around 30m years ago. Thirteen species now thrive around the globe, barring Australia and Antarctica, but it is Lutra lutra, the European otter and Britains only species, that is the object of Ms Darlingtons passion.水獭是最早出现的肉食动物之一,它的始祖是中新鼬獭,早在3千万年以前,便开始游走于地球。现在的水獭共有13个品种,布满全球各地,除澳大利亚和南极洲。然而达林顿女士钟爱的只有欧亚水獭,它也是英国唯一的品种。Otters have long fascinated man. Their nocturnal habits mean they are rarely seen—“otters give so little of themselves its hard to know them,” Ms Darlington writes. Their “sublimely secretive” nature makes them a muse to poets and a mystery to scientists, who still have much to learn about these aquatic mammals. Their mischievous appearance belies their status as one of Britains top predators.人们所喜爱水獭为时已久。只是它们习惯夜间出没,很少有机会让人们看到。“水獭透露给人们的信息很少,要了解它们非常困难”达林顿这样写到。“无比神秘”的它们是诗人的灵感之源,也是科学家眼里的谜团,关于这些水族哺乳动物,还有很多东西等着他们去学习。淘气的外表下掩藏的是它们作为英国头等捕手的身份。Seamus Heaney, Mary OMalley and Ted Hughes have all devoted elegant doggerel to these creatures. Hughes is taken with the otters “Underwater eyes, an eels. Oil of water body”, the way it “Re-enters the water by melting”. Mr Heaney declares his love for an otters “wet head and smashing crawl/Your fine swimmers back and shoulders/Surfacing and surfacing again.” Ms Darlingtons own lyrical prose is often beautifully evocative: a male otter is “supple as rope made out of silk”; a female swimming underwater moves in a “ripple-wake”; the “thin curves” of a mother and cub “slip together into the twilight, like fierce, muscled ribbons, darkening into the ribbon of the stream.”谢默斯·希尼、玛丽欧玛列和泰德·休斯都曾为这些生灵写过优美的打油诗。休斯被水獭那“如鳝鱼一般的水下眼睛,油般水灵的身躯”,和它那“化身返水”的方式深深吸引。希尼宣称自己喜爱水獭“湿漉漉的脑袋和挥舞不停的爪子/你那如泳者般健美的肩背/一次一次浮出水面。”达林顿女士自己的诗词常常让人产生唯美的浮想:雄性水獭就像“丝绳般灵活”;水底潜游的雌水獭动起来就如“水波乍起”;水獭母亲的和幼崽“一同消失在暮色里而产生的“苗条曲线”,就像锋利而强劲的丝带,潜入波纹阵阵的水流深处。”Despite her sense of romance, Ms Darlington avoids the easy trap of anthropomorphising the otter. Instead she offers a memorable mixture of scientific study and earnest observation. She chronicles the species dramatic decline to near extinction between the 1950s and late 1970s, thanks to hunting for sport, habitat loss and the use of certain pesticides in farming. After a ban on otter hunting and new legal protection in 1978, otters have become an important conservation success story. These creatures can now be found in the wild in every county in England.尽管她有浪漫的想法,达林顿女士还是没有将水獭人格化,避开了这个危险陷阱。相反她将科学研究和忠实观察凑合到一起,结果让人终身难忘。她全程记录了20世纪50年代到70年代期间,由于猎杀行为、栖息地的丧失和农耕时某些杀虫剂的使用,导致水獭数量剧减,濒临灭绝的过程。1978年新的保护法律出台并全面禁止猎杀水獭,保护水獭成为一个重要的成功故事。在英格兰每一个郡县,现在都可以看到野生水獭的踪影。Otters apparently enjoy a rather illustrious club of fans. Readers of Ms Darlington will be glad she is among them.显然水獭们拥有一个著名的粉丝俱乐部。达林顿女士的读者们很高兴看到作者也是他们中的一员。 /201209/199609The Census of Marine Life has released the most comprehensive inventory life in the ocean today. Its an unprecedented database of marine species living in 25 key ocean areas around the world.海洋生物普查已经公布了现今海洋里最全面的生物种类。这是一个前所未有的海洋物种居住在世界25个关键地区的数据库。The findings published in the open access scientific journal Plus One, describes species found in oceanic regions ranging from A Antarctic waters, to the tropics, to temporary waters throughout the world, and the Arctic.研究结果刊登在开放的科学杂志《Plus One》上,描述海洋中发现的物种从南极海域,热带,以及遍布世界的临时水域,当然还有北极。Thiss the first time ever that all the information is available in one single source for the public worldwide. So anyone around the world who wants know about Caribbean marine diversity for example, just goes to one place, clicks, well have full article, and then well also have, through the supporting material, well have list of species of the most representative or most studied groups in the area.这是有史以来第一次所有的信息都以单一的来源公之于众。所以如果世界上的某人想要了解关于加勒比海海洋生物的多样性,只需去一个地方,点击,我们就会呈现很多的文章,然后我们还会呈现辅助材料,我们就会有物种的名单或在该地区大部分最具代表性的研究团体。166168

Craters here sctreches as far as the eye can see.这里的环形山远非眼睛所能看得到的。Although no human has ever set foot on Mercury, we have pretty good idea of what you will see.虽然没有人曾经登上过水星,我们对你看到的有不错的想法。If youre walking on the surface of Mercury,you will look a lot like a moon,I will see.如果你走在水星表面上,你就会看上去很像在月亮上面,我会知道的。When you step onto the Mercury, you step into the world with no real atmosphere, with the sky is the black its night and blaze in sunshine.当你走在水星表面,你进入这个世界,没有真正的气氛,而天空是黑的夜晚,阳光里充满了火焰。And where drive is all through track at least three billion year old battle field.地面好像30亿年前的战场一样。Big craters, small craters, craters are everywhere, so thats your first impression looking at.大陨石坑,小陨石坑,陨石坑到处都有,所以,这就是你一眼望去的第一印象。Like the moon,Mercury took most of the battery early on,a silent witness to dawn of the time, each been undisturbed by single drop of rain or breath of wind ever sense.像月亮,水星好像早先用光了所有能量一样, 见沉默的黎明,不曾被一滴雨或者一阵风打扰。For the most part,the surface of Mercury has been frozen in time for period of years.you may say thats boring, but thats necessarily to good thing, because this planet is such as Mercury as a moon perserve accurately for whats going on during this critical early period of our information, we can basically start it at there, because theres land on the surface.最重要的是,水星表面已被冻结在时间中多年。你可能会说,那是很烦人的,但那一定是件好事情,因为这颗行星是以我们的信息在这个关键的早期作为持之以恒星球,我们基本上就可以在那里开始,因为表面上有陆地。Every stone of crater in this portmark world have potential to gaze back four and half billion years.每一颗陨石坑的火山口都可以追溯到几百万年前的历史。But counting these craters is just first challenge when we come to review the planet like Mercury.但这些陨石坑只是当我们来研究像水星这样的行星的第一个挑战。Its always lower in horizon so its hard to get point telescope from Mercury, its hard to get in orbit around Mercury, because so close the sun.它总是在水平线很低,所以很难从望远镜中看到水星;也很难进入绕水星的轨道,因为它又如此接近太阳。For that reason, Mercury remains one of most under explored planets in our solar system.出于这个原因,水星仍然是太阳系大多数行星中未被探索的行星之一。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/172695

Science and Technology Greenhouse-gas monitoring Not hot air科技 温室气体监测 而非热空气A new, private initiative should help show which gases come from where一项新的私人倡议或许能够表明各种气体从何而来IN 1955 a young man called David Keeling started to measure the level of carbon dioxide in the Californian air. It seemed of little practical value, but he liked designing and building the equipment—and driving back and forth along the Pacific Coast Highway to his sampling site at Big Sur was fun. Scientists with a new-found interest in the worlds carbon-dioxide levels soon learned of his work and gave him a job setting up monitoring stations in Hawaii and Antarctica for the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, in La Jolla. He continued to work there for almost 50 years, devoting his life to the monitoring effort. His son, Ralph, runs the carbon-dioxide programme at Scripps to this day.1955年,一个名为David Keeling的年轻人开始测量加利福尼亚空气中的二氧化碳含量。当时他的这一举动看起来没什么实际价值,但这个年轻人喜欢设计和制造设备——乐此不疲的往返于太平洋海岸的高速公路和位于大苏尔的采样点间。新近对全球二氧化碳含量产生兴趣的科学家们得知他的所作所为后,给了他一份工作——在夏威夷和南极洲拉霍亚的斯克利普斯海洋研究所设立监测站。他一直在那里工作了差不多50年,倾其一生于监测事业。他的儿子拉尔夫现在管理着斯克利普斯的二氧化碳项目。In those 50 years measuring carbon-dioxide levels has gone from being a fun problem for a postdoc to a crucial issue for the planet. But the amount of effort put into it remains surprisingly small. Americas National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) runs the biggest network of monitoring sites. A dozen other countries run a few here and there as well, with an expanded European effort getting under way. However, the scientists involved have been pointing out for years that it would take a very small investment, in a scientific world of satellites and supercomputers, to make such networks a lot more capable. On January 12th, such an investment was at last revealed—but not by any of the governments to which the pleas had been addressed.在测量二氧化碳含量的这50年间,二氧化碳含量已不仅是一个士后感兴趣的问题,而成为了全球至关重要的问题。但让人吃惊的是,为此所做的努力依然很少。美国国家海洋和大气局(NOAA)管理着最大的监测站网络。其它一些国家也在各处零星分布着一些网络,欧洲方面展开的努力正在进行中。然而,参与其中的科学家们几年前就指出,只要一些小额的投资以及科学界的人造卫星和超级计算机,就能使这些网络发挥更大的能力。1月12日,对监测网络的这类投资终于浮出水面——但政府方面没出上力,这些要求已得到解决。A private company in Maryland, known until recently as AWS Convergence Technologies but now called Earth Networks, has announced that over the next five years it will spend m installing 100 state-of-the-art carbon-dioxide and methane monitors around the world. Fifty will be sited in America. According to Pieter Tans, the doyen of the field at NOAA, the country currently has 17 or 18, so that will improve things by a factor of four. In some less-well-covered places things will improve even more.一家位于马里兰的私人公司——AWS集中技术——现在也叫地球网络,直到最近才为人所知,公司已经宣布在未来的五年里会花2500万美金在全世界范围内安装100台最先进的二氧化碳和甲烷监测器。其中50台将被安装在美国。据NOAA的元老级人物彼得.坦斯称,美国目前为止有17,18台,所以增加的监测器可增加到原来的4倍。在一些原本就覆盖很少的地方,将会有更多的监测器增加进来。This is not pure philanthropy. Earth Networks, which aly runs a large system of weather stations and lightning monitors, is looking to expand, and it believes that there should be a market for greenhouse-gas data. American states trying to show that they are doing something about their emissions might be prepared to pay for ;inverse modelling; work (which uses measured gas levels and the weather patterns of recent hours and days to work out where the gas is coming from) if it were detailed enough to give results for areas as small as single states. So might countries in Europe, where the company plans to put 25 monitors. The new monitoring stations should allow such granularity.此举并不纯粹是慈善事业。地球网络已经在运作一个大型气候站点系统,还将扩展闪电监测器,该公司认为温室气体数据应该能有市场。美国各州正试着表明他们现在对排放的气体所做的研究可能为;反转模型;工作做了准备(;反转模型;指用已经测得的大气含量和近数小时及数天内的气候模型来猜测出这些气体是从哪来的)如果数据够完整,将可以得出单个州大小区域的结果。欧洲各国也准备采用这种;反转模型;,公司计划在欧洲安装25台监测器。新的监测站应该允许这样的范围跨度。Although carbon dioxide is the more important greenhouse gas, methane measurements will be a more practical early application to test the market for this sort of data. Land masses, and their inhabitants, emit methane without then sucking any of it back up, which makes inverse modelling easier than for carbon dioxide (which has sinks, in the form of photosynthesising plants, as well as sources).尽管二氧化碳是更为重要的温室气体,但测量甲烷含量作为一个早期应用方法对测试此类数据的市场价值有更实际的作用。陆地,和生活在陆地上的各种生物,排放出甲烷后就不会吸回。用甲烷做研究的反转模型比用二氧化碳的要来的容易(因为二氧化碳可以被进行光合作用的植物吸收,也可能来源于植物的排放)Dr Tans probably speaks for many of the scientists involved when he says he is cautiously optimistic about the news. The caution stems in part from concerns about how the companys policy on access to its data may change as its business model becomes clearer. To begin with, those data will be free to academic researchers. But that could change.当坦斯士称他对这个(投资)消息持谨慎乐观态度时,他很可能道出了众多参与其中的科学家们的态度。这种谨慎一部分源于担心地球网络很可能随着公司经营模式变得明晰而改变外界获得数据的政策。最先让人感到担忧的是现在这些数据都免费提供给学院的研究人员,但这个做法很可能会改变。Another, more selfish worry is that governments which buy Earth Networks products will close down their existing research programmes. Besides the resulting unemployment, some researchers fear this would waste an opportunity to use the new data to reveal the true workings of the sources and sinks of gases.另一个更为自私一点的担忧是,政府如果买下了地球网络的产品后很可能停办掉他们现在的研究项目。这样做产生的后果除了让一些人失业外,有些研究人员还担心会浪费使用这些数据来真正揭示气体是何去何来的良机。And new data there will be—possibly a lot of them—if the business shows signs of profit. Earth Networks will presumably expand, or competitors will move in, or both. Bob Marshall, the companys boss, says he could imagine 1,000 monitoring stations around the world by 2021. Couple such capability with new satellite measurements (Americas Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 is due to launch in a few years) and better measurements of the mass of plant life in forests and other ecosystems, and the planets greenhouse-gas credits and debits will surely be understood far better.如果企业表明了这些数据可以获利的一面,产生的新数据可能会很多。地球网络可能会扩张,或者竞争者加入进来。或者两者兼有。公司老板Bob Marshall说,他的设想是到2021年全世界范围有1000处监测站。新的人造卫星测量器的能力(美国计划在数年内发射轨道碳观测卫星2号)加之对森林和其他生态体系植物质量的更完善的测量,相信人们对地球温室气体的来源和出处会有更深层次的理解。Such expansion has risks in itself. Long-term monitoring requires expertise that comes only with years on the job, so the quality of data from new entrants is always a bit suspect. Here, though, Earth Networks has been canny. As well as working with NOAA, it has a partnership with Scripps to ensure its precision and quality control. Theres no better pedigree.这样的扩张自身会存在风险。进行长期的监测需要专门技术,而这些检测技术只有通过经年累月的工作才能获得,因此新进的监测人员所监测到的数据在质量上总让人有些怀疑。在这方面,地球网络倒是很谨慎。除了和NOAA合作外,他们和斯克利普斯也有合作关系,这样做用以确保数据的精准性和质量控制。没有更好的合作者了。 /201301/220270

As exciting as going to Mars will be, there is one future journey that is even more awe-inspiring, a trip through time. One of the most provocative science fiction ideas of all time is the notion of traveling through time itself. It may not be as far-fetched as you think. ;Time is only a kind of space. We can move forward and backward in time just as we can move forward and backward in space. To prove this theory, I invented a machine to travel through time. ; Dr Ron Mallet dreams of inventing the first actual time machine. Hes aly published radical new theories about life, space and time. Now, hes y to move his dream beyond science fiction.登录火星将是何等的振奋人心。未来的旅程是一次穿梭时空的旅行,这将会更加令人惊叹。历史上最刺激的科幻小说概念就是穿越时空。也许这并没有你想的那样遥不可及。“时间只是空间的一种。我们可以在空间里来回移动,同理我们也可以在时间里前后移动。为了明这一理论,我发明了一个时光机器。”罗恩· 马利特士梦想着成为发明真正的时光机器的第一人。他曾就生命和时空问题发表过极新式的理论。现在他正准备超越科幻小说,来实现这个梦想。;My father was a television repairman. And he loved electronics and he gave me a lot of inspirations by giving me scientific toys like gyroscope and crystal radio sets. He was 36 when he died. About a year after he died, I came across a book that changed everything for me. If I could go back in time, then I could see him again. ;Dr Mallet decided at that moment to become a physicist. He began studying black holes, quanta mechanics and the revolutionary ideas of Elbert Einstein.“我的父亲是电视机维修工人。他爱与电子产品打交道,他给我带来很多灵感,因为他总是给我买电子玩具,比如说陀螺仪和晶体收音机。他36岁时就去世了。他去世后一年,我读到一本改变我一生的书。如果我能回到过去的时间里,我就能再看见他了。”从这一刻起,罗恩· 马利特就立志成为一名物理学家。他开始研究黑洞,量子力学和爱因斯坦的革新思想。;Einstein said that time was something that could be changed. It wasnt something that was fixed. Normally we think of time as a straight line going from the past, the present to the future. If space is being twisted vigorously enough, then that time line will be twisted into a loop so we can go from the future back into the past.;“爱因斯坦说过,时间是可以改变的。时间不是固定的。一般我们认为时间是一条直线,从过去走到现在,再从现在走向未来。如果空间能被足够的外力扭曲,那么时间也能扭曲成圈,这样我们就能从未来回到过去。”According to Einstein, as you approach the speed of light, time slows down. If we can somehow go faster than light, time might reverse itself.根据爱因斯坦理论,当你接近光速运动时,时间就会慢下来。如果我们快于光速,时间就会倒流。原文译文属!201208/195916

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