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2019年08月19日 08:43:59来源:医苑面诊

Elections 美国的选举 Suprises often come in boxes. Birthday presents wrapped in colorful paper, brown paper packages mailed from a friend. No matter what kind of box it is, people like to open it up and see what's inside. In America, and in many other countries, one special kind of box contains the future. It's called a ballot box. What people put into the box on election day can change the course of history. 惊奇常常是在箱子里出现:包在色包装纸里面的生日礼物…朋友寄来牛皮纸包的包裹…不论是怎样的箱子,人们喜欢打开来看看里面是什么。在美国以及其它许多国家,有一个特殊的箱子关系着未来,称为投票箱。人们在选举日投在箱子里的东西可以改变历史的走向。 Elections are the lifeblood of a democracy. The word democracy literally means "the people rule," an important concept in America's history. In the mid-1700s, England began passing laws that made the American colonies angry. The colonists had to pay more and more taxes and enjoyed less and less freedom. They felt the government of England didn't represent their interests. On July 4, 1776, the colonies declared their independence from England. They wanted to establish a democracy where people could have a voice in government. 选举是民主的原动力。民主这个字照字面的意思是「人民自主」,是美国历史中一个重要的观念。十八世纪中期,英国开始通过一些使美国殖民地愤怒的法律。殖民地人民必须付愈来愈多的税,享有愈来愈少的自由。他们感到英国政府没有代表他们的权益。一七七六年七月四日,殖民地宣布脱离英国独立。他们想要建立民主制度,使人们在政府中有发言权。 An effective democracy holds regular elections. In America, elections are held every two years for members of Congress. In these elections, all seats in the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate seats are up for grabs. In addition, every four years, voters go to the polls to elect the nation's president and vice-president. Voters also regularly cast their ballots for state and city government leaders and local school board members. Sometimes they also have to vote on a proposed law. 有效的民主制度定期举行选举。在美国,每两年选一次国会议员。在这些选举中,人们可以争取所有众议院的席位和三分之一的参议院席位。除此以外,选民每四年去投票所选出国家的总统和副总统。选民也定期投票选出州长、市长及当地学校的董事会成员。有时他们也必须投票决定提议的法律。 In the American electoral system, people don't really vote for presidential candidates. Instead, voters cast their ballots for "electors" who support each candidate. Each state has as many electors as the total number of its representatives in Congress. This equals two senators per state plus the number of its representatives in the House (which is based on the state's population). The candidate who has the most votes in a state wins all of the state's electors. To win the presidential election, a candidate must gain at least 270 of the 538 total electoral votes. 在美国的选举制度中,人们并不直接投票给总统候选人,而是由选民投票给持各个候选人的「选举人」。每一州的选举人人数和代表此州的国会议员人数相同,等于每一州有两位参议员,加上众议院的众议员人数(以各州的人口为基准)。在一个州里拥有最多票数的候选人就赢得了那一州所有选举人的票数。要赢得总统大选,候选人必须至少获得总共538个选举人中的270张票。 Over the years, the U.S. has made a number of election reforms. Some early reforms outlawed cheating, giving bribes and threatening voters. They also limited the amount of money candidates could receive from donors and spend on their campaigns. In 1870, black people gained the right to vote, and in 1920, that right was extended to women. In recent decades, laws against unfair rules for voting have been passed. No longer do people have to pay a special tax or pass a test in order to vote. In 1971, the voting age was lowered to 18. Other reforms made voting easier for the blind, the disabled and people who couldn't . In some areas, ballots had to be printed in languages besides English. 多年来,美国在选举方面做了一些改革。早期有些改革禁止作弊、收受贿赂或威胁选民。他们也限制候选人从捐赠者那儿获得的金额数目及花在竞选宣传上的费用。一八七○年,黑人获得选举权。一九二○年,权利延伸至妇女。近几十年来,通过了反对不公平选举规则的法律。人们不再需要付特殊的税或通过测验才能选举。一九七一年,投票的年龄降至十八岁。其它的改革减轻了盲人、残障者及文盲投票的困难。在某些地区,选票上面除了英文以外,还必须印上别的文字。 In November, Americans will again elect those who will represent them in government. Although some citizens aren't even registered to vote--and some registered voters don't bother to go to the polls--most Americans exercise their right to vote. They realize that their future is wrapped up in a special package--the ballot box. It's a package that must definitely be "handled with care." 十一月五日,美国人要再一次选出在政府中代表他们的人。虽然有些市民甚至不是法定投票人──有些法定投票人懒得去投票──但是大多数的美国人都会行使他们投票的权利。他们了解他们的未来包在一个特别的箱子里──投票箱。它实在是一个必须「小心处理」的箱子。 /200804/33375。

  • Lemon Blueberry B柠檬蓝莓面包A great summertime quick b, lemon blueberry b has a sweet, tart taste because it uses fresh blueberries and the rind and juice from one medium lemon. Makes one loaf.柠檬蓝莓面包口感酸甜,新鲜蓝莓的味道,加上柠檬皮与汁液的味道,是夏日时光绝佳的甜点。试着做一条吧!Prep Time: 20 minutes准备20分钟Cook Time: 1 hour烹饪1小时Total Time: 1 hour, 20 minutes总用时:1小时20分钟Ingredients:所需材料:1/3 cup butter, melted三分之一杯的熔好的黄油1 cup granulated sugar一杯白砂糖2 eggs两个鸡蛋1/2 cup milk半杯牛奶1 medium lemon一个中等大小的柠檬1-1/2 cups all-purpose flour半杯到一杯普通面粉1 tsp baking powder一勺发酵粉1/2 tsp salt半勺盐3/4 cup blueberries四分之三杯蓝莓Preparation:制作过程:1.Preheat oven 350 degrees F.将烤箱预热到180摄氏度2.Grease 8 x 4 x 2 inch loaf pan.在面包烤盘中抹上黄油3.In medium bowl, mix together melted butter, sugar, eggs, and milk.用一个中等大小的碗将黄油,糖,鸡蛋和牛奶混合4.Grate lemon rind from one medium lemon. Add to mix.将柠檬皮擦成丝放入碗中混合5.Squeeze juice from same lemon and add to mix.挤出柠檬汁放入碗中混合6.In separate bowl, mix together flour, baking powder, and salt.将面粉,发酵粉和盐在另一个碗中混合7.Stir flour mixture into wet mix.加入水搅拌8.Fold in blueberries.放入蓝莓9.Scrape batter into prepared loaf pan.将搅拌好的面团放入面包烤盘中10.Bake at 350 degrees F for about 60 minutes or until b is baked through.在180摄氏度下烤60分钟,直到面包熟透11.When done, remove from heat and let b cool in pan for about 15 minutes.Turn out onto rack to cool.做好之后,将面包烤盘取出,冷却15分钟,然后将面包放到架子上冷却。12.Serve with butter.加点黄油,就可以享受美味了。 /201307/247761。
  • It#39;s easy to be offended when a colleague yawns while you#39;re talking. But that yawn may not mean what you think. 人们很容易会被这样一种行为惹恼:当你说话的时候,你的同事却在打着哈欠。但对于这个哈欠,也可能是你想得太多了。 A growing number of researchers believe the purpose of this little-understood behavior is to cool the brain, says a research review published earlier this year in Frontiers in Neuroscience. 今年早些时候发表在《神经科学前沿》(Frontiers in Neuroscience)上的一项研究综述称,越来越多的研究人员认为,打哈欠这种人们对其还知之甚少的行为,其目的在于为大脑降温。 Changes in climate affect how often people yawn. Researchers in an earlier study conducted outdoor interviews with two groups of people in Tucson, Ariz., one in early summer and one in the winter. People were asked to look at pictures of people yawning and talk about their own yawning behavior. 气候的变化会影响到人们打哈欠的频率。研究人员在之前的一次研究中对亚利桑那州图森市(Tucson)的两组人进行了户外采访,一次是在初夏,另一次是在冬天。研究人员让被访者看了一些人们打哈欠的照片,并谈了谈他们自己的打哈欠行为。 People were nearly twice as likely to yawn when they were surveyed during the winter, when they could inhale cool air to reduce the temperature of the brain, says the study, published in 2011 in Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience. Participants yawned less when surveyed in the early summer, when temperatures outdoors were about the same as the human body. 该项研究的论文2011年发表在《进化神经科学前沿》(Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience)上,文章称,这些人在冬天接受调查时打哈欠的可能性是初夏时的将近两倍,在冬季,他们打哈欠能吸入冷空气来给大脑降温。而在夏初接受调查的参与者哈欠较少,因为那个时节的室外气温跟人的体温几乎是一样的。 Other studies show yawning increases after people experience heat stress or have a heat pack placed on their foreheads. 其他一些研究则表明,在人们中暑或在前额贴上发热贴以后,哈欠就会增多。 Yawning also may build empathy within groups. Yawns are seen as contagious, but #39;catching#39; a yawn depends on a person#39;s ability to feel empathy and closeness with the yawner, says a 2013 research review in the International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research. 2013年发表在《应用基础医学研究国际期刊》(International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research)上的一项研究综述称,哈欠可能还会在人群中形成共鸣。哈欠被认为是具有传染性的,但是否能“接过”一个哈欠取决于个人感同身受的能力以及与打哈欠者的亲密程度。 People observed in workplaces or restaurants yawned more often in response to others#39; yawns when they were kin or close friends with the yawner, the study says. People are less likely to engage in contagious yawns when they have emotional or social disorders that prevent them from feeling empathy, the study says. 该研究称,据观察,在工作场所或餐馆里若有人打了哈欠,他们的亲朋好友会更多地也打起哈欠。但那些因患有情绪或社交障碍而无法设身处地理解他人的人则不太可能会被别人的哈欠所感染。 What yawns don#39;t accomplish, researchers say, is to re-energize the brain. 研究人员还称,打哈欠无法让大脑重新活跃起来。 For centuries, yawning was thought to remove #39;bad air#39; from the lungs and increase oxygen circulation in the brain. Recent studies have discredited this old belief. 几个世纪以来,人们都认为打哈欠是为了清除肺里的“废气”、增加大脑中的氧循环。新近的这些研究则对这一传统观念提出了质疑。 /201307/249591。
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