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Dear Don and Yale: For a long time now, decades probably, Ive been hearing about deforestation. But who, exactly, is cutting down all the trees?亲爱的唐和雅艾尔:长久以来,或许几十年以来,关于滥砍滥伐的事情我听得太多了。但到底是谁在砍伐这些树木呢?Yale: If I had to guess, Id say its farmers clearing land for planting crops. Am I right?雅艾尔:要我猜的话,我觉得是农民们在开荒垦植。我猜对了吗?Don: That would seem to make sense. Farmers do need to clear space to plant their fields. But actually, farmers around the world have just as much to do with planting trees as they do with chopping them down. A study using satellite pictures looked at around 2.5 billion acres of farmland around the world. It found that about ten-percent of it is covered by trees. Thats an area twice as large as the Amazon rain forest.唐:听起来似乎有道理。农民们确实需要开荒垦植。但事实上,世界各地的农民既砍树也植树。一项研究采用卫星照片观察了世界各地约25亿公顷的农田。研究发现大约有十分之一的农田周围种有树木。且其总面积是亚马逊热带雨林的两倍。Yale: Thats pretty surprising. I mean why would farmers want so many trees taking up space? Dont they want their fields to be as large as possible?雅艾尔:这实在令人惊奇。我的意思是为什么农民们会种植占用这么多土地的树木?难道他们不希望尽可能多地耕种土地吗?Don: Yes, generally. But other studies have found that trees are very useful for farmers. They help keep soil healthy. And they can be harvested to feed animals, provide timber and wood for burning, and produce fruit. Trees also help prevent soil erosion and improve groundwater quality.唐:一般来说,是的。但另一项研究显示树木对农民用处非常大。树木能保持土壤健康,能用来喂牲口,树干和树枝可用来烧柴,此外树还能结果。同时,树能防止水土流失,改善地下水水质。Yale: So farmers grow trees because theyre profitable.雅艾尔:所以农民们种树是因为树木用处大。Don: Basically farmers have to make a living, and if trees made it harder to make a profit then farmers wouldnt keep them around. Of course, deforestation is still a big problem. Many farmers, especially in the Brazilian rain forest, cut down thousands of trees to make way for fields. But in many other places, farms and forests work together.唐:从根本上来说,农民需要谋生。如果农民们很难依靠树木获利,他们是不会四处种植树木的。当然,滥砍滥伐仍是一个大问题。许多地区,尤其是在巴西雨林中,成千上万的树被砍伐,为耕地腾地方。但是在其它许多地方,农民和森林是相互依存的。原文译文属!201302/225447

After the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was destroyed by a British bombing raid in World War II all that remained was its ruined tower.自从在第二次世界大战中遭到英国的突袭轰炸之后,威廉皇帝纪念教堂所剩就只有一个被毁坏的钟塔了。Built in 1895, the tower has remained a poignant reminder of the horrors of war, as well as being a symbol of West Berlins determination and extraordinary post-war recovery. But now the gaunt and jagged tower is making news of another kind: Traffic vibration has caused its walls to crumble, with chunks threatening to fall off onto pedestrians below.威廉皇帝纪念教堂的钟塔始建于1895年,如今提醒着人们莫要忘了战争的残酷和恐怖。同时,它也象征着西柏林的决心和德意志民族伟大的战后复兴。但如今,这座破旧不堪的钟塔还传达了异样的信息:往来车辆引起的震动使它的墙壁摇摇欲坠,墙壁的大块剥落甚至还危及到了下面行人的安全。Earlier the church authorities put the cost of repairing its neo-Gothic facade at 3.5 million euros (US.1 million), but now due to continuing disintegration the cost has soared to 4.1 million euros.早些时候,教会权力机关把这座钟塔的新哥特式的正面的修复成本定在350万欧元(510万美元)。但现在,鉴于这座钟塔的持续解体,修复成本已飙升至410万欧元。Charles Jeffrey Gray, 85, a former British pilot who carried out bombing raids over Germany, was one of the first to call for the rescue of Berlins most famous wartime ruin, contributing US0 to help spur the campaign. Since then donations have flooded in, with the Berlin city government pledging 1.5 million euros to the repair fund.85岁的查尔斯bull;杰弗里bull;格雷是当初轰炸德国的英国前飞行员之一。他是最早号召人们修复柏林这个最有名的战争废墟的人中的一员。为了推动这项修复运动的开展,他捐献了930美元。随着捐款越来越多,柏林市政府投入了150万欧元的修缮资金。Grays last bombing raid over Berlin was in February 1944. Around that time 500 to 700 planes were involved in raids over Germany, a reprisal for earlier nightly operations over London by German bombers.格雷对柏林的最后一次轰炸是在1944年的2月。当时大约有500至700架飞机参与了对德国的袭击,以报复之前德国轰炸机对伦敦的夜间轰炸。;The tower must remain as a reminder for future generations of the horror of war,; Gray said.;这座钟塔必须保存下来,警示后人不要忘了战争的恐怖。;格雷这样说。201203/173086

At one time it was believed that heat was a liquid. Sure, that sounds kind of crazy, but if you think for a second, you might see why. Suppose you have an object thatrsquo;s very hot ; say a metal spoon thatrsquo;s been sitting in hot coffee. Pick it up and you can feel the heat sping to your hand. The longer you hold on, the more heat seems to enter your hand. Ouch! Well, maybe heat is an invisible liquid that pours from the spoon into your hand. After all, that theory fits all the evidence, doesnrsquo;t it? But therersquo;s a problem. Another simple experiment you can do shows heat canrsquo;t be a liquid.曾有一段时间,有人认为热量是液体。当然,这听起来有点疯狂,但如果你仔细想一想,您可能会明白其中的道理。假设你有一个很热的物体;;放在热咖啡中的一个金属勺。拿起勺子,你能刚到热量蔓延到你的手,握的时间越长。传到你手上的热量越多。哎哟!好吧,也许热是一种无形的液体,它从勺子中倒入你的手中。毕竟,这理论符合所有的据,不是吗?但是有一个问题。你可以做另外一个简单的实验,来明热热量不是液体。201201/169390

Business.商业。Facebook and the under-13s.脸谱网和13岁以下的儿童。Kid gloves.谨慎处理儿童问题。Small children are a big headache for the social network.社交网络中的小鬼是个大问题。ONE American in three aged 65 or older uses social networks, says a new report by the Pew Research Centre, a think-tank. But it is the small surfers, not the silver ones, who are currently making waves. Facebook is examining ways to allow children under the age of 13 to use its service, with some form of parental supervision. If this happens-and Facebook stresses that it has not yet decided whether to go ahead-it would be a venture into uncharted territory.美国智库皮尤研究中心在新发布的一份报告中指出,美国65岁及其以上的老年人中有三分之一使用社交网络。但如今制造状况的却是年纪轻轻的冲浪者,而非满头白发的人。脸谱网将核准允许13岁以下的儿童在某种父母监管形式下使用其务的方式。如果脸谱网的确将其付诸行动——脸谱网强调它并未决定是否采取进一步的措施——它将在一片未知领域中展开冒险。Critics howl that young children lack the maturity to cope with social networks. They also worry that Facebook will find devious ways to make money from naive children or, more likely, their parents. ;We would be giving the keys to the chicken coop to the fox,; says Doug Fodeman of ChildrenOnline.org, a pressure group.者们怒斥道,儿童不够成熟,社交网络上的种种他们应付不来。他们也担心脸谱网会从天真无知的孩子们,或者更有可能是其父母身上赚取不义之财。任职于一家压力集团——儿童网络务组织——的Doug Fodeman说:;我们这是在送羊入虎口。;There is also the thorny question of how Facebook could comply with the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) in America, which was designed to protect children under 13 as they use the internet. The law stipulates that online services with youngsters among their customers must obtain the consent of the childrens parents before collecting data from them. Parents also need to be able to review their childrens data and have these deleted if they so wish. The onerous nature of these and other COPPA provisions explains why social networks have tended to shun the young. Facebook insists that you have to be 13 to use its service.另一个棘手的问题便是脸谱网会如何遵守《儿童网络隐私权法案》(COPPA),该法案旨在对13岁以下使用因特网的儿童进行保护。法案规定,拥有儿童客户的网络务须征得其父母同意才能获取他们的资料。父母也同样需要有权审查孩子的资料,并且如果父母觉得有必要,可以删掉孩子的资料。COPPA的上述规定及其它条款繁琐复杂,这就使得社交网络都刻意避开年轻客户。脸谱网则强调,其用户必须年满13岁。The snag is that children fib about their age. A study by Consumer Reports found that 5.6m children under 13 were using Facebook in America alone. Another survey of American parents found that adults often knew that their children were less than 13 when they joined Facebook. In many cases, the parents helped them to set up their accounts.不过有个小问题:孩子们会谎报年龄。消费者报告在研究中发现,单在美国就有560万13岁以下的儿童玩脸谱网。另一份针对美国父母的调查表明,父母通常都知道其孩子注册脸谱网时还未满13岁。而且在很多情况下,父母们都会帮助他们开通账户。Regulators have noticed. Facebooks current musings may reflect the fear that the firm will run into trouble if it does nothing. It aly has slightly more robust privacy settings for children between the ages of 13 and 17. But it would need a far tighter regime for younger children, says Sarah Downey of Abine, an online consumer-privacy company.网络监管部门已注意到了这点。脸谱网当前的考量是它担心如果无任何作为,公司便会麻烦缠身。它已为13至17岁的用户建立了更为健全的隐私设置。不过,来自网络客户隐私保护公司亿邦公司的Sarah Downey说,脸谱网也许需要为13岁以下的儿童设立更为严格的监管机制。In spite of its plummeting share price, Facebook has oodles of cash from its recent stockmarket flotation. So it could easily hire the extra staff needed to support parents and their youngsters, as well as to ensure compliance with COPPA. Mark Zuckerberg, the social networks boss, has said he believes childrens education should start early. Now he has a chance to prove that he means it.尽管脸谱网股价暴跌,但近期的上市使得它有大笔现金入帐。因此,雇佣额外所需员工为父母及其孩子提供务,并且使这些员工遵守COPPA,对脸谱网而言也许并非难事。该社交网站的老板Mark Zuckerberg说,对儿童的教育应尽早开始。如今便有一个机会摆在他面前,让他明自己不是说说而已。 /201209/200525

IN 1989 Edward Kennedy tried to stop time. The ed States Coast Guard was preparing to automate and remove all remaining personnel from the old lighthouse in Boston Harbour. But Kennedy, a liberal senator from a family with deep roots in Boston, sponsored a bill requiring the Boston Light to be permanently manned. And so it soldiered on for nearly another decade, stubbornly holding to the old ways. Built in 1783, it is one of America’s oldest lighthouses (the oldest was its predecessor, which the British blew up as they slunk home in June 1776). In 1998 time and Senator Kennedy reached a compromise: the light itself was at last automated, but it remains the last one with resident Coast Guard keepers.爱德华.肯尼迪试图让时间定格1989年。当时,美国海岸防卫队正准备从波士顿港撤走所有留守人员,实现灯塔全自动化。然而与波士顿有着深厚渊源的自由派参议员肯尼迪,提出了一份议案,要求派人长期驻守灯塔。因此,灯塔由士兵守候了又是近十年光景,这样灯塔顽强地得以维持其原状。兴建于1783年的波士顿灯塔(其前身是美国最古老的灯塔,1776年6月英国人仓惶归国时,将其炸毁)是美国最古老的灯塔之一。经过长期的争取,肯尼迪最终于1998年出台了一项折衷方案:波士顿灯塔最终实现自动化,而且也是全美唯一一座由海岸警卫队驻守的灯塔。The Coast Guard took charge of America’s more than 1,000 lighthouses in 1939, when it absorbed the ed States Lighthouse Service. But it has been slowly letting them go. In 2000 the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act allowed the sale or transfer of lighthouses deemed “excess to service requirements” by the Coast Guard to private entities. Since then the federal government has moved 84 lighthouses of the 600 that were left off its books. Most have been transferred to local governments or non-profits, but 28 have been auctioned off to private individuals.1939年,美国灯塔划归到海岸警卫队。自那以后,海岸警卫队负责管理美国1000多座灯塔。但渐渐地,美国海军看护的灯塔越来越少。2000年《国家历史灯塔保存法案》允许海岸警卫队将那些被认为是“其务已不再必要”的灯塔出售或转让给私有个体。从此,美国联邦政府出售转让了书中记载的仅存的600座灯塔中的84座。大部分灯塔转交给当地政府或非营利机构,但28座灯塔已被拍卖给个人。The sad truth is that satellite navigation has made many lighthouses surplus to requirements. Shifting commercial trends have done their damage, too. More than 1,500 ships lie wrecked off North Carolina’s Outer Banks, but today these islands depend far more on tourism than on maritime trade.遗憾的是,现在有了卫星导航技术,好多灯塔根本就用不上了。贸易趋势的转变也让灯塔越来越没有用武之地。北卡罗来纳州外班克斯港有1500多艘触礁的船只残骸,然而今天这些岛屿主要依靠旅游业而不是海上贸易。Still, some fishermen enjoy navigating by light rather than satellite. Sometimes they forget to take their navigation systems on board. Bett Padgett, who heads the Outer Banks Lighthouse Society, which petitioned the federal government for funds to restore Bodie Island’s once-crumbling lighthouse, warns of solar flares knocking out satellites.然而,有许多渔民仍然喜欢利用灯塔而不是卫星来导航,所以有时候,他们会忘记带导航系统。外班克斯列岛灯塔协会(该协会曾请求联邦政府拨款整修一度年久失修的Bodie灯塔)会长Bett Padgett提醒人们太阳耀斑会让卫星暂时失灵。All that is true, but defending lighthouses as a matter of utility surely misses the point.。 Of course, lighthouses draw tourists, who spend money; one informal study estimated that restoring the Bodie Island lighthouse, which is scheduled to open to visitors for the first time in April 2013, would add .7m in total income to the regional economy.But for Ms Padgett, preserving them is a way “to give our children and grandchildren a feel for what happened in this place a hundred or two hundred years ago.” Men built them by hand to stand watch over the sea. Lighthouses remind people that as mariners battled what Walt Whitman called “the wild unrest, the snowy, curling caps—that inbound urge and urge of waves, Seeking the shores forever,” someone was watching over them, and wishing them safely home.上面说的没错,但从实用性角度为灯塔辩护,显然没有说到关键之处。当然,灯塔吸引了大批来此消费的游客;一项非官方调查预计修整 Bodie灯塔将为当地经济带来总计870万美元的收入,该灯塔预计于2013年4月首次向游客开放。但在Padgett女士看来,保存好灯塔是让“我们子孙感受一两百年来这里变迁”的一种方式。人们建造灯塔来让它们守候大海。灯塔让人们想到,当水手们与沃尔特.惠特曼笔下“那永不宁静的奔腾,那白浪般的滚卷的浪峰----那向陆地急推又急推的浪头“搏斗时,有人在灯塔上眺望,盼望他们安全归来。201204/177262


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