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2019年11月19日 01:52:02来源:问医解答

Raising Children 美式教养观 The job of raising children is a tough one. Children don't come with an instruction manual. And each child is different. So parents sometimes pull their hair out in frustration, not knowing what to do. But in raising children-as in all of life-what we do is influenced by our culture. Naturally then, American parents teach their children basic American values.   养育孩子是件伤脑筋的差事,孩子们并不是生下来就附有说明书的,而每个孩子又都不尽相同,所以有时候父母们真是挫折地扯光了头发,还不知该怎幺办。然而以教养孩子而言,就像生活中所有的事一样,我们的行为都受文化的影响,因此,美国父母很自然地会教导他们的孩子基本的美国价值观。   To Americans, the goal of parents is to help children stand on their own two feet. From infancy, each child may get his or her own room. As children grow, they gain more freedom to make their own choices. Teenagers choose their own forms of entertainment, as well as the friends to share them with. When they reach young adulthood, they choose their own careers and marriage partners. Of course, many young adults still seek their parents' advice and approval for the choices they make. But once they "leave the nest" at around 18 to 21 years old, they want to be on their own, not "tied to their mother's apron strings."   对美国人而言,教养的目标在于帮助孩子们自立更生。从婴幼儿期开始,每一个孩子都可能拥有自己的房间;随着孩子的成长,他们有更多机会自己作决定;青少年们选择自己喜欢的方式,以及跟什幺样的朋友一起玩;当他们进入了青年期之后,他们选择自己的事业和结婚伴侣。当然,很多的年轻人在作选择时,还是会寻求父母的忠告和赞同,但是当他们一旦在十八到二十一岁左右「离了巢」之后,就希望能够独立,不再是个离不开妈妈的孩子了。   The relationship between parents and children in America is very informal. American parents try to treat their children as individuals-not as extensions of themselves. They allow them to fulfill their own dreams. Americans praise and encourage their children to give them the confidence to succeed. When children become adults, their relationship with their parents becomes more like a friendship among equals. But contrary to popular belief, most adult Americans don't make their parents pay for room and board when they come to visit. Even as adults, they respect and honor their parents.   在美国,亲子之间的关系不是那么地严肃,美国父母们试着将孩子视为个体,而不是他们自我的延伸,他们允许孩子去实现自己的梦想。美国人会赞美并鼓励孩子以给予他们成功的信心。当孩子长大成人之后,亲子之间的关系会更像地位平等的朋友,可是与大家一向所以为的恰好相反,当父母来访时,大部份的美国成年人并不会要求父母付食宿费,因为就算已经成年,他们还是很敬重父母的。   Most young couples with children struggle with the issue of childcare. Mothers have traditionally stayed home with their children. In recent years, though, a growing trend is to put preschoolers in a day care center so Mom can work. Many Americans have strong feelings about which type of arrangement is best. Some argue that attending a day care center can be a positive experience for children. Others insist that mothers are the best caregivers for children. A number of women are now leaving the work force to become full-time homemakers.   大部份有孩子的年轻夫妻们都为了养育孩子的问题而大伤脑筋。传统上,母亲们会和孩子待在家里,但是近几年来,把孩子放在幼儿园好让妈妈去工作的趋势渐长。对于哪一种安排才是最好的,许多美国人都有自己强烈的主张,有些人认为进幼儿园对孩子而言是很正向的经历,另一群人则坚持母亲是照顾孩子的最佳人选,许多的妇女现在也离开工作市场成为全职的家庭主妇。母来访时,大部份的美国成年人并不会要求父母付食宿费,因为就算已经成年,他们还是很敬重父母的。   Disciplining children is another area that American parents have differing opinions about. Many parents feel that an old-fashioned spanking helps youngsters learn what "No!" means. Others prefer alternate forms of discipline. For example, "time outs" have become popular in recent years. Children in "time out" have to sit in a corner or by a wall. They can get up only when they are y to act nicely. Older children and teenagers who break the rules may be grounded, or not allowed to go out with friends. Some of their privileges at home-like TV or telephone use-may also be taken away for a while. Although discipline isn't fun for parents or children, it's a necessary part of training.   训诫孩子是另一项引起美国父母们争议的议题。许多父母觉得老式的责打能够帮助年幼的孩子明白:父母说「不」就绝对禁止去做,然而某些人则较赞同其它形式的训诫方式。例如:「隔离法」即是近年来颇被接受的方式,被隔离的孩子必须坐在墙角或是墙边,除非他们肯乖一点才可以起来;年纪稍大的孩子或是青少年若是违反规定,则可能受到被迫停止某项权益或是不准和朋友出去的处罚,而他们在家中的某些特权,像是看电视或是打电话,也会被取消一段时间。虽然处罚对于亲子双方都不是什么有趣的事,但是它仍是训诫孩子时必要的一部份。   Being a parent is a tall order. It takes patience, love, wisdom, courage and a good sense of humor to raise children (and not lose your sanity). Some people are just deciding not to have children at all, since they're not sure it's worth it. But raising children means training the next generation and preserving our culture. What could be worth more than that?   担任亲职是必须付出极大代价的,教养孩子需要付出耐心、爱心、智能、勇气以及高度的幽默感(同时不失去你明智的判断力)。有些人根本就决定不生孩子,因为他们不确定这样的付出值不值得,但是养育孩子意味着训练下一代并且保留我们的文化,又有什么会比这更有价值呢? /201004/101709。

  • 1. Egg keep you feeling full much longer than cereal or toast.The protein and fat in eggs helps sustain your energy levels, keeping you satisfied for longer and reducing the need for a mid morning snack.相较于谷类或面包,鸡蛋带给你的饱胀感更持久 鸡蛋里的蛋白质和脂肪帮助维持你的能量水平,让你饱的时间更长,降低了早餐后再吃点心的需要。2. Eggs assist weight loss.This is a follow on benefit from keeping you satiated. Studies have shown that people who eat eggs for breakfast are more likely to lose weight than those who ate bagels.鸡蛋为减肥助力 这是通过让你长期觉得一直很饱来获得的好处。研究显示,早餐吃鸡蛋的人比吃百吉饼的人更易减肥。3. Eggs are a great source of protein.Whole eggs are one of the most complete sources of protein, meaning eggs contain all the essential amino acids which we must get from our diets. 鸡蛋是极好的蛋白质来源 整鸡蛋是最完整的蛋白质来源之一,这意味着鸡蛋含有我们必须从饮食中摄取的所有必需氨基酸。4. Eggs tend to be relatively inexpensive.Compared to other high protein foods such as red meat, even free range eggs are more budget friendly. 鸡蛋相对来说比较便宜相较于其他高蛋白食物,比如红色肉类(牛肉、猪肉等),即便是自然放养生产的鸡蛋仍然更划算。 /201107/144638。
  • Standing tall, feeling confident, believing in yourself — these are all important ways to feel your best. But as any woman who's ever stood in front of a mirror can tell you, beauty secrets count too!While the way we look may be only one part of who we are, it is still a part of us. And feeling that you look your best can be a real confidence booster.Looking your best doesn't have to be complicated or expensive, either. Experts say most of us really only need to pay attention to a few basic beauty secrets — essentials that can help you look and feel great without spending a lot of time or money.To help you find the beauty tips that really work, WebMD talked to top skin care and beauty experts, who parted with their personal tips for looking great:Beauty Tip 1: Never Underestimate the Power of MoisturizerWhether your skin is dry, normal, or even oily, if you can only afford one skin care product, experts say, your dollars will be well spent on a good moisturizer."Sometimes, all you really need is a good moisturizer and a mild cleanser, and you can take years off your face," says New York University professor Rhoda Narins, MD, president of the American Society of Dermatologic Surgery. When skin is dry, says Narins, every wrinkle is accentuated, making you look older.If you're in your 20s or 30s, doctors say, moisturizers will give you some of the protection you need to keep skin from prematurely aging."In your 20s and early 30s, a good moisturizer can take the place of a lot of products," says Park Avenue plastic surgeon Darrick Antell, MD.So what exactly is a "good" moisturizer? Dermatologist Charles E. Crutchfield III, MD, describes it this way: "It's a product that will do anything from gently adding moisture, to sealing in the moisture you've achieved, to helping your skin produce more moisture — and which type you choose should be based on your skin's individual needs."If skin is normal to dry, look for moisturizers containing alpha hydroxy acids. They can help skin produce more moisture on its own, Crutchfield says. Such products include Neutrogena Advanced Solutions Daily Moisturizerand Anew Advanced All In One Cream by Avon.Products such as AmLactin XL — the over-the-counter version of the prescription cream Lac-Hydrin — not only contain alpha hydroxy acids, but also a new ceramide technology to seal in moisture."You put on when you skin is slightly damp, and it locks in all the water," says Crutchfield, an associate clinical professor of dermatology at the University of Minnesota Medical School.If skin is very dry, he also suggests products using a technology called vesicular emulsion."This technology uses microscopic spheres that are alternating layers of moisture and water that slowly release throughout the day, so you get continual moisturization," says Crutchfield. Products using this type of technology include Atopalm and Curél.If skin is oily, look for a light, gentle moisturizer — but don't skip this step, cautions Crutchfield."Oil is not moisture, and even if you have excess oil you still need moisture," he says. Recommended products include Aveeno with Colloidal Oatmeal, Vanicream Light, Neutrogena Oil-Free Moisturizer, or Cetaphil Moisturizer.Beauty Tip 2: Sunscreen Is Your Best Antiaging Product.Before you see the plastic surgeon, before you plunk down half a paycheck on that pricey anti-aging cream, in fact, before you do anything, put on sunscreen.While most of us know it reduces the risk of skin cancer, did you also know it's an amazing beauty secret that can help keep skin looking young?The reason, say experts, is that when sunscreen blocks out the sun's damaging rays, it also blocks their aging effects."The sun impacts collagen production in the skin, and without collagen, skin won't naturally maintain that plump, moist, youthful, wrinkle-free look," says Antell. Get enough sun exposure, he says, and skin will wrinkle long before its time.Without the protection of sunscreen, just a few minutes of daily sun exposure over the years can cause noticeable changes in how skin looks and feels, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.Not only will you see more wrinkles and fine lines, but also more freckles, age spots, and spider veins. Skin itself can look rough and leathery or loose and slack — all thanks to the sun.Sunscreen can protect your skin from these damaging rays, so that even if you do spend time outdoors, your face is less likely to give away your age.Crutchfield advises choosing a sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher. Because sun breaks down its effectiveness over time, if you're going to be in direct sunlight for an extended period, reapply every hour or two.For longer-lasting results, he recommends Melashade, a sunscreen using new technology that remains in force hours longer than most other products.Another option: Use your regular sunscreen before putting on makeup (it should go on first, before anything). Then, for touch-ups, use a light, translucent mineral powder to add extra protection throughout the day."These powders contain a natural sunscreen, and since they generally don't build up on the skin you can keep adding protection all day long," says Crutchfield. Products include Glo Minerals Powder, Neutrogena Healthy Defense Protective Powder, and BareEscentuals Mineral Veil.Beauty Tip 3: Choose Your Cleanser WiselyIf you're a "soap and water" girl (or guy), you may want to rethink your cleansing strategy. Dermatologists say that one of the best beauty tips around is to use the gentlest cleanser you can find — and use it sparingly."While the temptation may be great to wash your face several times a day (or more if skin is oily), not only will over-cleansing not help you, if you're using a harsh product — particularly soap — you could be harming your skin," says Crutchfield.Wash your face too often — more than twice a day — and you can damage the natural lipid barrier, the protective mantle of lubrication that keeps skin looking and feeling healthy."Once that protection is lost, and the integrity of the skin barrier disrupted, skin becomes dry — which means it can crack, peel, itch, burn, sting, or any combination," says Crutchfield. It also means you can look older than your years.The solution: Wash skin no more than twice a day and choose your cleanser wisely. Crutchfield's three top favorites: Dove Unscented Bar, Cetaphil, and Vanicream Cleanser.Beauty Tip 4: Use the Right Tools for the Right JobYou can have the best eyeshadow money can buy, the world's most luxurious foundation, a bronzer straight from the cosmetic bag of a supermodel. But if you don't have the right tools to apply them, their benefits will be lost. That's the advice of Smashbox Cosmetic's director of global artistry, Holly Mordini."Using the right brushes, the right application tools — it's key to making the products go on the way they are intended and to give you the look that you want. For a professional makeup artist, the tools are as important as the products," says Mordini, who has painted and puffed some of Hollywood's most famous faces.What constitutes the "right" tools? Brushes should be soft and feel gentle on the skin, but also have substance so the product can be moved to the surface of your skin. If you dip a brush in shadow or blush and the color falls off before you make it to your face, that's a bad brush, experts say.If you don't know what to buy, you can't go wrong if you purchase the tools sold with a high-quality beauty line, Mordini says. Most, she says, are created to give your application a professional touch and to work best with each product in the line."It also makes putting on makeup incredibly easy, plus it's often what sets apart women who have the 'professional makeup look' and those that don't," she says.Beauty Tip 5: Update Hair and Makeup Every 2 YearsIf you walk into your high school reunion and hear a chorus of "You haven't changed a bit," run, run, RUN to the nearest beauty salon!Experts say that if you can't even remember the last time you changed your hair and makeup, it's way overdue."Ideally, your image, including hair and makeup, should be updated at least every two years — and sooner if the styles change dramatically," says Beverly Hills hair expert and QVC personality Nick Chavez.By keeping your look current, says Chavez, you also look younger and more modern. "Nothing dates a woman more than outdated hair and makeup," says Chavez.If it's been a while since you've had a change, visit the makeup counters at your favorite department or beauty store, and don't be afraid to ask for help. Most of the better lines are sold by makeup artists who can quickly catch you up on what's new.To find the best new hairstyle without commitment, try wig shopping! It's a fun, fast, and easy way to try on styles and even colors before making a hair appointment. /200804/36740。
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