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长春吉大一院人工流产医护对话

2020年01月18日 04:02:12 | 作者:飞大夫 | 来源:新华社
The vocabulary of babies who are bilingual remains flexible as they grow up and boosts their speaking ability as toddlers, a university study has found.  一项大学研究发现,接受双语教育的宝宝在成长过程中可以灵活地掌握两门语言的词汇,而且学步时期的口语表达能力也能有所提高。  Babies and children have a great ability to learn a second language but that begins to fade as early as their first birthdays.  婴儿和儿童在学习第二门语言方面能力很强,但早在他们过第一个生日的时候,这种能力就开始逐渐退化。   Now researchers at the University of Washington's Institute for Learning amp;Brain Sciences are investigating the brain mechanisms that contribute to infants' prowessat learning languages, with the hope that the findings could boost bilingualism in adults, too.  目前,华盛顿大学学习与脑科学研究所的研究人员们在对促进婴儿非凡的语言能力的大脑机制进行研究,他们希望研究结果也可以推动成人的双语教育。  In the research, the scientists report that the brains of babies raised in bilingual households show a longer period of being flexible to different languages, especially if they hear a lot of language at home.  在研究中,科学家们报告说,成长在双语家庭中、特别是在家能听到大量语言交流的宝宝的大脑表现出更长时间的对不同语言的灵敏度。  The researchers also show that the relative amount of each language - English and Spanish - babies were exposed to affected their vocabulary as toddlers.  研究者们还揭示说,在婴儿时期接触到的各种语言(英语或西班牙语)的数量,会影响到他们学步时期的词汇量。  The study, published in Journal of Phonetics, is the first to measure brain activity throughout infancy and relate it to language exposure and speaking ability.  这项发表在《语音学期刊》上的研究第一次对婴儿时期的大脑活动进行测量,并将其与语言环境和口语能力联系起来。  'The bilingual brain is fascinating because it reflects humans' abilities for flexible thinking - bilingual babies learn that objects and events in the world have two names, and flexibly switch between these labels, giving the brain lots of good exercise,' said Patricia Kuhl, co-author of the study and co-director of the UW's Institute for Learning amp;Brain Sciences.  帕特丽夏 库尔是该研究的合著者之一,也是华盛顿大学学习与大脑科学研究所的副主任,她说:“双语大脑很棒,因为它可以反映出人类灵活思维的能力。双语宝宝们认识到世界上的物体和事件都有两个名称,并能在不同的名称之间灵活转换,这给了大脑很多有益的锻炼。”  Kuhl's previous studies show that between 8 and 10 months of age, monolingual babies become increasingly able to distinguish speech sounds of their native language, while at the same time their ability to distinguish sounds from a foreign language declines.  库尔之前的研究显示,只接触一种语言的宝宝在8个月到10个月大的时候分辨母语语音方面能力会日益增强,但与此同时,分辨外语语音的能力却减弱了。  For instance, between 8 and 10 months of age babies exposed to English become better at detecting the difference between 'r' and 'l' sounds, which are prevalentin the English language.  比方说,接触英语的宝宝们在8个月至10个月大的时候会更容易分辨r和l两个音的区别,而这两个音在英语中很普遍。  This is the same age when Japanese babies, who are not exposed to as many 'r' and 'l' sounds, decline in their ability to detect them.  而同年龄的日本宝宝们没有接触到那么多的r和l,所以他们分辨出这两个音的能力也在下降。 /201108/151830按任意"键"继续。【中英文对照】1. You will receive a body. 关爱自己,受益无限。You may like it or hate it, but it will be yours for as long as you live. How you take care of it or fail to take care of it can make an enormous difference in the quality of your life.无论喜欢还是厌恶,你的身体要跟随你一辈子。能否照顾好自己的身体,会决然影响你的一生。2. You will learn lessons. “人生”学校,无所不教。You are enrolled in a full-time, informal school called Life. Each day, you will be presented with opportunities to learn what you need to know. The lessons presented are often completely different from those you need.有一所大学,非正式但终身制,这就是人生。每天,它都会有机会教给你你应该学会的东西。常常,人生的课程并非你想要的。3. There are no mistakes, only lessons. 没有错误,只有教训。Growth is a process of trial, error and experimentation. You can learn as much from failure as you can from success. Maybe more.成长是探索、犯错和试验的过程。失败和成功一样能教会你东西,甚至更多。4. A lesson is repeated until it is Learned. 一个教训会不断地重复,直至你领悟了。A lesson will be presented to you in various forms until you have learned it. When you have learned it (as evidenced by a change in your attitude and ultimately your behavior) then you can go on to the next lesson.生活会以不同的形式教育你,直到你的态度和行为发生改变。完全领悟了,你会开始走向下一堂课。 /200906/72184Justin Timberlake named most stylish man in AmericaJustin Timberlake listens to a question during a news conference at TPC Summerlin in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 15, 2008.Grammy-winning pop singer Justin Timberlake has topped GQ magazine's list of the "10 most Stylish Men in America," and gives his banker stepfather the credit for his dress sense.The men's magazine praised Timberlake, 28, for his impact on fashion, his willingness to take risks and "knack for targeting trends" including hats, three-piece suits, skinny ties and beards.The timing of the award is good news for Timberlake. William Rast, the clothing line he and friend Trace Ayala launched in October 2006, is on the runway at this week's New York Fashion show for its second outing.Timberlake said in the March issue of GQ that he got his sense of style from his stepfather, Paul Harless, a banker who laid out his suit for the next morning every night and went to work looking "like Richard Gere in (American) Gigolo."As for his signature style of wearing a suit with sneakers, Timberlake said it was more a matter of practicality than design."I just put sneakers on because I couldn't dance in the shoes I had. I couldn't leap with just insoles and dress shoes. I would've hurt myself," said Timberlake, who rose to fame as a singer with the boy band 'N Sync and went solo in 2002.Other honorees on the list of "Stylish Men" include music producer Mark Ronson, who took second place, and photographer Alex Lubomirski, who was third.They were joined by rappers Kanye West and T.I., actor Jason Schwartzman and hotelier Andre Balazs. /200902/62693

Myth: Fat is bad for us误区一:脂肪危害身体健康 "Real fat is not bad for us," says, Harcombe. "It's man-made fats we should be demonising. Why do we have this idea that meat is full of saturated fat? In a 100g pork chop, there is 2.3g of unsaturated fat and 1.5g of saturated fat." 赫尔康比说:“天然脂肪不会危害身体健康,人工脂肪才应是我们敬而远之的。我们为何要断定肉类含有过多饱和脂肪?事实上,每100克猪排中含有2.3克不饱和脂肪和1.5克饱和脂肪。” Fat is essential for every cell in the body. In Britain [according to the Family Food Survey of 2008, we are deficient in the fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E, which are responsible for healthy eyesight, bone strength, mental health, cancer and blood vessel protection and, therefore, heart health. We need to eat real fat in order for these vital vitamins to be absorbed into the body. 脂肪对于身体细胞来说至关重要。2008年英国家庭饮食调查显示,英国人体内缺乏脂溶性维生素A,D和E,而这类维生素恰恰可以保护视力和心理健康,强壮骨骼;同时防止癌症,保护心脑血管健康。为保身体吸收这些必需的维生素,我们需要适量食用天然脂肪。 /201108/151359

No matter your resume and talents, if you mess up a job interview you won't get thatposition. In today's tough economy you need every possible edge. Asauthors of the new book, "I Hate People! Kick Loose from theOverbearing and Underhanded Jerks at Work and Get What you Want Out ofYour Job," we see it as a equation: You want to be liked -- not hated。   不管你有什么样的简历和才华,如果在面试上砸了,你就无法得到那个职位。如今经济困难的情况下,你需要用到每一个优势,正如《我讨厌人们!摆脱工作中傲慢、不诚实的家伙,获得你在工作中想要的东西》新书的作者们所认为的一样,我们认为这是简单的一个问题:你希望被喜爱--不是被讨厌。  Here are 10 things to do that will dramatically increase your chances: from wearing the right expression, to knowing what not to say, to never ever breaking a sweat。  下面10个简单的事情,将极大提升你被录用的可能性:带着合适的表情、知道什么是不该说的,以及绝对不要流汗等等。  1. Don't be a "smiley face."  1. 不要“笑脸盈盈”  Excessive smiling in a job interview is seen for what it is -- nervousness and a lack of confidence. A smiley-face person exudes phoniness, whichwill quickly be picked up by the interviewer. Instead be thoughtful andpleasant. Smile when there's something to smile about. Do a practicerun in front of a mirror or friend。  面试中过度微笑会被视作紧张和缺乏自信。笑容可掬的一个人看上去是虚假的,而这些很快会被面试官发现。相反,做一个有思想、令人愉快的人。在有东西值得笑时才去笑。先在镜子或朋友面前练习练习。  2. Don't be a small-talker。  2. 不要扯闲话  Your job is to be knowledgeable about the company for which you'reinterviewing. Random facts about last night's episode of "Dancing withthe Stars" or your forite blog will not get you the job. Never feelyou he to fill an interview with small talk. Find ways to talk aboutserious subjects related to the industry or company. Pockets of silenceare better than padding an interview with random babble。  你的任务是对参加面试的单位有充分了解。昨晚电视节目《星随舞动》的内容或你最喜爱的客等话题都不会让你得到这份工作。绝对不要觉得自己非得在面试里不停地闲谈。找到途径谈论和该行业或公司有关的话题。片刻间歇的沉默比用胡言乱语填充面试要更好。  3. Don't sweat。  3.不要流汗  You can lose a job by wearing an undershirt or simply a little toomuch clothing. Sweaty palms or beads on your forehead will not impress.You are not applying to be a personal trainer. Sweat will be seen as asign of weakness and nervousness. Do a practice run with your jobinterview outfit in front of friends. The job interview is one placeyou definitely don't want to be hot。  衣多穿了一点点或穿了件汗衫可能让你失去一份工作。手掌有汗,或额头上的汗珠不会给人留下好印象。 你不是在申请个人运动教练。出汗将被看作是一个表示柔弱和紧张的迹象。穿着你的面试装在朋友面前先实际演练一下。面试绝对不是你希望感汗流浃背的场合。  4. Don't be a road block。  4. 不要做拦路石  Interviewers are seeking candidates eager to take on challenging projects and jobs. Hesitance and a nay-saying mentality will be asvisible as a red tie and seen as a negative. Practice saying "yes"to questions about your interest in tasks and work that might normallygive you pause。  面试官在寻求的是那些渴望接受有挑战性的项目和工作的人员。犹豫和拒绝的心态将会是赫然醒目的,消极的信号。 对于一些你是否对某些任务或工作有兴趣等会让你迟疑的的问题,要练习说“是”。  5. Don't be petty。  5. 不要琐碎  Asking the location of the lunchroom or meeting room will clue theinterviewer into your lack of preparation and initiative. Prepare.Don't ask questions about routine elements or functions of a company:where stuff is, the size of your cube, and company policy on coffeebreaks。  询问午餐房间或会议室在哪里是在暗示你缺乏准备和主动性。做好准备。不要询问诸如:物品位置、你的办公隔间大小,公司对喝咖啡休息时间的政策等公司的常规事务或职能。 /201003/99286

A woman breastfeeds her baby in Bordeaux, southwest France April 27, 2006.Children breast-fed as infants are less likely to wet the bed later on, researchers reported on Wednesday, probably because they have a developmental edge.There is strong evidence that in many cases bed-wetting can "result from delayed neurodevelopment," said the report from the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, New Jersey."There is biological plausibility in inferring that breast-feeding protects against bed-wetting and our results show a strong statistical association" although not enough to prove a direct cause-effect.Breast-feeding is beneficial because of the role that certain fatty acids passed onto the infant play in brain development, said the study published in the July issue of Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics.The study was based on 55 children who were bed-wetters at ages 5 to 13 and 117 in the same age range who were not. Of the bed-wetters, 45 percent had been breast-fed, compared to 81 percent of those who were continent at night. 本周三,研究人员公布,婴儿期喝母乳的儿童以后不容易尿床。这可能是因为用母乳喂养的孩子发育的比较好。此研究报告由新泽西州新不伦瑞克罗伯特·伍德·约翰逊医科学校发表。报告称,事实有力明,在很多情况下,尿床都是"缘于神经发育迟缓"。“说母乳喂养能够防止尿床,这在生物学上是能讲得通的,而且我们的研究结果也为此提供了有力的数据持。”但这些数据还不足以明二者之间存在直接的因果关系。研究报告中说,母乳喂养是有好处的,因为婴儿在母乳中所吸收的某些脂肪酸能促进大脑发育。此研究报告发表在美国儿科研究会期刊《儿科》的7月号上。此项研究的研究对象为55名年龄在5岁至13岁之间的尿床儿童以及117名相同年龄段的非尿床儿童。在尿床儿童中,有45%是母乳喂养的,而在那些不尿床的儿童中,该比重是81%。 /200809/47099

The latest weird food idea: osteoblast milk productby Marion NestleI had never heard of OMP (osteoblast milk product or protein) until this morning when a reporter from the Associated Press in Beijing sent me an e-mail about it. A milk company in China, it seems, is adding OMP to its milk and the Chinese food safety agency is investigating. The companies say OMP is safe and FDA-approved.It didn’t take long to find out what this is about. Japanese investigators isolated a protein, kininogen, from milk and demonstrated in laboratory experiments that it promotes bone growth. These and other experiments in rats and people also show that it stimulates bone formation (I haven’t them so I can’t comment on their quality).FDA approved? Not exactly. In response to a petition from a company called Snow Foods, the FDA agreed that the use of milk proteins as additives to dairy foods is GRAS (generally recognized as safe) for human consumption. But its “approval” letter assumes that the proteins are mainly lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, which are pretty well known to be safe. The FDA’s letter says nothing about the use of kininogen as a bone-promoting agent.I can see why the Chinese government is concerned. It is one thing to demonstrate the effects of a protein in experiments, and quite another to add that protein to a food likely to be consumed by children. The protein is aly in milk and there is no evidence that adding more of it will make any difference to bone growth. Without further studies to make sure that adding this protein does no harm, putting it into milk seems like a bad idea.This seems like more about marketing than health, and it sounds like it is part of the huge current effort to sell more milk to the Chinese people. I am bewildered by the pressure on the Chinese population to drink more milk and eat more milk products. Aren’t most Chinese sensitive to undigested lactose? None of this makes any sense to me. Milk is not an essential nutrient or food and the Chinese have done fine for millennia without it.I will be watching the unfolding of this story with much interest. Stay tuned. /200903/63775

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