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2019年10月21日 12:24:45

Last year saw a record number of visitors to the National Park Service’s more than 400 parks, monuments, battlefields, seashores and other sites. Those numbers are expected to increase as the agency approaches its centennial anniversary on Aug. 25, 2016.去年访问国家公园旗下400多个公园、纪念公园、战场遗址、海滩等游览胜地的旅客创下了纪录。据估计,至2016年8月25日迎来成立百年纪念之际,游客数量还将持续上升。The wealth of visitors is great but sping it around can be a challenge, Kathy Kupper, a spokeswoman for the park service, said on the phone from her office in Washington, D.C.游客人数增加是好事,但是如何分散游客也是个问题,国家公园的发言人凯西·卡帕(Kathy Kupper)在华盛顿接受电话采访时说。“The iconic parks are always jammed, but there is incredible wildlife in Theodore Roosevelt too,” she said, referring to the national park in North Dakota. “It’s just not on people’s radar.”“标志性的公园总是人满为患,但西奥多·罗斯福公园(Theodore Roosevelt)也有大量野生动物,”她提及的国家公园位于北达科塔州,“但人们就是想不到那个地方。”The same is true for the agency’s growing number of historic and cultural sites, she said. “There’s a lot of focus right now on finding gaps in our collective history and culture. Not to take anything away from the classics, but the parks are more than wilderness.”她说,所辖的历史与文化遗迹也愈来愈多,但同样无人问津。“有很多公园致力于寻找我们集体历史与文化中的空缺。并不是要带走传统公园的游客,但国家公园也并不只是意味着荒郊野地。”For Dan Wenk, interim president of the National Park Foundation and a director of Yellowstone, the parks can be a place for spiritual and emotional renewal, “whether you’re in Alcatraz or Yellowstone,” he said. “I consider them societal institutions that tell the stories of our triumph, joy, despair and history,” he said. “So how people connect with the parks is important.”丹·温克(Dan Wenk)是国家公园基金会的临时会长,也是黄石公园的顾问,他认为国家公园可以成为重塑灵性与情感的好地方,“不管是阿尔卡特拉斯还是黄石,”他说,“我都把它们当做一种社会机构,可以向人们讲述各种故事,关于我们的胜利、欢乐、绝望与历史。”他还说,“所以人们同这些公园产生什么样的关系是非常重要的。”To assist with those connections, the agency and its foundation created Find Your Park, an interactive website that registers a users’ intellectual, geographical and activity preferences in order to suggest a park that’s right for them and then lets them share their experiences in the parks with “like-minded souls,” as Mr. Wenk put it.为了巩固这些联系,国家公园与基金会创立了“找到你的公园”(Find Your Park),这是一个互动网站,可以登记用户的智性、地理与活动偏好,向用户推荐最适合他们的国家公园,并鼓励他们与温克所谓的“类似的心灵”分享在这些公园中的体验。The digital outreach continued with the start of the first National Park Service Instagram account last month; and a pilot program is designed to test a digital platform from which individual parks can create their own mobile apps. Some parks aly offer apps independently from the park service and are enhancing them with GPS-enabled maps, digital park ranger tours and junior ranger activities.国家公园致力于进一步扩大数字务的范围,上个月,首次推出了Instagram账号;此外还推出了一个导航程序,旨在提供数字平台,令每个公园都可以创建自己的移动应用。有些公园已经有了独立于国家公园的移动应用,目前正在增加GPS地图、数字化公园路线导游和小范围活动等务,进一步完善这些应用。Within the parks, visitors are likely to see a nominal increase in entry fees across the board, the upside of which is enhanced programming and visitors’ centers, lodging expansion and trail restoration, especially for bike use. And in so-called “gateway” towns to the iconic parks in the west, new glamping options, breweries, distilleries and attractions for children are helping take the “rough” out of roughing it.这些公园的门票价格略有上升,好处是管理和游客中心的水平有了提升,住宿区和徒步保护区有所扩大,特别是骑行区域。在西部的那些标志性公园的所谓“门户”市镇内,有了新的豪华野营选择,有了各种啤酒厂、烈酒厂和各种给孩子们的消遣,让这些“简朴”的地区不那么单调。What else is new at the national parks? Below is a list of highlights by state. Be sure to share any of your own discoveries in the comments section.国家公园里还有什么新变化?下面是按州列出的精名单。你有什么发现也可以在中发表意见ARIZONA亚利桑那Petrified Forest National Park is now mapping self-guided hikes to its more off-the-beaten-path destinations, in part to remind visitors that the parks are theirs to roam, Richard Ullmann, a park official, said in an email. “Historically, this was not always the case based on a theory that petrified wood was being stolen,” but “a multiyear rephotography effort now shows that the vast majority of visitors have done the right thing.”石化林国家公园(Petrified Forest National Park)为公园内的非常规景点制作了自助徒步地图,公园的管理者理查德·阿尔曼(Richard Ullmann)在电子邮件中写道,这也是为了提醒游客们在公园中尽情漫游。“在过去,管理者认为石化木会被偷窃,所以并不总是鼓励游客自行探索”,但是“多年的摄像监控表明绝大多数游客都很自觉”。Tours range from leisurely walks to strenuous hikes and can lead to petroglyphs, Triassic-era conifers or fossil beds in the Red Basin, the park’s newest land acquisition.旅游路线可以是闲适的漫步,也可以是艰苦的徒步旅行,有可能看到史前岩画、三叠纪针叶植物化石或红盆地(Red Basin)内的化石层,红盆地是公园最新征募的土地。In August, a new field institute, sponsored by the Petrified Forest Museum Association, will begin offering classes led by geologists, archaeologists, photographers and other experts. And in 2016, look for electric vehicle charging stations to appear at the north and south entrances of the park.在8月,一个新成立的、由石化林物馆协会赞助的田野学会将开始向游人提供课程,由地理学家、考古学家、摄影师和各种专家授课。2016年,公园南北入口将开设电动车辆租赁站。CALIFORNIA加利福尼亚Are you still “roughing it” if pre-seasoned rib-eye steaks are delivered to your cabin door? After a long day of hiking around steaming fumaroles and boiling lakes, who cares? The steaks are just one perk in the new Deluxe and Dinner Date amenity packages being offered at the Manzanita Lake camping cabins in Lassen Volcanic National Park this season. Cooking supplies, pillow-top mattress covers and s’mores kits are also included. (Packages start at 0.)如果旺季之前丰盛的牛排大餐已经给你端到门口,那你还打算“省吃俭用”吗?沿着热气蒸腾的火山口和沸腾的湖泊徒步了一整天,谁还会想什么节俭呢。这一季,拉森火山国家公园(Lassen Volcanic National Park)内的曼扎尼塔露营内提供新的豪华住宿与晚餐套餐务,牛排只是其中一项额外务而已。此外还提供精心烹制的补给品、枕头床垫床铺等各种设施(全套务100美元起)。Yosemite is all about restoration this year. This month the park’s main corridor, Tioga Road, is undergoing major repairs to fix pavement and signage, add parking and improve bathrooms. In March, the park welcomed a herd of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep back to its Cathedral Range after the conclusion of a multiyear project to repopulate the endangered species. The park’s Ansel Adams Gallery, which showcases the famous nature photographer’s works, reopened to the public in April after remodeling to allow full accessibility for the disabled. Even John Muir, known as the father of the national parks, is being revived by the actor Lee Stetson, who will answer audience questions about the park and its history at the Yosemite Theater as part of the park’s new theatrical programming.约塞米蒂(Yosemite)国家公园今年正在全面休整。本月该公园内的主要通路泰奥加路(Tioga Road)在大修,主要是修补步行道与路标,增加停车区域,改善厕所。在3月,公园迎来了一群内华达山脉大角羊,多年的拯救濒危物种计划之后,它们终于回到大教堂牧区(Cathedral Range)。公园的安塞尔·亚当斯画廊(Ansel Adams Gallery)内展览这位著名的自然风光摄影师的大量作品,经过重修,安装了全套残疾人便利通道,在四月重新面向公众开放。此外,公园还将推出最新的戏剧活动,演员李·斯泰森(Lee Stetson)饰演国家公园之父约翰·缪尔(John Muir),在约塞米蒂剧场内现场回答观众关于这个公园及其历史的问题。COLORADO科罗拉多Wetherill Mesa, known as the quieter side of Mesa Verde National Park, will have an extended season this year (through mid-October), giving cyclists ample to time to enjoy new access to the park’s six-mile Long House Loop, a paved path formerly used for tram service, and the backcountry routes on the park’s most popular hike, which has added a cycling component to its itinerary. Naturally, plans are in the works to open an on-site bike rental operation within the year.威瑟利尔·梅萨(Wetherill Mesa)是梅萨维德国家公园(Mesa Verde National Park)内较为安静的一侧,今年十月中期,它将迎来繁忙的一季,届时大量骑行者将会前来体验新开的六英里“长屋环道”(Long House Loop),这条铺设平整的路段原来是供电车使用的,此外在公园最受欢迎的徒步路线的乡间路线中还增加了骑行路线。年内自然也有计划增加现场自行车租赁务。Downward dog may be an ideal body posture for fossil hunting. At Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, a park guide, who is also a certified yoga instructor, leads groups in that and other poses at stops along different trails during Yoga Hikes, part of the park’s Hikes for Your Health series.寻找化石时采取瑜伽里的“下犬式”可能很不错。在弗洛瑞珊化石带国家保护区(Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument),会有一个能充任瑜伽教师的公园向导带队做瑜伽徒步,沿途带队员做不同瑜伽体式,这是公园推出的“徒步为健康”(Hikes for Your Health)系列活动之一。And this summer marks the end of the Rocky Mountain National Park centennial celebration, and so too, its special programming like the climbers’ oral history project, concerts from the Colorado Wind Ensemble and the Celebrating Rocky Invitational Art Show (June 6).今年夏天,落基山国家公园的百年庆典即告结束,它的登山者口述史特别计划、科罗拉多之风乐团的音乐会与落基庆典艺术邀请展也将告终(6月6日)。Just a year after local officials eased regulations on opening breweries and distilleries in Rocky Mountain’s gateway town, Estes Park, a number of operations are in the works. Lumpy Ridge Brewing Company, a 15-barrel microbrewery with an indoor tasting room and outdoor patio, is the first scheduled to open this summer, with two distilleries and three more breweries to follow before the end of the year.在洛基山公园的门户城镇伊斯泰斯公园(Estes Park),一年前,本地官员发布了对开放啤酒厂和烈酒厂的规定,现在这些酒厂已经有很多活动了。朗皮峰啤酒公司(Lumpy Ridge Brewing Company)是一个15桶小型啤酒厂,有室内品尝室和天井,将于今年夏天成为首家开张的酒厂,其后还有两个烈酒厂和三家啤酒厂将于今年年底之前开张。Estes Park is adding two festivals: Western Days (May 29 to 31), which celebrates the area’s regional heritage with music, an art show and, to keep things real, a barrel-racing competition; and, after a short-lived run in Fort Collins, Colo., the Rocky Mountain Irish Gathering (June 18 to 21), is to be resurrected in Estes Park with a beefed-up list of international music groups, highland dancing, genealogy exploration and a new sporting competition, Irish Road Bowling.伊斯泰斯公园还将举办两个庆典:5月29至31日的西部节(Wester Days),用音乐和艺术展览庆祝这一地区的文化遗产,为了增加真实感,还有会绕桶马术比赛;到6月18日至21日,在科罗拉多的福特·科林斯短暂停留后,落基山脉爱尔兰集会将在伊斯泰斯公园再度活跃,带来精纷呈的各国乐队演奏、高地舞蹈、家谱探索和一项全新的体育赛事:保龄球。DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA哥伦比亚特区The new Rock Creek Park GPS-enabled mobile app is in the final stages of development, according to the Rock Creek Conservancy, and is likely to be y in time to assist with the park’s 125th anniversary (can you say “Quasquicentennial”?) in September. It is to feature a park map, trail maps and a schedule of events for what can seem like a confusing sprawl of paths winding through the nation’s capital.全新的、有GPS功能的石溪公园(Rock Creek Park)移动应用正在最后开发阶段,石溪保护区的工作人员说,这款应用有望在公园9月的庆祝125周年庆典时推出。应用中还会有公园地图、步行路线地图和一份活动安排建议,帮你在美国首都纵横交错的路径中找到方向。HAWAII夏威夷Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is helping campers take a load off at its Namakanipaio campground with a tent and supply rental option. Hawaii Volcanoes Lodge Company will set up and break down a camp site for two, including a tent, an 8-inch memory foam mattress, linens, a cooler, a lantern and chairs. Access to the refurbished community bathrooms is included, as is the toilet paper, a true camping luxury. ( per tent plus to book the camp site.)夏威夷大岛火山国家公园(Hawaii Volcanoes National Park)在它的纳马卡尼帕伊奥营地提供帐篷和补给出租,从而帮露营者减轻负担。即将成立的夏威夷大岛火山露营公司将开设一个双人露营游,提供一顶帐篷、一块8英寸记忆棉床垫、亚麻床品、一个制冷机、一个灯笼和若干椅子。还可以使用社区焕然一新的厕所,至于厕纸确实是露营中的奢侈品(每顶帐篷租金为40美元,另需付15美元预租露营营地)。A second option for those who abhor tent pole configuration is Namakanipaio’s recently refurbished one-room cabins, which now offer wood floors, full-size and bunk beds with full-size mattresses, linens, towels and the survival tool every teenager needs: an electrical outlet.不喜欢露营帐篷的人可以选择纳马卡尼帕伊奥最近翻新的单间小木屋,它有木地板,全尺寸上下铺床和全尺寸床垫、亚麻床品、毛巾和所有青少年都需要的“救生用品”:电源插座。Oh, and that recent eruption at the park’s Kīlauea Volcano? Good news, it’s less than five miles from the campground. The park website recommends the nearby Jaggar Museum overlook for the best views.想看最近正在爆发的基劳伊亚火山(Kilauea Volcano)怎么办?好消息是,它离露营地不到五英里。公园网站建议到附近的贾加尔物馆(Jaggar Museum)参观,获取最佳视角。ILLINOIS伊利诺斯In February, President Obama gave Chicago its first national park site when he designated the Pullman Historic District a national monument. The first planned industrial community in the ed States and the birthplace of the first African-American labor union, the remaining Pullman Palace Car Company buildings are “an evocative testament to the evolution of American industry, the rise of unions and the labor movement, the lasting strength of good urban design and the remarkable journey of the Pullman porters toward the civil rights movement,” the presidential proclamation stated.2月,奥巴马总统把普尔曼历史区(Pullman Historic District)列为国家遗迹,于是芝加哥有了第一个国家公园。这是美国最早建立的工业社区,也是第一个非裔美国人工会的诞生地,普尔曼宫汽车公司建筑的遗址是“美国工业发展、工会崛起与劳工运动发人深省的明,精心的都市化设计具有持久的力量,标志着普尔曼工人向民权运动发展的非凡旅程”,总统在声明中说。Programming and public visiting hours are still being established, but those who can’t wait to witness its historical significance can find guided tours and more at the Historic Pullman Foundation, the Pullman State Historic Site or the A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum.具体安排和公共参观时间还在制定当中,但等不及一睹其历史意义的游客可以到普尔曼历史基金、普尔曼州立历史遗迹或A·菲利普·兰道尔夫·普尔曼工人物馆参观。LOUISIANA路易斯安纳No matter what you do in New Orleans, someone will be playing jazz, even at Pilates class. So the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park is now offering weekly Jazz Pilates classes, taught by Stephanie Jordan, a jazz vocalist and Pilates instructor who integrates the traditional practice with dance and the music of Coltrane, Kidd Jordan and others.不知你在新奥尔良想玩什么,有的人可能去演奏爵士乐,有人可能去上普拉提班。新奥尔良爵士国家历史公园(New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park)现在提供每周的爵士普拉提课,由斯坦芬尼·乔丹(Stephanie Jordan)授课,她是个爵士歌手,也是普拉提教练,把传统练习和舞蹈,以及柯川(Coltrane)和基德·乔丹(Kidd Jordan)等人的音乐结合起来。Inspired by programming organized for the bicentennial celebration of the Battle of New Orleans in January, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve is in the process of revamping its educational and junior ranger programs to include workshops focused on life in 1815, including period games, dancing, music and crafts.受到一月的新奥尔良之战二百周年庆典活动启发,简·拉费蒂国家历史公园与保护区(Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve)正在翻新其教育与青少年游客计划,开设研讨会,研究1815年的生活,活动包括历史游戏、舞蹈、音乐和手工。MAINE缅因Acadia National Park is to begin managing a new campground on Maine’s Schoodic Peninsula this fall, just east of its popular neighbor, Mount Desert Island. The site will offer almost 100 R.V. and tent sites, as well as new hiking and biking trails connecting to Gouldsboro Village and existing park trails leading to the peninsula’s tip. Record snow this winter delayed the opening for now, but look to book a spot (first come first served) beginning in September.今年秋天,阿卡迪亚国家公园(Acadia National Park)在缅因的斯库迪克半岛开设了一个新的露营地,就在公园最受欢迎的芒特迪瑟特岛(Mount Desert Island)以东。这个营地提供约100个露营车及帐篷,还有新的徒步及骑行路线,与古尔兹波勒村和公园目前的路线相连,一直通往半岛的尖端。今年冬天破纪录的大雪令露营地一直延迟到如今才开张,但是预定位置(先到先得)的务从9月才开始。One welcome byproduct of road closures at Acadia during the 2013 government sequestration was the realization that the park was best seen on foot or vehicles, Aimee Beal Church, a communications coordinator at Friends of Acadia, a nonprofit, said. The park is obliging with a pilot program for car-free mornings this season (Sept. 26 is the next date), when bikes, skateboards, rollerblades and feet will have free rein on Park Loop Road until noon.在2013年的政府征收工作中,阿卡迪亚的道路暂时封闭了,一个受欢迎的附带结果是,人们认识到,步行或坐车游览这个公园是最好的,非盈利组织阿卡迪亚之友的联络协调员艾美·比尔·彻奇(Aimee Beal Church)说道。公园还有一个试行计划,在本季设立无车日(下一个日期是9月26日),届时从早到中午,游人可以通过自行车、滑板、旱冰和步行等形式在公园环路上畅行无阻。NEVADA内华达Though it’s aly been a year, it’s worth noting that the Black Canyon Water Trail, which flows through Lake Mead National Recreation Area, was the first in the southwest to be named a national water trail by the Department of the Interior, and only the 16th in the ed States. The trail offers access to the lower Colorado River from several launch sites, the most impressive of which is surely the Hoover Dam. Permits for private boat use can be obtained, though renting from an approved outfitter will get you on the river faster.尽管一年已经过去,米德湖国家休闲区内的黑峡水路还是值得一提,它是西南地区第一个由内务部认的国家水路,在全美也只有16处。这条水路可以从若干始发地点出发,通往科罗拉多河下游,最引人注目的无疑是胡佛水坝。游客可以申请私人船只的通行,不过还是从指定运动用品店租赁船只更为快捷。NEW HAMPSHIRE新罕布什尔Once home to the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, New Hampshire’s only national park site, has one of the oldest artist-in-residence programs in the system and a significant body of work from which to choose pieces for its retrospective exhibition opening in September. Among the works will be Saint-Gaudens’ famous Standing Lincoln, a 12-foot bronze likeness of the 16th president, recast from the original plasters to honor the park’s 50th Anniversary.新罕布什尔是雕塑家奥古斯图尔·圣-高登斯(Augustus Saint-Gaudens)的家乡,圣-高登斯国家历史遗迹(Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site)则是新罕布什尔唯一一处国家公园,它拥有国家公园系统中历史最悠久的艺术家入驻计划,以及大量艺术品收藏,9月开幕的回顾展上将展出其中的精品。这些艺术品中包括圣-高登斯著名的林肯站像,是第16任总统12英寸高的青铜塑像,为庆祝公园50周年落成,由原始石膏像重铸而成。PENNSYLVANIA宾夕法尼亚Independence National Historical Park is one of several with its own mobile app, featuring maps, self-guided tours and historical facts about the Liberty Bell and the park’s other famous attractions. Last month, the park unveiled a new Independence Junior Ranger app as well, which offers interactive games for kids who want to earn a ranger certificate and badge. (Available on Apple and iOS devices.)独立国家历史公园(Independence National Historical Park)是少数几个拥有自己的移动应用、特色地图和自动导向导游系统的公园,此外它还拥有关于自由之钟(Liberty Bell)的史迹,以及其他著名景点。上个月,公园推出一款全新的、名为“独立小护林员”的移动应用,是给孩子们玩的互动游戏,他们可以在游戏里获得护林员认和勋章(仅限苹果和iOS设备)。SOUTH DAKOTA南达科他The new visitor center at the Minuteman Missile National Historic Site sounds more like a museum than an information desk. Interactive exhibits and films there cover the intercontinental ballistic missile system once hidden under the prairie and its role in the Cold War. New programming will begin at the facility in a leadup to the grand opening on Sept. 26.民兵导弹历史遗迹(Minuteman Missile National Historic Site)内的新游客中心更像一个物馆,而不是信息台。这里的互动展览和电影讲述了曾经藏在这片草原之下的洲际弹道导弹系统,以及它在冷战中发挥的作用。新的方案即将投入准备阶段,并在9月26日盛大启用。Mount Rushmore National Memorial just opened a Youth Exploration Area, where interactive children’s programs will be hosted by park rangers beginning in June. Additionally, the Mount Rushmore Society is working with the state to develop a new recreational hiking, biking and horseback-riding trail that is to connect the park with the state’s 109-mile George S. Mickelson Trail, to be completed in the next two or three years. And though it won’t directly affect your visit, it may be comforting to know that the park has installed a new, more energy-efficient lighting system with which to highlight the faces of our forefathers, cutting the park’s energy usage by 90 percent and greatly reducing light pollution.拉什莫尔山国家公园(Mount Rushmore National Memorial)新开设了青年探索区,有公园管理者主持的互动儿童程序,将于6月启用。此外,拉什莫尔山社团将与南达科他州合作,开放新的康复徒步、骑行和骑马路线,将公园与南达科他州109英里长的乔治·S ·米克尔森路径(George S. Mickelson Trail)连在一起,这项工作将在未来两三年内完成,目前对游客游览没有直接影响。此外,公园安装了一套全新的、更节能的照明系统,既能照清我国先辈们的面容,又能将公园的能耗减少90%,并大大减轻光污染,这无疑是好事。TENNESSEE田纳西Chimney Tops, the most the heavily trod trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has reopened after major maintenance to help ensure its long-term sustainability and safety. The work, done by hand with organic materials, included the installation of 367 rock steps (weighing 300 pounds each), 291 locust log steps, 700 square feet of retaining walls, 1,600 linear feet of uphill drainage ditches and 40,000 cubic feet of rock crush fill to help harden trail t, among other improvements.大烟雾山国家公园(Great Smoky Mountains National Park)最受欢迎的步行线“烟囱顶”(Chimney Tops)在经历大修后重新回归,耐用性和安全性都得到了提高。这项维修工作完全由人工完成,使用有机材料,安装了367级石级(每块石头重300磅)、291个槐木台阶、700平方英尺保护墙、1600英尺上坡排水沟和40000立方英尺碎填石,让路面更坚固,此外还有其他改善措施。The park’s narrow Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail also reopened this month with new bridges, allowing a safer drive for motorists who want to explore the scenic five-mile road that winds parallel to Roaring Fork Creek.公园较窄的咆哮叉河自然机动车道(Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail)也于本月重开,修了新的桥梁,令机动车可以更加安全地沿着咆哮叉河边五英里的道路行驶,观赏美景。UTAH犹他Protecting the night sky isn’t an initiative you hear many park activists touting, but for areas like Capitol Reef National Park, it’s a major mission. Isolated by the white sandstone cliffs of the Waterpocket Fold and with mostly cloudless weather conditions, it’s ideal for stargazing. Now, after more than a decade of projects to educate both staff and visitors about light pollution, the park has finally earned the International Dark-Sky Association’s Gold Star designation, which should help boost the park’s growing astro-tourism industry. The park celebrates this fall with an expanded schedule of events at the annual Heritage Starfest (Oct. 9 to 10).很多公园都不会主张保护夜晚的天空,但在国会礁国家公园(Capitol Reef National Park),这是一项重要任务。这里被水袋凹地(Waterpocket Fold)的白砂礁石所隔绝,拥有常年晴朗的气候,格外适合观星。十几年来,公园一直在对员工和游客进行光污染方面的教育,公园也赢得了国际黑暗天空协会的金星奖,有助于提升公园的天文旅游。今年秋天,公园将在年度的遗产观星节上(10月9日至10日)推出一项附加活动以示庆祝。To reduce motorized traffic, Bryce Canyon National Park is building a six-mile paved bike and hike path that will lead visitors past points of interest on the canyon rim and connect to gateway communities like Bryce Canyon City and the more rugged plateaus of the nearby Dixie National Forest. The first portion is scheduled to open this fall, with the entire path expected to open by next spring.为了减少机动车流量,布莱斯峡谷国家公园修建了一条六英里的自行车与步行道,方便游客观赏峡谷边缘的名胜,并把布莱斯峡谷市等公园的门户社区同更附近迪克西国家森林更崎岖的平原联在一起。第一部分将于今年秋天开放,整个道路将于明年春天完全开放。St. George, a gateway town to several of Utah’s Mighty Five parks, opened its first outdoor adventure booking center in February. The St. George Adventure Hub can assist with reserving jeep tours, guided hikes, mountain bike rentals, horseback riding excursions and other sporty activities, as well as golf outings, spa services and concert tickets.圣乔治(St. George)是犹他五大公园(Mighty Five)中若干公园的门户城镇,2月份,它开放了自己的首个露天探险预约中心。圣乔治探险中心可以帮助游客预定吉普车旅游、有导游的徒步游、提供山地自行车租赁,骑马短途游及其他体育活动,以及高尔夫旅行、水疗和音乐会门票。Moab Giants, a new dinosaur exploration park, should open just in time to feed on the frenzied fans of “Jurassic World” this summer. The 40-acre grounds north of Moab, another popular gateway town, will focus on the tracks of Utah dinosaurs from the early Jurassic through the early Cretaceous periods. Some tracks will be true fossils; others are to be cast from area excavation sites. The park will also serve as a museum and research lab for paleontologists working in the area.莫阿布巨人(Moab Giants)是一个新的恐龙探险公园,为满足今夏《侏罗纪公园》(Jurassic World)的狂热观众,它很快就会开放。莫阿布是另一个著名的门户城镇,公园就坐落在它的东边,占地40公顷,主题是早期侏罗纪至早期白垩纪犹他州的恐龙遗迹。有些遗迹中有真实化石,还有些是遗址上的铸像。公园将成为一个物馆和在这里工作的古生物学者们的研究中心。Sitting between the entrances to Canyonlands and Arches National Parks, Moab Under Canvas provides safari-style tents and tepees with wood floors, plush bedding (on actual beds) and prepared meals, plus add-on options like guided mountain biking. Additional operations are in Yellowstone and Glacier National Park, with two more — near Yosemite and Grand Canyon — expected to open in 2016.“帐篷下的莫阿布”(Moab Under Canvas)坐落在峡谷地国家公园(Canyonlands)和拱门国家公园(Arches National Parks)之间,提供游猎式帐篷和有木地板的圆锥帐篷,长毛绒寝具(有真正的床)和精心准备的三餐,此外还可以选择有导游的山地骑行。黄石公园和冰川国家公园,以及约塞米蒂和大峡谷国家公园的附加活动都有望于2016年开放,。Or, see how the other half camps at the A.C.T. Campground and Learning Center near Moab, designed in part by an environmental engineer and wastewater specialist. Its “Act Responsibly, Sleep Comfortably” motto emphasizes minimalism, especially when it comes to waste at its R.V. and tent sites, small cabins, clubhouse, community kitchen and learning center, where the owners organize bio-geology classes, field adventures, photography tours and writing workshops.啊,莫阿布附近的A.C.T. 露营地与学习中心(A.C.T. Campground and Learning Center)还有另一半露营者,这个地点部分是由一位环保工程师与废水处理专家设计的。它的箴言“负责行动,舒适睡眠”强调极简主义,尤其是在房车和露营地点内更是没什么可浪费的,露营地有小木屋、俱乐部、公用厨房和学习中心,中心主人们会组织生态课程、现场探险、拍照游和写作班。VIRGINIA弗吉尼亚Shenandoah National Park is expanding its programming for children. In addition to redesigning its Junior Ranger program, the park is to designate Blackrock Trail an official Kids in Parks Track trail. A national program aimed at encouraging children to hike, geocache or explore nature on trails around the country, Track offers self-guided brochures of trails, their historical and scientific significance — in this case, the development of the Appalachian Trail — and then has them track their progress online to win prizes. A dedication ceremony is planned for May 29.仙纳度国家公园(Shenandoah National Park)增加了给儿童的活动。除了重新设计它的小护林员计划,还把公园的黑岩路径设为正式的“Kids in Parks Track”路线。它是一项旨在鼓励儿童在乡间徒步、玩探宝游戏或探索自然的全国方案,它提供这些路径的自助向导手册,讲述它们在历史与科学上的重要意义——在这里,是阿巴拉契亚路径(Appalachian Trail)的开发——并且让孩子们在网上追溯这个过程,赢取奖励。5月29日将举办启动仪式。WYOMING怀俄明TerraVelo Tours, a relatively new outfit specializing in bike and hike tours with a glamping component, has expanded its operations from the “Arches, Canyons and HooDoos” of southern Utah to the “Mountains, Geysers and Bison” of Wyoming. Tours to Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks stop at Old Faithful, the Norris Geyser basin, the Hot Springs loop, Mammoth Hot Springs and the Lamar River Valley, among other destinations throughout the summer and include meals prepared by a private chef, a tent suite akin to an upscale hotel room, sunrise yoga classes, laundry and massage services, as well as the use of a lounge tent with games and other entertainment options.特拉维罗旅游(TerraVelo Tours)是一家新的骑行与徒步旅游公司,有豪华露营务,它将业务从南犹他的“拱门、峡谷与胡都”(Arches, Canyons and HooDoos)扩展到了怀俄明的“高山、喷泉与拜森”(Mountains, Geysers and Bison)。跟随它提供的旅行线路可在夏天去往黄石公园和大提顿国家公园(Grand Teton National Parks)游览,在老忠实泉、诺里斯间歇泉盆地、温泉回路、莫马斯温泉和拉玛河谷等地驻足,享用私厨预备的大餐,住在堪比高档宾馆房间的帐篷套间,在日出时上瑜伽课,有洗衣和务,还有休闲帐篷,提供游戏等消遣。New family tours are designed for children 8 and older and offer movie nights, archery lessons and cooking demonstrations.新的家庭游是为8岁及以上儿童设计,提供电影之夜、弓箭课和烹饪展示。Three of five lodges planned for Yellowstone’s Canyon Lodge amp; Cabins complex should be y in August. The million project headed by Xanterra Parks amp; Resorts was set in motion to replace more than 300 outdated cabins and to increase sustainability practices at the park’s largest accommodations.为黄石峡谷草屋与木屋区建造的五座草屋里有三座可以在8月开放。这是萨特拉公园与保护区(Xanterra Parks amp; Resorts)的一项价值7000万美元的计划,旨在替换300座过时的木屋,增加公园的最大住宿能力。And for those with an eye to history, a major renovation of the Lake Yellowstone Hotel is to restore much of its Colonial Revival style in preparation for its 125th anniversary in 2016. To be completed in June, updates extend to guest rooms as well as public spaces and add Internet service and a business center to the complex. As with most national park lodges, don’t get your hopes up for air-conditioning or televisions. There are none. (Rooms start at 0 a night.)为迎接2016年的125周年庆典,黄石湖酒店(Lake Yellowstone Hotel)将恢复它的殖民复兴风格原貌,喜欢历史的人无疑会喜欢。这项修缮工作将在6月完成,客房和公共区域都会进行修正,还会增添互联网务和商业中心。不过和大多数国家公园小屋一样,别指望这里有空调和电视(房间价格为160美元一晚起)。 /201506/380095宜昌男健包皮手术We want to honor beautiful bodies that break the conventions we encounter in magazines, on television, on billboards and just about everywhere else. The radical and magnificent dance theatre performance Nothing to Lose deconstructs the oppressive body ideals that govern so many of our desires, cherishing the impact of real, human forms. Directed by Force Majeure#39;s Kate Champion, the work is a collaboration with artist and fat activist Kelli Jean Drinkwater.对这些敢于突破常规的艺术家应该给予致敬,他们所展现出的身体之美完全不同于我们在日常的杂志、电视、海报等见到的那样。这组名为“Nothing to Lose”的舞台剧写真激进而又华丽,由凯特·钱皮恩执导,肥胖艺术家及活动家凯利·基恩·德林克沃特合作表演,是对控制我们欲望的受到压迫的身体理想的解放,也是对人类最真实形态的珍视。 /201504/369995宜昌男科中医医院While the world has grown accustomed to images of near-apocalyptic pollution in Beijing, the world#39;s worst air can be found some 2,400 miles to the west.当整个地球都习惯于北京那近乎灾难的空气污染时,世界上空气最脏的地方却远在2400英里的西方。In 2014, the World Health Organization measured air quality levels in 1,600 cities around the world, and the Indian capital city of New Delhi was found to have the highest concentration of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers, also called PM2.5.在2014年,世界卫生组织对世界上1600座城市的空气等级进行测量,印度首都新德里被测出了世界上最高的PM2.5浓度。The city#39;s average PM2.5 level was a whopping 153, compared to 14 in New York and 56 in Beijing. The WH( #8226;s safety threshold for humans is 10. PM2.5 particles are not visible, but they go deep into the lungs, a nd are more likely to cause chronic health problems.这座城市的PM2.5等级达到惊人的153 ,而纽约只有14,北京只有56。而世界卫生组织的人类安全阈值为10。PM2.5颗粒是肉眼不可见的,但它们能深入肺部,很容易造成慢性健康问题。;Delhi is a very green city,; said Kamal Meattle, a Delhi-based air pollution activist. ;But even the gr eenest areas of Delhi have extreme pollution levels.;“德里是一座绿色都市,”德里空气污染活动家卡马尔说,“但是,即使在德里最绿色的区域,污染也已经爆表。”Meattle#39;s TED talk on the topic has garnered more than 2 million views, but he complains that Delhi is still in denial mode.卡马尔关于此课题的TED大会已经获得了超过200万关注,但是,他抱怨说,德里依然在否认这个事实。;Although Delhiites have stopped drinking tap water, my question is: You drink about 2-3 liters of water per day but breathe 2,000 liters of air per day -- (when) you are concerned about the water, but you are not concerned about the air, there is a mismatch,; Meattle said.卡马尔说,;纵然德里已经停止饮用自来水,但我的问题是:你每天只需要喝2-3公升水,但却需要呼吸2000公升空气——(当)你关心水的质量时,你却没有关心空气,你遗漏了重点。;According to analysts, the large number of old vehicles on roads, burning of bio-mass, industry emissions and coal-powered power stations are mainly to blame for Delhi#39;s pollution levels. There are roughly 8.5 million registered vehicles in the city, and 1,400 cars are being added to the streets each day.根据分析师的分析,路上行驶的大量老旧机动车,大量生物燃料消耗,工厂排放和火电站是德里空气污染的主要原因。这座城市在册的机动车大约为850万辆,每天都会新增1400辆汽车。Barun Agrawal of Breathe Easy, a Delhi-based air-filtration company, said that increased awareness has boosted sales.德里的一家空气净化器公司Breathe Easy公司的巴伦凡·阿格拉沃尔说,人们逐渐增强的环境意识保了产品销量。;First two years of business, we had very few sales,; Agrawal said. ; Lately, we are struggling to meet p eople#39;s needs.;“最早的两年,我们只卖出了很少的产品,”阿格拉沃尔说,“但近来,我们已经供不应求了。”Agrawal said that many in the expatriate community have gotten the message, and are stocking up on air purifiers. But attitudes among Indians have been slower to change, despite a sharp rise in media coverage.阿格拉沃尔说,很多在印度的外籍人社区已经意识到了这个问题,开始储存空气净化器。但是,虽然媒体不断报道空气危机,印度本土人的看法却没有多少改变。;The majority of Indians will still say: #39;I want to make my children strong. I don#39;t want to make them #39;delicate darlings#39; by giving them air purifier and clean air for a few hours,#39; ; he said.;大多数印度人依然在说:‘我想让我的孩子们更强壮,我不想让他们在空气净化器的干净空气中生活,因为这会让他们的抵抗力下降。#39;;Meattle, the activist, said the government needs to be more responsive.社会活动家卡马尔说,政府应该更加负责。;I think the first people to be convinced are the politicians, the bureaucrats and the judges ... people who really matter in the sense that they understand the problem is going to create a major health issue and major costs,; he said.;我认为首先需要说政客,官僚和法官。。。他们要明白,空气污染将成为健康问题和经济损失的主因。;Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently launched a national Air Quality Index, or AQI, which will monitor pollution levels in major urban cities on a real-time basis. Data are currently available in 10 cities including Delhi.总理纳伦德拉·莫迪最近建立了一个国内的空气质量标准,简称AQI,将实时监控主要城市的空气质量。现在,已经包括了德里在内的10座印度城市。Last week, the National Green Tribunal, a government agency that deals with environmental disputes, attempted to ban diesel-powered vehicles older than 10 years from Delhi#39;s streets.上周,国家绿色法院,一个主要处理环境争端的政府部门,打算禁止德里所有寿命超过10年的柴油机动车上道。Beyond Delhi, the news doesn#39;t get better for the South Asian powerhouse: 13 out of the world#39;s 20 most polluted cities are in India, and the WHO says outdoor air pollution is the country#39;s fifth biggest killer.除了德里,这则消息对整个印度来说也不是什么好事:全球20座空气最脏的城市中,有13座在印度,世界卫生组织说,空气污染已经成为这个国家的第五大杀手。 /201504/370634宜昌包皮手术术式

西陵区看男科怎么样宜昌看尖锐湿疣多少钱Lijiang Cured Pork Chop丽江腊排骨At night, the old town of Lijiang could not be more beautiful. It was calm and quiet, in which one could only hear water babbling and cicada chirping. Xiao Qi, a beautiful young lady who had just finished a heart-breaking relationship came here in hope of a fresh start. She was wondering in the street, droopy and dejected. A kind-hearted local approached to her and suggested the Cured Pork Chop would be good for her heath since it could help her get rid of worries and find a beloved one. Suspicious, she found the restaurant indicated by the local. Entering the restaurant, she was shocked by the fact that everyone was enjoying the same dish. “Is there anything I can do for you?” A man around 30 years ago came along and asked her gently.“What is it? I mean the dish that everyone ordered.” She responded with pure curiosity. “It is Lijiang Cured Pork Chop. Do you want to have a try?” “Certainly.”While waiting, she saw the man making the dish on his own. Conscientious, he was absorbed in his work. He first chopped the ribs quickly and dexterously, and then put them in a large pot with tomatoes, bean sprouts and other vegetables. For her, a man who was an adept for cooking was somehow alluring. She even started to picture her future in which she could have a nice meal made by his husband. “Enjoy it!” The chimera was interrupted by two simple words. She said thanks to him and began to taste the dish. It was amazing. She could assure that it was the most delectable dish she had ever had. “I must learn how to make it.” She murmured. After thinking for a while, she came to the man and simply asked whether she could learn how to make the dish. “It is not easy. Are you sure about it? ” The man asked her carefully. She answered with nods. In the next few days, she was learning from the man. When making mistakes, she laughed with him and could tell that he would never scorn her for it. Being with him was felicitous and fabulous. However, after acquiring the skills, she had to leave. To tell the truth, she did not want to leave this splendid town and most importantly, the man she met. However, she could not offer a plausible reason to stay. Heavyhearted, she sat in the corner of the restaurant, with her luggage on the ground. “I will miss the town and everything.” She muttered with a sigh. “Then stay.” The man sat next to her, sipping tea. “Since you’ve learned how to make the dish, would you like running the restaurant with me?”“I’d love to.”丽江腊排骨有一个美丽的传说,就是一位漂亮的女子去云南旅游的故事。传说这个女子因为感情受到伤害独自去旅行,然后就来到了云南。当地人告诉她应该去吃一下丽江腊排骨,吃丽江腊排骨会对这位女子有好处!她不解,便问为什么?当地人说:“吃丽江腊排骨会帮你去除烦恼,女孩子会遇到心仪的对象。”自然,当地人是看出女孩子的失意,是劝她保重身体,但巧合的是,女孩子因为喜欢上了丽江腊排骨的味道而多次去品尝丽江腊排骨,而由此便结识了英俊帅气的男子,就此他们展开了一段浪漫的恋情。这个美丽的恋爱故事就这样流传开来。 /201505/375883Standing in the Steventon churchyard on a September morning, the dew glistening on the closely mowed grass between the gravestones, I heard the wind whispering in the 900-year-old yew tree that stands at the west end of the church. I could imagine Mr. Bingley and Jane or Eliza and Mr. Darcy bursting through the doors, arrayed in Regency wedding garb, greeted by a crowd of onlookers. But Steventon was quiet, except for the breeze.9月的清晨,我站在史蒂文顿小村一座教堂的庭院里。墓碑之间新近修剪的草地上,露珠闪烁着光芒,教堂的西边,轻风在九百岁古老紫杉的树叶间悄然私语。我可以想象宾利先生和简,或者伊丽莎白和达西先生穿着摄政时期的结婚礼,走出大门迎接亲友祝福的一幕。但此刻的史蒂文顿,除了轻风,只有静谧。This tiny village in the English county of Hampshire is where Jane Austen was born on Dec. 16, 1775, lived the first quarter century of her short life, and wrote the first drafts of three of her novels, including “Pride and Prejudice” — originally called “First Impressions.” I had come to Hampshire hoping to soak up some of Austen’s world in preparation for writing my next novel, also called “First Impressions,” which would feature Jane Austen as a character. Immediately I sensed that the first scene should be set in this churchyard.这个村庄位于英国的汉普郡,1775年12月16日,简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)诞生于此。在短暂一生的最初25年中,她住在这里,写出了三本名著的初稿,包括《傲慢与偏见》(Pride and Prejudice)。最开始时,这本书的名字是《第一印象》(First Impressions)。我之所以来到汉普郡,是希望从奥斯汀的世界汲取灵感,因为我正在写一本新小说,书名也叫《第一印象》,主角正是简·奥斯汀。很快我就发觉,游览的第一个景点应该是这座墓园。Tourists tend to associate Jane Austen with the Georgian facades of Bath, a bustling city in Somerset; but she lived most of her life, and did most of her writing, in two villages in Hampshire, in south central England. She died and was buried in Hampshire’s cathedral city of Winchester. In her tribute to English books and booksellers, “84 Charing Cross Road,” Helene Hanff writes of telling a friend that if she ever goes to England, she’ll go looking for the England of English literature, to which he replies, “It’s there.”很多游客一想到奥斯汀,就会想起萨默塞特繁华的巴斯市乔治王朝的华美建筑,但其实,她的一生几乎都生活在英格兰中南部汉普郡的两个村庄(史蒂文顿和查顿)里,著作也基本在这里完成。去世之后,她被埋葬在汉普郡的温彻斯特大教堂。在《查令十字街84号》(84 Charing Cross Road)中,海莲·汉芙(Helene Hanff)向英文名著与书商致敬时写道,她曾告诉朋友如果去英国,她将会寻找英国文学中的英格兰,也就是这个地方。Nearly 200 years after her death, the Hampshire of Jane Austen is certainly there. Steventon feels as isolated now as it was in 1775. One would hardly guess that the busy road to London, which Jane knew as a stagecoach route, lies less than two miles away. My walk down the aptly named Church Walk from the village center to the Church of St. Nicholas, where Jane’s father served as rector, felt like stepping back in time. With woods on my right and open fields on my left, I saw no modern buildings. Even the rectory in which Austen was born and lived, and which stood along this route, was pulled down in the 1820s.简·奥斯汀去世近200年之后,她的汉普郡当然还在。史蒂文顿依然像1775年那样遗世独立。人们很难猜到,通向伦敦的繁忙大道,即当年简·奥斯汀的公共马车路线,就在2英里之外。沿着那条名符其实的教堂之路,我从村庄中心走到了圣尼古拉斯教堂,仿佛步入了往日的时光。简·奥斯汀的父亲曾是这座教堂的牧师。我的右边是树林,左边是开阔的田野,视野中没有任何现代的房屋。路旁曾是当年的教区,奥斯汀出生与成长的地方,但早在19世纪20年代就推平了。St. Nicholas is a simple medieval structure, little changed from the Austen years, save for the addition of a Victorian steeple. The church is generally unlocked during daylight hours and, though redecorated in the Victorian period, still has the feel of an 18th-century country chapel. On the walls hang memorials to many members of the Austen family.圣尼古拉斯教堂是一座朴素的中世纪建筑,自奥斯汀时代以来就几乎不曾改变,只增加了一座维多利亚时期的尖塔。白天教堂一般不上锁,尽管在维多利亚时期重新装潢过,却仍有18世纪乡村教堂的氛围。室内的墙壁上挂满了奥斯汀家族的纪念品。To the west of the church lies open farmland, backed by a small forest called West Wood. It was easy to imagine, as I wandered among the gravestones, Miss Austen enjoying long walks through this landscape. She seems to have loved Steventon: When she heard the news that her father was retiring in 1801 and moving the family to Bath, she fainted dead away.教堂西边是开阔的农田,远处是一片叫做西部森林的林子。走在墓石之间,我不禁想起奥斯汀穿过这片美景悠然漫步的模样。她是那么的热爱史蒂文顿,听说父亲即将在1801年退休并阖家搬到巴斯,竟昏了过去。While Bath is full of Regency buildings, which would have been well known to Jane Austen, my novel would focus on Jane Austen as a writer, and her years in Bath (as well as those spent in Southampton following the death of her father in 1805) were not a time of great creative output. However, soon after her 1809 move to another quiet Hampshire village, she began to write again.而巴斯市却到处是摄政时期的建筑,简·奥斯汀早已知晓。我的小说会着重描写奥斯汀身为作家的生活,也涉及她在巴斯的日子(还有1805年父亲去世之后,她在南汉普郡度过的时光),那段时间她的作品非常少。可是没多久,1809年,她又搬到了汉普郡另一个安静的村庄,重新开始了创作。The village was Chawton, and it is a mecca for Janeites. Here stands Chawton Cottage, where Jane lived with her mother and sister, Cassandra, for the last eight years of her life — years of great productivity that saw the publication of four major novels. The drive from Steventon to Chawton covers just 15 miles, but while the former village is generally void of visitors, tourists disgorge in the latter by the busload, especially in the summertime. I came in the off-season, though, and found the village almost as peaceful as it was when Miss Austen lived here.那个村庄就是查顿,全球奥斯汀迷心中的圣地。简·奥斯汀与母亲及卡桑德拉一起,在查顿小屋度过了她一生中最后的八年。在这极为多产的八年里,她出版了四部巨著。从史蒂文顿到查顿的路程其实只有15英里,但前者门可罗雀,后者却总会迎来整车整车的游客,尤其是夏天。我来的时候正值淡季,只觉得这个村庄几乎像奥斯汀生活的时代那样宁静。Chawton Cottage is now the Jane Austen’s House Museum. Here the visitor can walk through the rooms where Austen lived and worked, and view many relics of her family: her father’s bookcase; a quilt made by the Austen women; and, famously, a turquoise ring belonging to Austen, which the museum was able to purchase in 2013, preventing its export to America by Kelly Clarkson. To me, though, the most moving object was a simple 12-sided walnut table, barely wide enough to hold an inkwell, a quill pen and a few sheets of paper. Here, Jane Austen revised her early work (including transforming “First Impressions” into “Pride and Prejudice”), and wrote her later novels “Mansfield Park,” “Emma” and “Persuasion.”而今,查顿小屋就是简·奥斯汀故居物馆。在这里,游人可以在简·奥斯汀当年生活与写作的各个房间里穿行,浏览她与家人的众多遗物:奥斯汀父亲的书柜、奥斯汀母女手缝的被子,最知名的是奥斯汀的一枚绿松石戒指,2013年,物馆为了防止它被美国歌手凯利·克莱森(Kelly Clarkson)带走,花大钱赎了回来。然而对我来说,最动人的物品是一张简陋的十二面胡桃木桌,宽度只够放下墨水池、鹅毛笔和一沓纸。就在这张桌前,简·奥斯汀修订了她早年的几部作品(包括将《第一印象》改名为《傲慢与偏见》),写下了后来的几本小说——《曼斯菲尔德庄园》(Mansfield Park)、《爱玛》(Emma)和《劝导》(Persuasion)。I lingered by the table for several minutes, trying to imagine plying the trade of novelist, and plying it at Austen’s heights, on this modest surface. It is humbling enough as a writer to feel the presence of Jane Austen, more humbling still to consider with what meager tools she achieved so much.我在书桌边停留了几分钟,想象自己就是奥斯汀,想象她的身体坐在这张粗朴的桌前是什么情景。身为一名小说作者,面对简·奥斯汀足以让我赧颜,更让我惭愧的是,她用如此简陋的工具,竟做出了那样伟大的成就。A short walk up the road from the museum is Chawton House. Behind the chapel of this impressive country home, set in a large sheep-dotted park, are the graves of Jane’s mother and sister. The house itself once belonged to Jane’s brother Edward Austen Knight who, when he was about 15, in a scene right out of “Downton Abbey,” was adopted by childless distant relatives and became heir to the Chawton estate and other properties.从物馆出门步行一小段,就是查顿庄园。这座美丽的乡村宅邸里,小礼拜堂后面是一座大公园,草地上有绵羊在吃草。那是简的母亲与的墓地。过去,这座庄园是简的哥哥爱德华·奥斯汀爵士(Edward Austen Knight)的家产。他在15岁那年被过继到远亲家,由此成为查顿庄园及其他家产的继承人,简直如同《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)中的情节。The house was renovated in the 1990s by the American philanthropist and book collector Sandy Lerner and now serves as a study center housing her collection of early British woman writers. Chawton House is open only on certain days, and tours must be arranged in advance. My group consisted of myself and one other couple plus our two tour guides.20世纪90年代,美国慈善家兼图书收藏家珊迪·勒内(Sandy Lerner)修缮了这座庄园,而今此地成了研究中心,收藏着许多早期英国女作家的著作。查顿庄园仅在某些特定日子开放,游览必须提前预约。我们一行除了我,还有一对夫妇及两名导游。In the dining room we sat comfortably around a highly polished table. Our guides pointed out the late-19th-century decorated paneling, then casually mentioned that Jane Austen had frequently dined at the very table on which we were resting our elbows; we instantly sat upright with respect. The gem of Chawton House for me is a painting hanging in the former “Ladies Withdrawing Room.” The 1780 gouache by Adam Callender shows the house from across the park. It is now intimately familiar to me, as it graces the dust jacket of my new novel.我们走进餐厅,在一张光洁的桌子前舒适地坐下。导游指给我们看那些19世纪晚期的装饰嵌板,又不经意地提到,简·奥斯汀常在我们落座的这张桌子前吃饭,我们好几次肃然起敬,坐直了身躯。对我来说,查顿庄园的瑰宝是挂在昔日女士休息厅里的一张画。那是一张1780年的水粉画,作者亚当·卡伦德(Adam Callender),画的是庄园对面的一座房屋。在我眼中它散发着私密的熟稔,因为它就在我新小说的封面上,为我的封面平添了几分优雅。In May 1817 Jane Austen went to Winchester for medical treatment. Here, on July 18, she died, and six days later was buried in Winchester Cathedral. The house in which she died stands just outside the cathedral precincts and bears a plaque marking its place in literary history. After the short drive from Chawton, I arrived in Winchester in time to have a look around the cathedral before evensong began at 5:30.1817年5月,简·奥斯汀去温彻斯特治病,7月18日,她在这里与世长辞,六天后在温彻斯特大教堂下葬。她去世时的庄园就在大教堂的界域之外,如今那里挂着一块牌子,标明它在文学史上的地位。我从查顿坐车,很快就到了温彻斯特大教堂,赶在5:30晚课开始之前,把它里里外外看了个遍。The soaring nave of Winchester holds twin inspirations for me — one of the final scenes in my novel “First Impressions” is the death of Jane Austen, while one of the early scenes in my novel “The Bookman’s Tale” takes place on the north side of the nave at the elaborate tomb of Bishop William of Wykeham. Before paying my respects to Austen, I walked through a heavy wooden door in the north transept and up a creaking flight of stairs to the cathedral library. Well hidden, and not always open, the library displays a short manuscript by Jane Austen: “To the Memory of Mrs. Lefroy,” a poem of mourning written when Austen was just 23.温彻斯特大教堂高耸的中殿对我来说,寓意着两处灵感:我的小说《第一印象》中,最终场景之一是简·奥斯汀之死,而我的小说《学者传说》(The Bookman’s Tale)中最初几个场景就发生在威廉·威克姆主教(Bishop William of Wykeham)精美陵墓的中殿南侧。为了向奥斯汀表达敬意,我穿过北侧袖廊一道厚重的木门,踏上一段吱吱作响的楼梯,来到大教堂图书馆。此地深藏不露,不常开放,里面陈列着简·奥斯汀的一小段手稿:《纪念勒弗罗伊太太》。写这首悼亡诗的时候,奥斯汀年仅23岁。Back in the nave I reached the final stop in my tour — a slab of black marble marking the grave of Jane Austen. Much has been made of the fact that the stone’s inscription makes no mention of her writing career, but this was not unusual at the time. I had for years (and still do in most sources) that the Biographical Note composed by her brother Henry for the posthumous edition of “Persuasion” and “Northanger Abbey” (published in December 1817) was the first public identification of her as an author.在中殿,我抵达了游览的最后一步——一块黑色大理石板,简·奥斯汀的墓碑。碑上的铭文没有提及她的写作生涯,但在当时这不算奇怪。她去世之后,哥哥亨利为她的小说《劝导》和《诺桑觉寺》(Northanger Abbey)写了一本注释笔记(1817年12月出版),这本书我早已读过并时常查阅。那是她第一次以作家身份被众人知晓。However, while researching my novel I discovered this note, which local residents could have in the Salisbury and Winchester Journal on July 28, 1817, 10 days after her death:然而,当我为自己的小说做研究时,发现了一份告示。本地人有可能在1817年7月28日,奥斯汀去世10天后的《索尔兹伯里与温彻斯特杂志》(Salisbury and Winchester Journal)上读到这条公告。它写着:“On Friday the 18th inst. died in this city Miss Jane Austen, youngest daughter of the late Rev. George Austen, Rector of Steventon, in this county, and the Authoress of Emma, Mansfield Park, Pride and Prejudice, and Sense and Sensibility. Her manners were most gentle, her affection ardent, her candour was not to be surpassed, and she lived and died as became an humble christian.”“本月18日星期五,简·奥斯汀在本城去世。她是已故的史蒂文顿教区牧师乔治·奥斯汀的小女儿,也是《爱玛》《曼斯菲尔德庄园》《傲慢与偏见》及《理智与情感》(Sense and Sensibility)的作者。她的仪态极其温和,她的感情格外热烈,她的正直无法超越,从生至死,她都是一位谦逊的基督徒。”The wonderful thing about English cathedrals is that, in spite of the changes in décor and furnishings over the years, many spots remain unchanged from centuries past. The floor of Winchester’s south nave aisle, and the gravestone set into it, are, but for the wear of pilgrims’ feet, much the same as when the first mourners paid tribute to Jane Austen.英国的大教堂真好,尽管装饰和家具在岁月的风雨中有所变化,但许多地方在几百年后依然不变。温彻斯特南侧中殿走廊地板上镶嵌的墓石,在承受朝圣者多年的足印磨损之后,依然与简·奥斯汀最早一批哀悼者所见的差不多。Her gravestone elaborates on the qualities of her character: The benevolence of her heart, the sweetness of her temper and the extraordinary endowments of her mind obtained the regard of all who knew her, and the warmest love of her intimate connections.墓碑上详细记述了她的优秀品行:善良的心、温和的脾性、杰出的才华令所有认识她的人都尊敬不已,她对亲人怀有无比温柔的爱。As I sat in the cathedral choir, listening to the soaring music of evensong — repeating prayers that Austen would have known well — I felt I had come a little closer to the great “authoress,” to whom life in the small villages of Hampshire had given the peace and the insight to create works that are more widely loved than she could have imagined.我坐在大讲堂的唱诗班里聆听清越的晚课歌声,奥斯汀当年再熟悉不过的歌声,感觉自己与这位伟大的女作家更近了一分。在汉普郡村庄里度过的一生赋予了她一种宁静与洞察,让她写出煌煌巨著,受到了远超自己想象的爱戴。 /201501/353631宜昌前列腺炎的治疗医院宜昌男科医院在哪里

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