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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月18日 20:33:06
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A silver and blue ATM, perched up next to the espresso bar in a trendy Vancouver coffee shop, could launch a new era for the virtual currency bitcoin, offering an almost instant way to exchange the world#39;s leading virtual money for cash.The value of a bitcoin soared from in January to a high of 6 in April as more businesses and consumers used them to buy and sell online. Some investors are also treating bitcoins like gold, using them to hedge against currency fluctuations and speculating on their rise.在温哥华一家时髦的咖啡店内,一台机身主体颜色为银色和蓝色的比特币机被放置在意式咖啡机旁,此机器可以为比特币这种全球领先的虚拟货币提供即时兑换业务,可能为其开辟新纪元。由于不少商家和消费者开始使用比特币在网上进行交易,比特币的兑换价格由一月的13美元迅速上涨至四月的266美元。一些投资者将比特币视为黄金,用其对抗货币的通胀以及进行投机行为。The kiosk, which looks like the average ATM but with hand and barcode scanners, opened for business on Tuesday and by mid-morning people were lined up to swap their bitcoins for cash, or to deposit cash to buy more bitcoins.这一取款机从外表上看与普通的取款机并无差异。不过,该机器配置手掌和条形码扫描仪,以满足消费者进行比特币兑换现金以及用现金购买比特币的需求。据悉,该机器推出当天上午就有许多人排队前来办理业务。;It#39;s as easy as walking up to a machine, scanning your hand, entering some cash and buying bitcoin,; said Jordan Kelley, chief executive of Las Vegas-based Robocoin, the company that builds the ATMs. ;With this, it#39;s a 2-minute process. For any online exchange, it#39;s at least two days.;总部在的该机器制造商Robocoin的首席执行官乔丹?凯利指出,“只要走到机器前扫描手掌,放入现金就能兑换比特币,就是这样简单。通过这台机器进行业务操作两分钟就可以完成,而网上交易要至少用两天的时间。”Bitcoins, currently worth about 0 each, can be transferred without going through banks or clearing houses, thereby cutting fees. Users can buy products and services online or in a handful of stores, including the Waves coffee shop where the ATM is located.比特币现在的兑换价值是210美元,人们不用去和清算公司也能转账,因此减少了额外的费用。消费者在网上或少数商店内可以使用比特币消费,包括放置比特币ATM机的海浪咖啡店。With the bitcoin ATM, users scan their hand to confirm identity, then funds move to or from a virtual wallet on their smartphone. The system limits transfers to ,000 a day, in an effort to curb money laundering and other fraud.使用比特币ATM机时,消费者要进行手掌扫描,以确认身份,然后再通过智能手机的虚拟钱包进行转账。该系统每天的交易上限为1000美元,其目的在于打击洗钱行为以及其他虚假操作。Bitcoiniacs, the local dealer that operates the ATM, will roll out four other kiosks across Canada in December. Robocoin said Canada was the ideal place to launch the kiosk due to a critical mass of users and less stringent oversight than in the US, where the bitcoin trade is monitored by anti-money laundering regulators.负责运营该机器的加拿大本地交易商Bitcoiniacs称,其他四台机器计划于12月在加拿大境内面世。而Robocoin称,加拿大推出比特币ATM机,是因为该地区使用比特币活跃,且监管较轻松。在美国,比特币交易由反洗钱机构监管。;We think the Vancouver market is enormous and we#39;re excited to be here,; said Kelley. ;By the end of 2013, we#39;ll be all over Canada. By the end of 2014, we#39;ll be all over the world, including the US.;凯利称,“我们对温哥华庞大的市场前景充满期待。2013年末我们将在加拿大全面推广这种比特币ATM机,2014年末将推广至全球,包括美国在内。”Bitcoin is not a recognised currency in Canada, so Ottawa#39;s anti-money laundering watchdog, the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre, does not monitor its trade.比特币在加拿大并不是公认的货币,因此渥太华反洗钱监管机构——金融交易和报告分析中心不对比特币交易进行监管。However, Bitcoiniacs#39; founders say they are working with the agency to be y for when Canada does start regulating them.然而Bitcoiniacs的创始人称他们正与经销商合作以做好应对加拿大对比特币监管的准备。;We#39;re aly being proactive in our business,; said Bitcoiniacs co-founder Mitchell Demeter. ;We abide by any guidelines they would impose - which includes the #39;know your customer#39; laws and anti-money laundering laws.;“我们现在对自己业务的积极性很高”,Bitcoiniacs的联合创始人米歇尔?迪米特称,“我们将遵守所有条例,包括‘了解客户’的规定和反洗钱法”Bitcoins were launched in 2008 and are traded within a global network of computers. They are not backed by a single company or government, but their release is tightly controlled, mimicking a central banking system#39;s control over the minting of money.比特币于2008年推出,在全球互联网中进行交易。虽然没有获得任何公司或国家的持,但由于其仿照中央系统发行比特币,因此监管较为严格。Bitcoins can be bought with near anonymity, which supporters say lowers fraud risk and increases privacy. But critics say that also makes bitcoins a magnet for drug transactions, money-laundering and other illegal activities.比特币几乎可以匿名交易,其持者称这样可以降低虚假操作的风险,增加个人隐私。但反对者称这样会吸引更多的人用比特币进行毒品交易,洗钱和其他违法活动。The currency#39;s reputation took a hit this month, when US regulators shut down Silk Road, an online marketplace used to buy and sell illegal drugs, and seized .6m (£2.3m) in bitcoins.本周比特币的名声受到了打击,美国监管机构关闭了丝绸之路网站并没收其360万比特币(合230万英镑),因其涉及网络毒品交易。But the virtual currency is gaining hold among businesses and consumers, a key step to a bigger role.然而商家和消费者力挺虚拟货币,未来它将扮演更加重要的角色。;I think it#39;s definitely going mainstream,; said Demeter. ;I think as things progress, and the infrastructure is built, it will become easier for people to buy and sell, and so more people will start using it.;“我认为比特币正在走向主流,”迪米特称,“随着时间的推移,比特币基础设施完善后人们使用比特币更加方便,比特币的使用群体也将扩大。”In Vancouver, for example, dozens of people attend weekly bitcoin meet-ups and a member co-op is promoting the currency to a growing list of local retailers.举例来说,在温哥华,每周有数十人参与比特币的见面会,消费合作社正将比特币推广至更多当地零售商。At Waves, Vancouver resident Chung Cheong used bitcoin to pay for his mug of tea and was happy to mull over the future of the digital currency.海浪咖啡内,温哥华的居民张聪正使用比特币买茶,考虑到虚拟货币的前景他表示很乐观。;It#39;s been said that we#39;re at the stage where email was in 1992,; he said. ;Is it risky? Sure. But look at how the internet and email changed the world.;“据说我们又处于在1992年刚发明邮件的状态了,”他说,“虚拟货币有风险吗?当然有。但回首网络和邮件给世界带来的变化,一切都是值得的。” /201312/269067

Thirty years ago it took eight hours to drive the 150km from Beijing to Tianjin, China’s fourth city. A decade or so ago, motorway investment had cut the time to two hours. Today, by bullet train, the journey is barely 30 minutes.北京到天津的距离是150公里,30年前,如果驱车的话需要8个小时。大约十年前,高速公路的投资让这一时间缩短至两个小时。如今,如果乘坐高铁的话,时间仅为30分钟。When infrastructure investment is made in developing economies, the gains are dramatic and obvious. But Gerry Grimstone, the chairman of Standard Life, the UK insurer whose Chinese headquarters sits in Tianjin, is convinced that Britain and other developed nations can learn the lessons, too.在发展中经济体进行基础设施投资,将会取得巨大而明显的收益。但英国保险公司标准人寿(Standard Life)的董事长格里#8226;格里姆斯通(Gerry Grimstone)确信,英国和其他发达国家也可以从中学习经验。标准人寿在中国的总部位于天津。He is not alone. Legal amp; General has aly made a big push into the area. In January, it announced a commitment to put #163;1.5bn into a projected #163;15bn scheme to promote housing and infrastructure regeneration. Nigel Wilson, Lamp;G’s CEO, who has led a shift in investment allocation towards such assets, has been a vocal campaigner.有这种想法的并非他一人。英国法通保险集团(Legal amp; General)已经大举进军这一领域。今年1月,该公司承诺将为一个拟投资150亿英镑的住房和基础设施重建项目出资15亿英镑。法通保险首席执行官纳杰尔#8226;威尔逊(Nigel Wilson)一直大力呼吁投资于基础设施项目,他也率先将投资配置转向此类资产。Prudential and Aviva, the UK’s other leading insurers, have been lower key, but they, too, have been supportive.英国其他主要保险商保诚集团(Prudential)和英杰华(Aviva)较为低调,但他们也持这种投资。The dynamic is simple enough. Central banks have held interest rates at ultra-low levels, trimming the yields available from safe sovereign bonds close to zero in many cases. At the same time, insurers and pension funds need investments that promise reliable long-term returns.这种投资背后的动机非常简单。各国央行将利率保持在超低水平,让许多国家的安全主权债券的收益率降至零。与此同时,保险公司和养老基金需要有望带来长期可靠回报的投资。Infrastructure investment, whether in emerging markets or in the west, is an obvious match. Lengthy projects to build roads, railways, airports and energy installations often have the right kind of steady returns, with a duration that lines up well with commitments to pay out life assurance or pension policies 10, 20 or 30 years hence.无论是在新兴市场还是在西方,基础设施投资显然都符合这一条件。建设公路、铁路、机场和能源装置的长期项目通常拥有合适的稳定回报,时间周期也与人寿保险或养老保险金的10年、20年或30年的偿付承诺相匹配。At the same time, there is a financing gap. One legacy of the financial crisis has been banks’ retreat from project finance of this kind. Few lenders these days will take long-term investments on to their balance sheets. Even as counterparties who structure a deal and underpin it with short-term bridge finance, banks are in short supply. This is partly a result of a shrunken risk appetite across banking. It is also thanks to tougher capital charges on such assets, imposed by global regulators.与此同时,基础设施建设存在资金上的缺口。金融危机的一个后遗症是不再为此类项目提供融资。现在很少有愿意为长期投资融资。即便是作为安排交易并提供短期过桥资金持的对手方,也多有不愿。这在一定程度上是整个业风险偏好下降的结果,同时也缘于全球监管机构收紧了对此类资产的资本要求。The need is vast. In a report published just as the financial crisis hit, the OECD predicted a need for tn of global infrastructure funding by 2030. How to reconcile these record investment demands with the scant supply evident in the traditional financing landscape?需求是巨大的。经合组织(OECD)在金融危机爆发之际发布的一份报告中预测,到2030年全球基础设施融资需求将达到50万亿美元。如何协调这些创纪录的投资需求与传统金融领域明显的供应匮乏?The answer often has been to turn to parts of the world that have investment surpluses — the sovereign wealth funds of the Middle East and Asia, as well as the pension fund systems of Canada and Australia.往往是求助于投资资金过剩的某些国家——中东地区和亚洲的主权财富基金——以及加拿大和澳大利亚的养老金体系。For a while it worked well. Multibillion-dollar SWFs could deal direct with government to finance whole projects, reducing the need for complex structuring. Yet finding funds abroad has sometimes proved problematic. Investment in the #163;24.5bn Hinkley point nuclear expansion project in southwest England, run by France’s EDF, has been held up because of wrangling between the energy group and potential Chinese investors.这种做法一度很有效。拥有数十亿美元的主权财富基金可以直接与各国政府接触来为整个项目融资,从而不必进行复杂的结构性安排。然而事实明,寻找海外资金有时也会有麻烦。由于运营方法国电力集团(EDF)和潜在的中国投资者的角力,位于英格兰西南部的造价245亿英镑的欣克利角(Hinkley Point)核电站扩建项目的投资被搁置。Where is the UK money? To date, Lamp;G has done the most in this area, investing #163;5.7bn across a swath of property and infrastructure projects. But that is still barely 1 per cent of assets under management. Even its ambitious #163;15bn new scheme, which has yet to draw in the necessary partners, would not compete for the really large-scale national projects, focusing instead on #163;300-500m investments.英国的资金哪里去了?截至目前,法通保险在这个领域中的动作最大,它拿出57亿英镑投资于众多房地产和基础设施项目。但这只是其管理资产的1%。甚至其雄心勃勃、迄今仍在寻找必要合作者的150亿英镑新投资计划,也不会竞争真正大规模的国家项目,而是聚焦于3亿英镑至5亿英镑的投资。For the #163;1bn or #163;5bn-plus projects, single insurers or pension funds need to team up. Someone just needs to co-ordinate the effort. Bank investors used to do that, as did old-style merchant banks. There are few individuals pioneering the mission from the public sector side either. It is not a coincidence that the UK’s most ambitious project — London’s Crossrail west-to-east train link — has been shepherded by Boris Johnson who even critics would admit has been an unusually energetic force for change in the capital.对10亿英镑或50亿英镑以上的项目来说,单个的保险公司或养老基金需要合作。需要有人协调这种努力。投资者曾经充当过协调人,就像旧式的商业那样。如今在公共部门中也很少有人愿意成为承担这一使命的先锋。英国最为雄心勃勃的项目——伦敦横贯铁路(Crossrail)——一直由鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)负责,这并非巧合,即便是批评者也承认,对于推动伦敦的改变,约翰逊是一股精力异常旺盛的力量。The plan for an Infrastructure Commission from the opposition Labour party sounds encouraging. It is pledging an aggressive agenda of investment in energy, flood defences and transport, and sounds more substantive than the Treasury’s largely administrative arm, Infrastructure UK.反对党工党提出的设立基础设施委员会(Infrastructure Commission)的计划听起来令人振奋。它承诺大举投资于能源、防洪和交通基础设施,听起来比英国财政部下属主要负责行政的Infrastructure UK更着眼实际。This week’s Budget from chancellor George Osborne will give the current government a last chance to inject some urgency into UK infrastructure investment. Done right, the spoils should be rich — both for investors and those who long for a country as joined up as modern China.英国财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)将会在本周宣布预算案,这将是现任政府提高英国基础设施投资紧迫性的最后机会。运作得当的话,好处是巨大的,无论是对投资者,还是对那些渴望英国像现代化的中国那样交通发达的人来说,均是如此。 /201503/364989

  Wang Linshi, a thin, erudite 69-year-old from China#39;s eastern city of Taizhou, has a soft spot for chickens.69岁的王林诗是江苏泰州人,学多才,人很清瘦,尤擅画鸡。He paints them. In his work, done in the traditional Chinese style, daubs of black ink dart and splay into astonishing renditions of tiny claws, or fade to gray to become wings, or come alive with expressions, and the humor he gifts them.在他的传统中国水墨画中,可以看到他用墨汁随意抹两笔便绘出了鸡的爪子,用浅墨涂几下便描出了翅膀和神态。他笔下的鸡栩栩如生,作品意趣盎然。#39;Once, he painted five chickens, four of them eating rice, and one of them standing on a stone,#39; said Yang Linchuan, Mr. Wang#39;s friend and fellow painter. #39;I asked him why he left that chicken without food. He said the chicken is on guard, sacrificing himself for the happiness of others.#39;王林诗的朋友、画家杨林川说,有一次他画了五只鸡,四只在啄米,一只站在石头上。他问王林诗那只鸡为何不吃米,后者答道,这是站岗鸡,辛苦自己,幸福大家。Mr. Wang is a #39;typical Southern Chinese literati#39; who doesn#39;t say much, but when he does he isn#39;t above dropping Tang and Song dynasty verse into casual conversation, Mr. Yang said.杨林川说,王林诗是典型的中国南方文人,平日话不多,但一旦开口,闲谈之中不知不觉就会吐出唐宋诗词。On Jan. 20, the pair attended a celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Nanjing Zhongshan Painting Institute, to which they both belonged. It might be the last time Mr. Yang would see his friend.今年1月20日,王林诗和杨林川一同参加了南京中山书画院建院30周年的庆祝活动。他们二人均曾供职于该书画院。这也许是杨林川最后一次见到王林诗。Mr. Wang was among 18 Chinese artists--calligraphers, painters, poets--aboard Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 . The artists had been invited to a three-day exhibition last week in Kuala Lumpur organized by a Chinese online commerce group called IBICN.王林诗是马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines)370航班上18位中国艺术家之一。这个中国艺术代表团由书法家、画家和诗人组成。他们上周应邀参加了吉隆坡一个为期三天的展出,主办方是中国在线商务网站国联资源网(IBICN)。Some in the group are regarded as heavyweights in the Chinese art scene.代表团中一些艺术家被认为是中国艺术界的重量级人物。Liu Rusheng, a 76-year-old Nanjing man, heads at least three traditional-Chinese art groups and is a member of the state-backed China Calligraphy Association. He is known for his mastery of portraiture, birds and flowers. Where Mr. Wang favors chickens, Mr. Liu has a knack for grapes and plum blossoms.76岁的刘如生是至少三个书画院的负责人,是官方的中国书法家协会会员。他以擅长画人物和花鸟闻名。王林诗爱画小鸡,刘如生则在画葡萄和梅花方面技艺精湛。#39;He was exemplary among artists because he had great technique, and he had a lot of friends,#39; said Ma Yongan, chairman of the China Calligraphy and Art Association.中国书法艺术家协会主席马永安称,他是艺术家中的典范,他的绘画技巧高超,而且有很多朋友。Mr. Liu#39;s work is of such high quality that it attracted the attention of Chinese officials, who presented it as an official gift to Taiwan#39;s former premier, Lien Chan, Mr. Ma said. Mr. Lien#39;s office confirmed the gift. #39;We wish Mr. Liu all the very best and we hope the situation is not as bleak as it seems,#39; said Ting Yuan-chao, a spokesman for Mr. Lien#39;s office.马永安表示,刘如生的作品造诣颇高,受到了中国官员的关注,中国官员曾把他的作品作为官方礼物赠送给前台湾行政院院长连战。连战办公室确认收到过这份礼物。连战办公室发言人丁远超说,祝刘先生好运,希望事情不像看起来那么糟糕。Friends say Mr. Liu is an exuberant and energetic man given to speaking in a somewhat formal manner.朋友们都说,刘如生是一位精力旺盛、充满活力的人。#39;He has an air of celebrity, as he worked in an art troupe before,#39; Mr. Yang said. The term in China refers to a Communist Party vehicle for popular live drama.杨林川称,刘如生有一种名人气质,因为他以前在文工团工作。在中国,文工团指的是在共产党领导下的文艺团体。Mr. Liu performed in such a troupe for coal miners in the past, Mr. Yang said. A 2006 essay written by Mr. Liu described how his father, a coal mine boss in eastern Nanjing, had been stabbed to death by Japanese soldiers during Japan#39;s 1937 invasion of China. It was the first of six #39;close brushes with death#39; for Mr. Liu detailed in the essay, which has been circulating on the Internet since the disappearance of Flight 370.杨林川表示,刘如生以前在煤矿文工团当演员。刘如生曾在2006年发表过一篇名为《曾与死亡六次擦肩而过》的散文,其中描述了他的父亲、南京一煤矿老板在1937年日本侵华时被日本士兵杀害的经历。这是他六次与死亡擦肩而过的第一次,这篇文章在马航370航班失联后就在互联网上广为流传。Mr. Liu would continue to entertain even in Kuala Lumpur, where he held court on the bus en route to Kuala Lumpur#39;s Istana Negara, or Royal Palace, singing a #39;classic red song,#39; said Zheng Wenbin, a 45-year-old calligrapher from China#39;s port city of Shenzhen, who was in the group.45岁的书法家郑文彬说,刘如生在吉隆坡也继续给大家带来欢乐,他在开往吉隆坡马来西亚王宫(Istana Negara)的汽车上还唱了一首经典的红歌。郑文彬来自深圳,他也是此次访问马来西亚艺术家代表团的成员。The exhibition in Malaysia, billed by organizers as a four-year-old Sino-Malaysian art and cultural exchange, wasn#39;t a major international showcase. But for some in the group, like Maimaitijiang Abula, the fair was special because it was his first such outing abroad.在马来西亚的这次展览(主办方将其称为“中马艺术文化交流”,已经举行了四年)并不是一项重大国际项目。但对参加展览的买买提江#12539;阿布拉等人来说,这一项目有特殊意义,因为这是他第一次在国外参展。Mr. Abula, a clean-cut 34-year-old oil painter, has just started to get internationally noticed. For most of his career, he has worked in his hometown of Kashgar, China#39;s westernmost city in the Xinjiang region, where he developed a talent for depicting earth-toned images of faded urban desolation, including portraits of Uighurs, the ethnic minority to which Mr. Abula belonged.阿布拉现年34岁,是一位外表整洁的油画家,刚刚开始在国际上受到关注。在职业生涯的大部分时间里,他都是在自己的故乡喀什工作。喀什是新疆地区最西部的一个城市。他擅长用土黄色调表达城市的荒芜感,他还画维吾尔族人的肖像画,他自己也是维族人。Mr. Abula#39;s remote location has left him cut off from much of the art world, but he has sought to maintain a presence in the provincial capital of Urumqi.身处偏远地区的阿布拉基本与外面的艺术世界隔离,但他仍然在省城乌鲁木齐有着一席之地。#39;Kashgar and Urumqi are separated by 1,500 kilometers (930 miles) so he didn#39;t come here often, but he was our member and took part in our exhibitions,#39; an official with the 1,300-member Xinjiang Artists Association said.新疆美术家协会的一名负责人说,喀什和乌鲁木齐相隔1,500公里,因此他不怎么经常来乌鲁木齐,但他是协会会员,参加协会的展览。该协会有1,300名会员。Mr. Abula was thrilled to be invited by the organizers to the trip, said his friend and fellow painter Yimamu Aishan.阿布拉的朋友、同样也是画家的依麻木艾山说,在收到主办方的邀请时,阿布拉非常高兴。On Thursday, Mr. Aishan got a text message apparently sent by Mr. Abula from Kuala Lumpur. The group had mostly wrapped up the official portion of the visit by then.上周四,艾山收到了阿布拉从吉隆坡发来的短信。那时,艺术代表团的官方行程部分已经基本结束。#39;He said he was getting y to come back to Beijing,#39; said Mr. Aishan, as he sat beside Mr. Abula#39;s older brother in a Beijing hotel that Malaysia Airlines set aside for friends and relatives of the missing. #39;He said he won#39;t call because he might not have enough money on his phone card.#39;艾山称,阿布拉说他已经准备返回北京,说他不会再打电话,因为电话卡上的钱可能不够了。艾山此时正在北京一家马航为失联乘客亲友安排的酒店中,阿布拉的哥哥就坐在他身边。The pair met in Xinjiang Normal University more than 10 years ago, where they studied art, Mr. Aishan said. Both men favored oils, and painted together whenever they could. When Mr. Aishan moved to Beijing to study stage design at the Communication University of China about a year ago, Mr. Abula stayed in Kashgar.艾山说,他与阿布拉相识于十多年前,当时两人都在新疆师范大学(Xinjiang Normal University)学画画。两人都酷爱油画,一有时间就在一起搞创作。大约一年前艾山来到北京,在中国传媒大学(Communication University of China)学舞台美术设计,阿布拉则继续留在了喀什。Mr. Yang, the Nanjing painter, recalled inviting Mr. Wang to the podium to address the Nanjing Zhongshan Painting Institute in January.南京画家杨林川回忆起了1月份他邀请王林诗在南京中山书画院成立30周年座谈会上发言的情景。#39;He sat in the back, so I asked him to come up and speak,#39; Mr. Yang said.他说:当时王林诗坐在后排,我专门请他到台上来发言。When Mr. Wang did, #39;he spoke of how he wanted to do more charity work such as bringing art to the rural areas. He talked about his work plans, such as participating in overseas art activities after the Lunar New Year.王林诗上台之后,说了他希望多参加“送画下乡”这样的公益活动,还谈了他的工作计划,说他打算过完春节去国外参加一个艺术活动。#39;I didn#39;t think at the time what it would mean.#39;杨林川说,当时他不知道这个“国外”是不是马来西亚。 /201403/280286

  Cleaning up China’s air pollution will cost 1.75 trillion yuan (176b) between 2013 and 2017, a high-ranking environmental official has estimated.中国治理空气污染行动在2013到2017年间将耗资1.75万亿人民币,一位环保高级官员预测。Wang Jinnan, deputy head of the Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, said that the investment –part of an anti-pollution ;action plan; announced by China#39;s cabinet in September – “would drive up GDP by nearly two trillion yuan (202b) and create over two million jobs,” China’s official newswire Xinhua reported.中国环境规划院副院长王金南说,中国政府九月宣布的治理污染“行动计划”中提到的投资“将拉动GDP增长近2万亿,并增加就业岗位逾200万个。”中国新华社报道。The total cost will be higher than the 2012 gross domestic products of most countries, including Finland, Israel and Portugal.投资总数将超过大多数国家(如芬兰,以色列和葡萄牙)2012年的国内生产总值。“36.7 percent of the investment, or 640 billion yuan (64.5b) should go on cleaning up industry, followed by 490 billion yuan (28.2 percent) on cleaner energy sources. Cleaning up motor vehicles will absorb 210 billion yuan,” Xinhua reported, citing Wang.新华社引用王金南的话说:“36.7%的投资(约6400亿元)将用于污染治理产业,4900亿元(28.2%)用于清洁能源开发,治理机动车造成的污染将耗资2100亿元。”In 2013, broad swaths of China recorded their highest air pollution levels in 52 years, causing widesp outrage over the massive environmental toll wrought by decades of unchecked economic growth.2013年,中国大面积空气污染之严重程度创近52年之最。几十年来放任经济发展所造成的巨大环境破坏,引起了社会广泛震惊。While Beijing has long been notorious for its pea-soup air, a number of traditionally clearer cities, including Shanghai and the northeastern metropolis Harbin, have registered pollution levels high enough for local authorities to ground flights, close schools and pull cars from the roads.北京长期受灰黄空气困扰,已是众所周知。但现在一些过去比较干净的城市,如上海和哈尔滨,也进入严重污染城市之列,当地政府不得不因空气污染宣布取消航班,学校停课,车辆禁行。On Friday, Shanghai’s concentration of airborne PM 2.5 – particulate matter small enough to lodge deep within the lungs – rose to 214 micrograms per cubic meter, three times China’s national limit. The official Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center warned children and the elderly to stay indoors.12月20日周五,上海空气中PM2.5(可入肺颗粒物)的浓度上升至214微克每立方米,三倍于中国国家标准上限。上海环境监测中心告诫老人和孩子最好呆在室内。In its five-year action plan, China#39;s State Council pledged to reduce the level of airborne particulate matter by at least 10% in major cities by 2017.在五年的行动计划中,中国国务院承诺在2017年之前中国主要城市的PM2.5值至少降低10%。In response, many Chinese people have taken measures into their own hands. Face masks have become a fashion statement; air purifier sales have spiked. An elementary school in north China’s Shijiazhuang, one of the country’s most polluted cities, has begun teaching its students a smog-defying aerobics routine involving acupuncture points associated with respiratory health.面对雾霾,广大民众积极采取各项措施。带面罩成为时尚,空气净化器销量飙升。在中国污染最严重的城市之一的石家庄市,有一所小学已开始教学生抗雾霾操,包括与呼吸道有关的穴位。Last week, a hospital in the southwestern Chinese city Chengdu opened a “smog clinic” to treat air pollution-related ailments such as coughs and asthma; it has been treating roughly a dozen patients a day. ;We should not fear smog. It#39;s preventable and curable,; says a banner hung by its entrance.12月中旬,位于西南的成都市某医院开设了“雾霾门诊”,治疗与空气污染有关的疾病,如咳嗽和哮喘。该诊室一天大约接受十几位病患。其入口处的横幅上写着“雾霾不可怕,可防可治。” /201312/270518。

  One year ago this month, Detroit filed for bankruptcy—the largest U.S. city to take such a step. Since then, Wall Street analysts and the media have focused on how other cities have responded—or failed to respond—to their own pension and health care liabilities. Some have recognized the need to engage unions as partners rather than adversaries, but the broader lesson from Detroit goes far beyond how to avoid bankruptcy.一年前的这个月,底特律申请了破产,它是迄今为止美国最大的破产城市。自那时起,华尔街的分析师们和媒体界纷纷关注其他城市是怎样应对自己的养老金和医疗保险债务的。有些城市已经意识到应该把工会当成合作伙伴而不是敌对力量,但这次底特律留给其他城市的教训远远不止是应该如何避免破产。Detroit’s predicament has revealed three truths for how other cities can start and sustain a recovery.对于其他想要开启或保持复苏进程的城市来说,底特律的困境揭示了三个真相。On Monday, Detroit retirees voted to accept pension cuts as the city continued to get its financial house in order. As hard as this process may be is, it’s only the beginning. Detroit has demonstrated that cities have to set a platform for growth. Market trends are in cities’ favor: In 2011, big cities in the nation’s largest metropolitan areas grew faster than their suburbs for the first time in nearly a century. This reversal continued in 2012 and 2013, possibly signaling a true shift in preferences.上周一,为了稳定财政状况,底特律的退休人员投票接受了一项旨在削减养老金出的预案。过程自然十分艰难,但它只不过是个开始。底特律的例子已经表明,城市必须设置一个增长的平台。目前市场风向站在城市这一边:2011年,美国东北部都市圈的大城市的经济增长速度首次超过了郊区,这还是近100年来的头一回。2012年和2013年也持续了这种反转的趋势,或许说明美国的城乡发展的确出现了倒转。Still, city governments need to fix the basics to signal to both businesses and residents that it’s time to stay (or come back) and invest. For Detroit, fixing the basics hasn’t been easy: The city’s water and sewerage department recently cut off thousands of residential and commercial customers for non-payment with neither sufficient warning nor resources fully in place to help low-income households handle their debts. A two-week moratorium on shut-offs was announced Monday so that residents could learn more about how to get help, and there have also been many positive steps forward.但是,城市政府仍然需要解决一些基本问题,以向企业和居民发出信号,说明留在城市或搬回城市进行投资的时候已经到了。而对于底特律来说,要解决这些基本问题并非易事:该市的给排水部门最近终止了对数千户居民和商业用户的务,原因是他们没有缴纳费用,但是该部门事先并没有提出充分的警告,也没有投入充分的资源帮助低收入家庭处理他们的债务。不过周一底特律市又宣布对这些人暂时恢复供水两周,以便居民了解如何获得帮助,已经有一些积极的进展。The city government, for example, gave up control of the neglected (but promising) urban park, Belle Isle, turning it over to state management under a 30-year lease. Through a 5 million bond package, the Detroit Public Lighting Authority is tackling one of the most iconic symbols of the city’s troubles, replacing 55,000 broken streetlights with state-of-the-art LED bulbs. Mayor Mike Duggan has a new effort to stop blight before it starts in Detroit’s healthy neighborhoods by forcing owners to fix up vacant homes and has created a new auction site to find buyers for homes that are vacant or tax delinquent, but still attractive.比如底特律市政府放弃了对该市贝尔岛城市公园的控制权,让它由州政府托管30年。另外底特律公共照明局(Detroit Public Lighting Authority)虽然身负1.85亿美元的巨债,但还是勇敢地开始着手应对该市最棘手的麻烦之一——将55,000多个破损的路灯换成最先进的LED灯泡。另外为了不让市内仍然人丁兴旺的社区也陷入荒芜,市长麦克o杜甘想了一些新法子,比如要求房主修缮空房子,并且建立了一个新的拍卖网站,为那些空着的或是存在一些税务问题但仍然有吸引力的房子寻找新买主。Second, Detroit’s recovery shows that cities are networks, not just governments. As Detroit’s government was struggling with fiscal challenges (and the struggles started long before the bankruptcy filing), civic, business and philanthropic actors were committing billions of dollars into downtown and midtown and supporting a smart plan for the city’s physical and economic future. The M1 rail line, which is expected to begin construction later this month, is emblematic of Detroit’s physical and economic transformation. The bulk of the funding is coming not from the federal, state or local governments, but rather a consortium of companies, philanthropies and other anchor institutions.其次,底特律的复苏体现出城市是网络体,而不是靠政府撑起来的。底特律政府一直深陷财政危机(而且早在底特律申请破产之前就已经是这样了),但是市民、企业和慈善机构还是为底特律城区投入了数十亿美元的资金,并且投资持了对该市基础设施建设和经济前景至关重要的“智能计划”。M1轨道交通项目将于本月末开始动工,它正是底特律的基础建设与经济转型的象征,它的大部分资金并非来自联邦政府、州政府或地方政府,而是来自很多企业、慈善家和其它机构的捐赠。Similarly, the task force on Detroit’s new innovation district was convened by Mayor Duggan, and will be led by Nancy Schlichting, CEO of the Henry Ford Health System. It will draw on the talents and resources of private, public and civic actors and institutions. A city government can—and must—fix the basics, but it cannot generate economic growth all by itself. It takes a larger group of committed actors to shape a city’s future.另外,底特律市长杜甘已经专门召集了一个领导小组,研究怎样开发底特律的创新“特区”,这个小组将由亨利福特健康系统公司(Henry Ford Health System)的CEO南茜o施列丁领导。它将聚合私人和公共部门的人才与资源为“特区”务。一个城市的政府可以(并且必须)解决基本问题,但是不可能只靠政府自身带来经济发展。塑造城市的未来需要一大群有志之士。Finally, every metro area has something worth fighting for, rather than fighting over. The Detroit Institute of Arts brought a fractured region together. Back in 2012, suburban voters agreed to tax themselves to support the museum. The dollar amount per household was small, but the symbolic importance was huge, since it showed that suburbanites saw the DIA as a regional, not just city, asset. When it looked like the DIA’s collection would be dismantled to pay the city’s bills, the DIA itself, philanthropies, businesses, and the state of Michigan created what’s termed the “grand bargain” to shore up the city’s pension fund and thereby save the art.最后,每个大城市都有一些值得奋斗而不是争斗的东西。底特律艺术馆(Detroit Institute of Arts)就把这样一个破碎的区域聚合在了一起。2012年,底特律郊区的投票者同意向他们征税来维持这座艺术馆。虽然平摊在每家的钱很少,但它的象征意义却很重大,因为它表明底特律的郊区居民也将这座艺术馆视为整个地区的资产,而不仅仅是城里人的资产。就在底特律艺术馆的收藏品几乎要拿出来拍卖给城市还债的时候,底特律艺术馆以及慈善机构、各大企业和密歇根州政府发起了“大谈判”活动来持该市的养老基金,由此也拯救了艺术馆自己。Even with its extraordinary challenges, there is a new spirit, a new civic and political culture that’s unlike what we’ve seen in the city before.面对异乎寻常的挑战,底特律展示了一种新的精神,一种新的民间和政治文化,这是我们以前从未在这座城市看到过的。Detroit’s experience has taught the country how a challenged cities can be creative and resilient. A year ago pundits warned darkly that there would be a cascade of municipal bankruptcies. But America’s cities proved the doubters wrong: Bankruptcy is not contagious, but revival may well be.底特律的经验告诉我们,一座困难重重的城市,也可以非常有创意和韧性。一年前,权威人士曾警告我们,底特律破产后,还将出现一股地方政府的“破产潮”。但美国各大城市的表现却明了他们的判断是错误的:破产并不是传染病,但是复苏却可能会传染。Bruce Katz is a vice president at the Brookings Institution and co-director of the Metropolitan Policy Program. Follow him @bruce_katz.Jennifer Bradley is a fellow at the Metropolitan Policy Program. Follow her @JBradley_DC. Both are co-authors of The Metropolitan Revolution.本文作者布鲁斯o凯茨是布鲁金斯学会的副总裁,也是都市政策项目(Metropolitan Policy Program)的共同主任。另一名作者詹妮佛o布拉德利是都市政策项目的研究员。他二人也是《都市革命》(The Metropolitan Revolution)一书的作者。 /201407/315743

  Clambering down from his tiny coffin-sized shack built into the steel girders of its huge frame, this is the man who lives in Manhattan Bridge.曼哈顿大桥的钢梁间搭建了一个棺材大小的木棚,他就住在这里。Calling the New York City landmark home for the past year, he has managed to quietly come and go - while millions of oblivious commuters have rushed past his makeshift wooden home without a second thought or glance.过去一年,他在纽约这个著名地标安家,每日惊险地爬桥进出临时搭建的木屋,来往行人对这一幕视而不见。Speaking heavily accented English, the man offered up his name as Joey and said that he had arrived in New York City 13-years previously from China.他叫乔伊,接受采访时,他操着具有浓重口音的英语称,自己13年前从中国来到纽约。Claiming to have suffered a financial loss through gambling, Joey said that for the past year he has called the Manhattan Bridge his home - constructing the base between the girders using wood discarded from nearby Chinatown.因为输光身家,乔伊过去几年一直住在曼哈顿大桥。他用从唐人街捡来的木板在大桥的大梁之间搭了这个安乐窝。Indeed, dotted around the shack built into the bridge are evidence of his shanty construction - wooden boards and used water bottles litter the area.从桥下木棚四周的物品可以看出屋子的简陋,木板和用过的水瓶杂乱的分布在周围。The tiny, narrow dwellings are just big enough for one person to lie down and seem to be protected with bike locks.木屋的面积只够一个人躺下睡觉,外面用几把单车锁上锁。The living spaces provide little silence as loud subway trains rumble by on four different tracks, 24 hours a day.大桥上有四条铁轨,一天24小时都有地铁从桥上驶过,棚屋根本就静不下来。The spot Joey is located in is rather dangerous and is at a point in the bike path that is poorly lit and well-trafficked.乔伊住的地方非常危险,在自行车道那块儿,灯光照不到,来往车辆多。Last Sunday a cyclst saw Joey climbing to his rustic nook and mistook him for a jumper, calling 911 to report what he thought was an impending suicide.上周日一名单车客看到乔伊回家,以为他想跳桥自尽,就向警方报警了。The NYPD declined to comment to MailOnline regarding the dwellings, and the Department of Transportation has yet to return a message left seeking comment.到目前为止,纽约警局和交通局尚未对事件作出回应。 /201404/289602

  The world faces an unprecedented challenge: to change the high-carbon energy DNA of the global economy in the next three decades to low carbon. This requires directed technological change on a historic scale.世界面临史无前例的挑战:在未来30年将全球经济的能源DNA从高碳转变为低碳。这需要一种历史性的有控技术革新。It could well fail, and with failure will come a planet wrecked by climate change. At Tuesday’s UN climate summit, nations began the negotiations to last through 2015 that are our last chance to change course.这一变革很可能失败,如果失败的话,气候变化将给地球带来巨大的破坏。在上周二的联合国(UN)气候峰会上,各国开始了将持续至2015年的谈判,这是我们做出改变的最后机会。The reasons we need to change course on the economy, energy and environment are diverse and interconnected. They include persistence of extreme poverty and rising inequality; human-induced climate change; the destruction of biodiversity; and, most generally, the many challenges of a large and growing world economy and population that press far too hard on the earth’s fragile ecosystems and resources.我们需要在经济、能源和环境方面做出改变,改变的理由是多样化的、彼此关联的。这些理由包括:难以根除的极度贫困,日益加重的不平等;人为导致的气候变化;生物多样性遭到破坏;而最主要的理由是,庞大并日益增长的世界经济和人口带来了许多挑战,这对地球脆弱的生态系统和资源造成了极大的压力。The question is not the need for change but how to achieve it. The challenges of global-scale social and economic change are profound, not least high levels of inertia visible in the world’s economic and technological systems – industry, energy, transport, production, trade and investment.问题不在于是否有必要改变,而是如何做出改变。要在全球范围内从社会和经济方面做出改变,挑战是艰巨的,尤其是全球经济和技术体系——工业、能源、交通、生产、贸易和投资——存在显而易见的巨大惰性。The inertia of the global economy results from several powerful factors: long-term infrastructure, vested interests (perhaps no lobby is more powerful than Big Oil), geopolitical competition, short-termism and massive technological uncertainties and challenges. The world needs to chart a new low-carbon energy trajectory, but what will it be? Of course, different countries will make different choices and should be supported to do so.全球经济的惰性源于多个强有力的因素:长期基础设施建设、既得利益者(或许没有比大型石油公司更强大的游说集团了)、地缘政治竞争、短期主义和巨大的技术不确定性和挑战。世界需要绘制新的低碳能源轨迹,但这种轨迹是什么样子?当然,不同的国家将会做出不同的选择,而且我们也应该持他们的选择。For the politicians, the issue of climate change is deeply unpleasant. It is filled with uncertainty and technical complexity; it involves time horizons far beyond election cycles; it requires patient long-term investments; and it requires new public-private institutions that are no joy to design and implement over the din of lobbyists. And these issues involve counterintuitive choices, such as stranding fossil fuel reserves that have been discovered but cannot safely be burned because of the need to limit carbon emissions.对政客们来说,气候变化问题令人头疼。它充斥着不确定性,技术上也非常复杂;它的时间跨度远远长过选举周期;它需要耐心的长期投资;而且它需要建立新型的公私合作机制——在游说者的吵吵嚷嚷中,这种机制是很难成功设计和实施的。这些问题还涉及一些违反直觉的选择,比如停止开采已被发现、但由于需要限制碳排放而无法安全燃烧的化石燃料储藏。These considerations have so far caused 22 years of inaction since the signing of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. So how to move forward? Here’s my take. First, we should hold on for dear life to the globally agreed commitment to keep the rise in mean temperature below 2C. This is not meant to be a target, mind you; it is meant to be an upper limit. By all accounts, right now we are on a 4C-6C trajectory instead.基于上述问题,世界在自签署《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)以来的22年间无所作为。那么应该如何推进进展?我的建议有如下几点。首先,我们应该坚持全球达成一致的承诺,让平均气温升幅低于2摄氏度。提醒人们注意的是,这并不是目标,而是上限。人人都说,我们现在实际上已经处于气温上升4至6摄氏度的轨迹当中。Second, each of the countries that is a big emitter (and many other high-income and smaller middle-income countries) should agree to design – and present to the world – a country-specific pathway to deep decarbonisation by 2050 that is consistent with the 2C limit. Such deep decarbonisation pathways would provide country-level scenarios of how each of the world’s leading economies proposes to cut emissions to 1-1.5 tons a head by 2050, implying a reduction of about 90 per cent in the US, and about 80 per cent in China and Europe.其次,每个温室气体排放大国(以及其他许多高收入国家和规模较小的中等收入国家),都应该同意设计(并向世界展示)本国到2050年深度脱碳的路径规划,该规划要与气温升幅不超过2摄氏度的上限相符。此类深度脱碳规划应让我们从国家层面上看到,所有全球主要经济体计划如何到2050年将人均排放削减到1-1.5吨——这意味着美国减排约90%,中国和欧洲减排约80%。Third, the world’s governments and leading businesses (especially in energy, transport, industry and construction) need to undertake a massive and co-operative programme of research, development, demonstration and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. A clear, predictable carbon tax would help those technologies by giving a market-based incentive to shift from carbon; but carbon pricing is not enough to generate the rapid development and uptake of new technologies, or the network infrastructure to deploy them.第三,世界各国政府和大型企业(尤其是在能源、交通、工业和建筑领域)需要大规模地开展合作项目,对低碳技术进行研发、论和传播。明确而可预测的碳税将对放弃高碳提供市场激励,从而有助于这些技术的发展,但现在的碳价还不足以让新技术迅速发展和实施,也不足以促进用于实施这些技术的网络基础设施的发展。Such public-private partnerships in low-carbon technologies are not a new type of co-operation. They are familiar from the military sector, informatics, computing, space science, genomics and physics (as in the government-backed hunt for the Higgs boson). Several leading economies are indeed very good at directed technological change. But when it comes to low-carbon energy, we just haven’t really tried.低碳技术上的此类公私合作并非新的合作模式。它们常见于军事部门、信息学、计算科学、空间科学、基因组学和物理学领域——寻找希格斯玻色子(Higgs boson)的政府持项目就是这样。多个主要经济体实际上非常擅长于有针对性的技术变革。但就低碳能源来说,我们甚至没有真正尝试过。There is a narrow path up to climate safety. It involves holding on to a clear goal, in this case the 2C limit. It involves finding practical pathways to success for each of the big emitting countries. And it requires a well-funded, generation-long effort to develop the low-carbon technologies that we will need.通往气候安全的道路狭窄。它包括坚持明确的目标,也就是2摄氏度的升温上限。它还包括为每个排放大国成功减排找到切实可行的道路。它需要资金充裕、长达一代人之久的努力来开发我们需要的低碳技术。As the politicians met at the UN this week, they had not yet decided on such a bold, co-operative, generation-long effort. Yet our survival depends on it. Tuesday’s gathering will have mattered if its pushes political and business leaders in the direction of survival. We can save our planet and ourselves if we decide to do it. With crucial negotiations ahead in 2015, next year will be the year of decision.当政客们上周在联合国会晤之际,他们还没有就如此大胆、需要一代人之久的合作努力做出决定。然而,这关系到我们的生死存亡。如果上周二的峰会把政界和商界领导人推向为人类存活而努力的方向,那么峰会将是具有重要意义的。如果我们决定这么做,就可以挽救我们的星球和我们自己。2015年将举行关键的谈判,那将是决定性的一年。 /201410/332609

  Amid daily updates from the pharmaceuticals industry on the latest clinical trials, last week’s announcement by Hutchison China MediTech that it had enrolled patients for a study of colorectal cancer was hardly cause for excitement.在制药业每天都宣布最新临床试验的大背景下,和黄中国医药科技(Hutchison China MediTech)上周宣布已征募病患参加结直肠癌研究的消息,算不上令人振奋。But it represented another step forward for one of several experimental medicines that the company – backed by Li Ka-shing, Asia’s richest man – is developing in China.但这个消息反映出,亚洲首富李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)持的这家医药公司正在中国开发的几种试验药物之一又取得新进展。With a market capitalisation of just £550m, London-listed China MediTech – known as Chi-Med – is not going to shake up “big pharma” overnight. However, it is part of a growing Chinese life science sector that the authorities in Beijing hope will become a force in drug development.在伦敦上市的和黄中国医药市值仅5.5亿英镑,不会在一夜之间撼动大型制药商。然而,和黄中国医药是中国生命科学行业的一部分,而北京方面希望该行业能成为药物开发领域的一力量。“China realises that innovation is what matters in pharma,” says Christian Hogg, Chi-Med chief executive. “There are aly some big Chinese drug companies, but to get to the next level they have to innovate.”“中国意识到,在制药业中,重要的是创新。”和黄中国医药首席执行官贺隽(Christian Hogg)表示,“中国已经有一些大型制药商,但要提升一个层次,它们就必须创新。”Beijing has made faster development of research-based pharmaceuticals a national priority – both to serve the growing health demands of Chinese society, and to challenge the dominance of western drugmakers globally. In the government’s latest five-year plan, launched in 2011, the sector was identified as one of seven “pillar” industries to be promoted.北京方面已经将加快研发创新药列为国家重点工作,一方面是为了满足中国社会不断增长的健康需求,另一方面是为了挑战西方制药商在全球的主导地位。在2011年出台的“十二五”规划中,生物产业被列为要大力发展的七大“柱”产业之一。To the outside world, signs of progress have so far been limited. Several big foreign drugmakers have opened research and development centres in China, or are planning to do so – including Novartis, Pfizer and Johnson amp; Johnson. But most home-grown Chinese companies are yet to move beyond low-value generic medicines or ingredients for innovative drugs made in the US and Europe.在外界看来,迄今没有多少迹象显示情况有重大进展。多家大型外资制药商在中国开设了研发中心,或是有这样做的计划,其中包括诺华(Novartis)、辉瑞(Pfizer)和强生(Johnson amp; Johnson)。但大多数中国本土制药商仍在生产低附加值的仿制药,或在为欧美生产的创新药供应配料。This puts China in a similar position to India, where companies such as Lupin and Ranbaxy have become big generic manufacturers but show little sign of developing their own high-value medicines. Where the two countries differ, however, is in their approach to the patent system underpinning the global pharma industry.这将中国置于类似印度的地位上,印度的鲁宾(Lupin)和兰伯西(Ranbaxy)已成为大型仿制药生产商,但似乎没有自行研发高价值药物的迹象。然而,两国对待撑全球制药行业的专利制度态度不同。Whereas India is battling with US and European drugmakers over the intellectual property rights that allow them to charge premium prices, China has shown less dissent. This, say analysts and industry executives, reflects Beijing’s hope that it will eventually become a beneficiary of the patent system when its companies start developing drugs of their own.欧美制药商的产品之所以能开出高价,就是因为有知识产权。印度在知识产权上正在与美国和欧洲制药商展开较量,而中国没有对知识产权制度表现出多少异议。分析师和行业高管表示,从这一点上可以看出,北京方面希望当中国制药商开始自行研发创新药时,中国能成为专利制度的受益者。For several groups, the first step has been to strike partnerships with multinational companies.多家中国制药商的第一步,都是与跨国制药商达成合作。Chi-Med, for example, is developing its colorectal cancer drug, fruquintinib, with Eli Lilly of the US and is working with AstraZeneca of the UK on another, called volitinib, for renal cell cancer. Beijing-based BeiGene, meanwhile, is developing cancer drugs with Merck of Germany.例如,和黄中国医药正在与美国制药商礼来(Eli Lilly)合作,开发用于治疗结直肠癌的药物——呋喹替尼(Fruquintinib);它还在与英国制药商阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)合作,研发用于治疗肾细胞癌的药物——沃利替尼(Volitinib)。与此同时,总部位于北京的制药商百济神州(BeiGene)正在与德国制药商默克(Merck)合作开发癌症药物。George Baeder, an adviser to local and multinational pharma companies, predicts more than a dozen Chinese-originated products will enter the clinic in the next three years. “Then the industry will have to recognise China’s role as a drug innovator,” he said.为中国本地和跨国制药企业提供务的咨询顾问乔治#8226;贝德(George Baeder)预测,未来3年内,将有逾12种中国发明的新药投入临床使用。他说:“届时,制药业将不得不承认中国在创新药研发中的地位。”China’s potential to become a force in pharmaceutical Ramp;D has been evident since the 1960s when Mao Zedong ordered the Chinese army to find a treatment for malaria, which was ravaging North Vietnamese soldiers in their jungle battles with US-backed South Vietnam.中国在医药研发方面的潜力在上世纪60年代就表现出来了,当时,北越在跟美国持的南越打丛林战,而疟疾在北越士兵中肆虐,于是毛泽东命令中国军队寻找治疗疟疾的药方。This programme discovered artemisinin, which remains one of the most important weapons against malaria. It was derived from the sweet wormwood plant – a herb used in Chinese medicine for centuries – highlighting the potential to marry the country’s traditional medical practices with modern science.经过努力,中国人发现了青蒿素——至今仍然是对付疟疾最重要的武器之一。青蒿素是从黄花蒿茎叶中提取的,这种植物几个世纪以来一直是一味中药,显示出中国传统中医在与现代科技结合方面存在巨大潜力。However, it was not until the 1990s, when an artemisinin-based drug was commercialised by Novartis of Switzerland, that this Chinese innovation was made available to the wider world. Beijing wants to make sure future discoveries reach the global market more quickly – and with domestic companies taking them all the way.然而,直到上世纪90年代、瑞士诺华将一种基于青蒿素的药物商业化以后,这项中国的创新才得以造福世界。北京方面希望确保未来的发明能更快推向全球市场,而且由中国本土企业全程研发和制造。One of those trying to make the leap from generic to innovative medicines is Simcere Pharmaceuticals, which recently opened an Ramp;D hub in Nanjing. Ren Jinsheng, the company’s founder and chairman, says funding remains a challenge. “Compared to the bn invested by the US government each year in fundamental drug research, the Chinese government invests less than Rmb10bn [.6bn] and, at the company level, the gap is even larger.”一些中国制药商正在尝试完成从仿制药到创新药的飞跃,先声药业(Simcere Pharmaceuticals)就是其中一家,它最近在南京成立了研发中心。先声药业创始人兼董事会主席任晋生表示,资金仍然是个难题。“相比美国政府每年300亿美元的基础药物研究投入,中国政府每年的投入还不到100亿元人民币(合16亿美元),在企业层面上,两国的差距更大。”There are signs, however, that the gap is beginning to narrow.然而,有迹象显示,这种差异已开始缩小。Between 2007 and 2012, Chinese investment in biomedical Ramp;D grew at a compound annual rate of 33 per cent, compared with an average 7 per cent in the rest of Asia-Pacific, according to McKinsey, the consultant. This increased spending is beginning to produce results: the number of Chinese papers in respected life science journals rose more than sixfold between 2001 and 2013, says Fangning Zhang of McKinsey in Shanghai.咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)的数据显示,2007年至2012年期间,中国的生物研发投资规模以每年33%的复合增长率增长,而亚太其他国家的平均增长率是7%。麦肯锡驻香港的张芳宁表示,增加投入已初见成效:中国人在权威生命科学期刊上发表的论文数量,在2001年至2013年之间增长了5倍。Skills shortages are another obstacle being gradually overcome, as China’s universities churn out young scientists and those trained in the west return home.技能短缺的障碍也逐渐被克,中国的大学输送着一批接一批的年轻科学家,还有许多在西方接受了训练的中国科学家返回中国。Even so, the regulatory environment remains difficult, according to Carl Firth, a former AstraZeneca executive in China who is now chief executive of Aslan Pharmaceuticals, an Asia-focused drug developer. He says early-stage trials are easier to carry out elsewhere in Asia.即便如此,曾任阿斯利康驻中国高管、现任聚焦亚洲的药物开发商Aslan Pharmaceuticals首席执行官的卡尔#8226;弗思(Carl Firth)表示,监管环境仍然严峻。他说,在亚洲其他地方,开展早期试验的难度比中国更低。“If there was a serious push by regulators to speed up the process, the biggest beneficiaries would be multinationals because Chinese companies are not y,” Mr Firth argues. “China is going to be a major player in pharma Ramp;D, but they are not about to overtake the US and Europe. One day maybe, but not yet.”“如果监管机构真正着手推动流程加速,那么最大的受益者将会是跨国制药商,因为中国制药商还没准备好。”弗思指出,“中国将成为医药研发中的重要力量,但中国还不至于很快超越美国和欧洲。未来或许可以,但现在还不行。” /201408/324676

  It took some time to figure out just the right shopping complex, off just the right highway interchange and just the right distance from Seoul, that could accommodate a 624,000-square-foot store—that is to say, one more than three times the size of the average Wal-Mart Supercenter. It took more time to solve certain mysteries, like how big to make the store’s children’s section in a country where kids are often given ample space in the family living quarters. It took more time to figure out how to showcase kitchens that incorporate kimchi refrigerators, a uniquely Korean appliance—and even more time to untangle nuances of the market, like the South Korean’s preference for metal chopsticks.要规划出一个恰到好处的购物中心,正好位于某个合适的高速公路出口旁,与首尔的车程还不远不近,面积高达62万4千英尺(比一个标准沃尔玛超市的面积大三倍多),是需要花点时间的。而要解决某些特定难题,比如,在韩国这样一个孩子在家中享有充足活动空间的国家,购物中心的儿童区该做多大才合理,需要花更多功夫。至于如何布置一个能容纳韩式泡菜冰箱这种韩国特有家电的厨房,就要花上更多时间——而要弄清这个市场的微妙之处,比如韩国人对金属筷子的偏爱,则又要搭上更多时间。In all, it took about six years for Ikea to unveil its inaugural store in South Korea, in Gwangmyeong, starting from the first scouting trip. Ikea celebrated the opening in December with a tree planting rather than ribbon cutting. (Chalk that up to Ikea tradition rather than to South Korean custom.)总而言之,从宜家公司首次考察韩国市场,到在光明市开设第一家韩国分店,花了约整整六年时间。去年12月,宜家用植树而非剪来庆祝这家店开业(沿用了宜家传统,而不是韩国习俗)。The lag was quintessentially Ikean. “They are ferocious about not expanding too rapidly,” says David Marcotte of consulting firm Kantar Retail. But six years? “The more global, the more complex it gets,” replies Mikael Palmquist, the regional manager of retail for Asia Pacific. “We need to get these things right or we will never be taken seriously.”这种缓慢是典型的宜家风格。零售咨询公司Kantar Retail的戴维o马科特说:“扩张太快会让他们抓狂的。”但至于要花六年吗?宜家亚太区区域零售经理米卡埃尔o帕姆奎斯特表示:“公司越是全球化,业务扩张就越复杂。我们必须行事谨慎,否则客户就永远不会重视我们。”Even with all that careful planning, Ikea managed to get a few things wrong. It misjudged the number of parking spaces needed, and a seemingly benign map for sale upset some customers: The body of water east of Korea was labeled the Sea of Japan rather than the East Sea, as South Koreans prefer.即便规划如此周详,宜家还是办错了好几桩事。它错估了实际所需的停车位数量,还有一张看似友好的地图却让不少客户很不舒:朝鲜东部的海被标注为日本海,而不是韩国人所习称的东海。But the Koreans seem, for the most part, to have forgiven the Swedes. Today the Gwangmyeong store, which is the company’s largest in the world by shopping area, is on track to become one of Ikea’s top-performing outlets for 2015.但韩国人看起来大体上已经原谅了这家瑞典巨头。光明市分店是宜家在全球购物区域面积最大的一家店,现在人气很旺,有望成为宜家2015年业绩最佳的分店。The success is hardly a fluke. Ikea, it seems, is a genius at selling Ikea—flat packing, transporting, and reassembling its quirky Swedish styling all across the planet. The furniture and furnishings brand is in more countries than Wal-Mart, Carrefour, and Toys “R” Us. China, where Ikea has eight of its 10 biggest stores, is the company’s fastest-growing market. An outlet in Morocco is coming soon, and there are hints that Brazil may not be far off. Meanwhile, Ikea is going meatballs out in India, where it plans to invest about billion over a decade to open 10 stores.这份成功来得绝非侥幸。宜家似乎是一个营销天才——扁平式包装,方便拼装,那些带有瑞典风情的家具正在销往全世界。和沃尔玛、福及玩具反斗城相比,这个瑞典家具品牌已打入了更多国家的市场。宜家十大分店中有8家在中国,中国也是该公司增长最快的市场。洛哥分店即将开张,还有传闻说巴西分店也开张在即。同时,宜家打算将其瑞典肉丸卖到印度更多地方,在未来十年投资20亿美元,在印度开设十家分店。Getting it right in emerging markets like China and India, where Ikea is well-positioned to capitalize on a growing middle class, is a key factor in its goal of hitting EUR50 billion in sales by 2020. That’s up from EUR28.7 billion in its fiscal 2014 ( billion based on the average exchange rate for Ikea’s fiscal year) and almost double its 2005 sales level. Today the Ikea Group has 318 stores, not including the brand’s some four dozen franchised locations; it’s aiming for around 500 by 2020.抓稳新兴市场,是宜家实现2020年销售突破500亿欧元目标的关键因素。在中国和印度,宜家已做好市场定位,瞅准当地迅速崛起的中产阶级。这是个雄心勃勃的目标:2014财年,宜家的销售额为287亿欧元,几乎比2005年的销售额翻了一番。目前宜家集团拥有318家分店,这还不包括48家特许加盟店;到2020年,宜家的另一个目标是:开店数量达到500家。 /201503/365296。

  

  

  

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