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来源:中华晚报    发布时间:2019年07月21日 08:58:36    编辑:admin         

Alison Bechdel is a comic book artist,艾莉森·贝克德尔是一个漫画作家,and back in the mid-80s, she recorded this conversation在80年代中期,,她记录下了她和一个朋友shed had with a friend about assessing the movies that they saw.在评估她们看过的电影时的讨论内容。And its very simple. Theres just three questions you should ask:非常简单,只有三个问题:Is there more than one character in the movie这部电影中是否有一个以上的角色that is female who has lines?是女性并且有台词?So try to meet that bar.想想看这个标准。And do these women talk to each other at any point in the movie?如果是,这些女性角色在电影中是否交谈过?And is their conversation about something other than如果交谈了,有没有跟她们共同的心上人the guy that they both like? 无关的谈话内容?Right? Thank you.明白了?谢谢。Thank you very much.非常感谢。Two women who exist and talk to each other about stuff.两个女人,有台词,有交谈。It does happen. Ive seen it,确实有这样的电影。我看过,and yet I very rarely see it in the movies但是在我们看过的和喜欢的电影中that we know and love.是很少见的。In fact, this week I went to see事实上,这个星期我刚看过a very high-quality movie, ;Argo.;一部质量不错的电影《阿尔戈》(Argo)。Right? Oscar buzz, doing great at the box office,奥斯卡热门电影,票房很好,a consensus idea of what a quality Hollywood film is.公认的好莱坞电影高品质电影。It pretty much flunks the Bechdel test.但是贝尔德尔测试不及格。And I dont think it should, because a lot of the movie,我觉得这不应该。因为电影中的大部分情节I dont know if youve seen it, but a lot of the movie不知道你们看过没有,电影中的大部分情节takes place in this embassy where men and women都发生在发生人质劫持事件的大使馆内,are hiding out during the hostage crisis.男人和女人都躲在里面。Weve got quite a few scenes of the men我们看到好几个场景,having deep, angst-ridden conversations in this hideout,男人们在藏身处深刻而充满焦虑的对话。and the great moment for one of the actresses is而电影中一个女演员最出的情节to peek through the door and say, ;Are you coming to bed, honey?;是隔着一扇门问道,“睡觉么,亲爱的?”Thats Hollywood for you.这就是好莱坞。So lets look at the numbers.来看看统计数字。2011, of the 100 most popular movies,2011年前100部最流行的电影中,how many of them do you think actually have female protagonists?有多少部电影有女主角?Eleven. Its not bad.11部。不算太坏。Its not as many percent as the number of women就刚刚普选出的国会议员中weve just elected to Congress, so thats good.女性议员比例而言,这个比例算好的。But there is a number that is greater than this接下来这个比例比刚才的要高thats going to bring this room down.而这个比例会让在座各位震惊。Last year, The New York Times published a study去年,纽约时报发表了一份that the government had done.由政府完成的报告。Heres what it said.以下是内容。One out of five women in America每五名美国女性中就有一位say that they have been sexually assaulted some time in their life.曾经遇到过性骚扰。Now, I dont think thats the fault of popular entertainment.我不认为是流行圈的过错。I dont think kids movies have anything to do with that.我不认为这是由于儿童电影导致的。I dont even think that我甚至觉得music s or pornography are really directly related to that,色情音乐和电影跟这都没有直接关系,but something is going wrong,但是肯定哪里出问题了。and when I hear that statistic,当我听到这个统计数字,one of the things I think of is我当时想到的是thats a lot of sexual assailants.性骚扰者的数量竟然这么多。Who are these guys? What are they learning?他们是谁?他们怎么被教出来的?What are they failing to learn?他们漏学了什么?Are they absorbing the story that他们有没有理解电影的情节,a male heros job is to defeat the villain with violence一个男性英雄打败了残暴的反派and then collect the reward, which is a woman然后获得荣誉和奖励--就是一个没有朋友who has no friends and doesnt speak?又不说话(没有思想)的女人?Are we soaking up that story?我们有没有从这些故事中吸取到什么?201510/404661。

SECRETARY KERRY: Well, everybody, my apologies for being delayed, and I thank everybody for their patience and look forward to a very interesting and comprehensive discussion this evening. I want to begin by thanking Foreign Minister Lwin and the Government of Myanmar, which has done a very solid job of leading ASEAN as chair this year. And I also want to recognize our new Ambassador to ASEAN Nina Hachigian, who was confirmed just in time to be here today. (Laughter and applause.) We’re delighted to have Nina on board, and I know all of you will really enjoy working with her.The ed States remains deeply committed to engaging the Asia Pacific region. I think you’ve heard us talking about our rebalanced Asia and the deep involvement that we have there, working for the trade agreement, working with respect to security issues and global climate change – particularly important. I had occasion to be in the Philippines and see the impact directly of Typhoon Haiyan. And so we have a lot of work to do, and we are deeply committed. President Obama has reinforced again and again his intention to keep the ed States front and center in the region. I’ve aly traveled there – I think it’s five or six times in a year and a half. The President’s been there several times. We’re looking forward to being back there shortly for the meetings in October, November, and there’s obviously a lot to continue to work on.ASEAN and its centrality is essential to upholding the rules-based system throughout the Asia Pacific, and it is the best way to ensure that all countries big and small have a voice as we work together to address the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities. That’s why the ed States continues to invest so much in the relationship. It’s why we’re deepening our ties among our people-to-people programs, like President Obama’s Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative and the U.S.-ASEAN Fulbright Program. And it’s why we fully support the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.President Obama and I are very much looking forward to being at the East Asia Summit, but in the meantime we’re happy to discuss a few of the challenges that we’ve partnered on, including our maritime security and the global threat of climate change. I hope we can discuss this evening how best to work on some of the other global issues that we also face today – for example, the growing numbers of foreign fighters from all over the world who have chosen to go to ISIL and join in their activities and present a danger and risk to all of us. We also obviously face the challenge of Ebola in West Africa, and we need everybody to be involved in the effort to contain it.201505/374667。

Third reason that boys are out of sync with school today:第三个原因是男孩与我们今日的学校相脱节:kindergarten is the old second grade, folks.幼儿园是一种过时的脱节教育。We have a serious compression of the curriculum happening out there.我们教学课程中有严重的压缩问题。When youre three, you better be able to write your name legibly,当孩子三岁时,他们最好能清楚地写下他们的名字,or else well consider it a developmental delay.要不我们会认为这是发育迟缓。By the time youre in first grade,到孩子小学一年级时,you should be able to paragraphs of text with maybe a picture,他们应该能读带图的,maybe not, in a book of maybe 25 to 30 pages.或者不带图的课文里的段落,这本书大概有25-30页。If you dont, were probably going to be putting you into a Title 1 special ing program.如果孩子做不到,老师很可能把这孩子送到编号一的特殊阅读计划班。And if you ask Title 1 teachers, theyll tell you如果问问这班的老师们,她们会告诉你:theyve got about four or five boys for every girl thats in their program, in the elementary grades.在这个低年级的特殊阅读计划班里,每当有1个女孩就对等的有4到5个男孩。The reason that this is a problem is because the message that boys are getting这问题是因为男孩得到的教育is ;you need to do what the teacher asks you to do all the time.;是“在上学间,你就需要做老师吩咐你做的事。”The teachers salary depends on ;No Child Left Behind; and ;Race to the Top;老师的工资取决于让学生考试名列前茅,不让一个孩子掉队,and accountability and testing and all of this.并负有责任和大大小小测试,以及类似这样的事。So she has to figure out a way to get all these boys through this curriculum -- and girls.所以她得想方设法地让这些男孩和女孩通过这课程。This compressed curriculum is bad for all active kids.这压缩课程对所有活跃调皮的孩子来说是糟糕的。And what happens is,接下来发生的是,she says, ;Please, sit down, be quiet, do what youre told, follow the rules, manage your time, focus, be a girl.;她说,“请坐下来,安静点,听我说的做,遵守规矩,抓紧时间,注意一下,要乖点像个女孩。”Thats what she tells them.这就是女老师让男孩做的事。Indirectly, thats what she tells them.间接地,她指示了男孩该做什么。And so this is a very serious problem. Where is it coming from?所以这是个很严重的问题。这是从哪开始的呢?Its coming from us.它是源于我们自己。We want our babies to when they are six months old.我们想让我们的宝贝在他们六个月大时就能读。Have you seen the ads?你看过广告吗?We want to live in Lake Wobegon where every child is above average,我们想住在沃比冈湖,那里每一个孩子的智商都高于平均水平。but what this does to our children is really not healthy.但是这对我们的孩子来说是非常不健康的。Its not developmentally appropriate, and its particularly bad for boys.这是种不良发育,特别对男孩来说有不好的影响。So what do we do?我们能做什么呢?We need to meet them where they are.我们要迎合男孩们的需求。We need to put ourselves into boy culture.我们要置身于男孩文化中。We need to change the mindset of acceptance in boys in elementary schools.我们要改变小学对男孩子一成不变地思维模式。More specifically, we can do some very specific things.更具体地,我们可以做些非常具体的事。We can design better games.我们可以设计更好玩的游戏。201601/421852。

And I will thank a couple of people that you guys probably wouldnt even think I will thank. Isaiah Thomas, Magic Johnson and George Gervin. They are the so-called freezing-out in my rookie season. I would never guess, but you guys gave me the motivation, say, you know what? Evidently Ive got to prove to these guys. Ive got to prove to them that I deserve what Ive got on this level. No matter what people may have said, if it is rumor, I never took it as truth. But you guys never froze me up, because I was just happy to be there no matter how you look at it. From that point forward, I wanted to prove to you, Magic, Larry, Gorge, everybody that I deserve to be on this level as much as anybody else. And hopefully over the whole period of my career I have done that, without a doubt. Even in the Detroit, weve done that.我还要感谢一些人,这些人或许你们都没想到。伊塞亚·托马斯,魔术师约翰逊,乔治·格温。在我的新秀赛季,我被你们完全冻结。是你们给了我前进的动力。每天我都需要向你们明我所得到的一切成就都问心无愧。无论人们是如何的,我从来不把谣言当做真相。你们从来没有把我吓怕,因为,我只是喜欢打球而已,不管你们如何看待。以此为出发点,我就是要向你们明我有资格在这个场上打球,就跟你们一样。我想,在我整个职业生涯中我已经明了这一切,毫无疑问。即使是在底特律,我们也做到了。Pat Riley, I mean, you and I go way back. I still remember in Hawaii, remember in Hawaii where you and I, I was coming in. You were, I guess, leaving: you decided to stay a couple of days. You were coming into my suite and came, and I told you: ;Get out of my suite.; You slid a note on the leak of my door, although you had to move, you didnt move. You slid the note, saying ;I enjoyed the competition, congratulations, but we will meet again. ; And I take the heart in that, because I think in all I see you are just as competitive as I am and even from a coach standing point.帕托·莱利,还记得我们间的恩怨吗。我记得在夏威夷,我刚到,而你可能正准备离开。后来你决定多待几天。你跑到我的房间,要进来,我就喊:“出去。”尽管你要走,但你却没有。你给我的门上留了一张纸条:我很享受与你的比赛,恭喜你,但是我们还会再见的。我打心底里感激。我想你就和我一样,享受竞争的过程,即便你是从一个教练的角度。201404/288370。

So for example at Tesla我想说 在特斯拉weve never spent any money on advertising我们从来不花钱做广告We put all of the money into Ramp;D and manufacturing and design我们把所有的钱都用于研发 制造和设计to try to make the car as good as possible尽力让汽车变得更好And I think thats the way to go我认为 公司就该这样For any given company, just keep thinking about任何公司 在任何时候都需要思考are these efforts that people are spending人们花这么多精力做的事are they resulting in a better product or service是否能够让产品或务变得更好if theyre not, stop those efforts如果不能 停止这些尝试And then the final thing is最后我要讲的是dont just follow the trends不要随大流You may have heard me say我经常说its good to think in terms of the physics approach from first principles这里可以类比从基本原理出发的物理方法which is也就是说rather than reasoning by analogy不要人云亦云you boil things down to the most fundamental truths you can imagine你应当将事物归结到最根本的真理上and you reason up from there从根本出发进行推理This is a good way to figure out if something really make sense这能让你很好地判断 某个想法是否真的行得通or its just whatever somebody else is doing而不只是别人说可行 那就可行It is hard to think that way. You cant think that way about everything当然 这很难 你不能什么事情都这样考虑It takes a lot of effort, but这需要很多精力 不过if youre trying to do something new, its the best way to think在创新的时候 这无疑是最好的思维方式And that framework was developed by physicists物理学界也正是通过这种方式to figure out counterintuitive things推导出了各种不可思议的理论like quantum mechanics例如量子力学Its really a powerful method这无疑是一个很强有力的方法And so thats, and then I think theres a final thing I will encourage you to do我想 我还有一点建议要讲给你们 也就是Now is the time to take risk趁着年轻 勇于冒险You dont have kids你们没有小孩Your obligation... oh, sorry你们的责任… 哦 抱歉Probably not, of course也许有人有孩子but as you get older, your obligations increase不过随着年龄的增长 责任也会随之增长And once you have a family有了家庭之后再去冒险you start taking not just for yourself but for your family as well承担风险的就不是你一个人 而是你全家It gets much harder to do things that might not work out要去冒险做一些可能成不了的事 难度可能会更大So now its the time to do that before you have those obligations在没有这些责任之前 做这样的事负担会比较小So I want to encourage you to take risks and to do something bold我鼓励大家勇于冒险 胆子放大一些You wont regret it. Thank you你不会后悔的 谢谢201412/349892。

Im a game addict,我是一个游戏爱好者,and its not because of a certain number of hours I have spent playing,不仅仅是因为我花好多时间来玩游戏or nights I have gone without sleep to finish the next level.也不是因为无数个夜晚里为了通关而通宵达旦It is because I have had life-altering experiences in virtual space,是因为我在那个虚拟世界里有另外一条生命and games had begun to erode my own understanding of what is real and what is not.已经开始改变我对世界的理解什么是真实的,什么不是Im addicted, because even though I know Im losing my grip on reality,我对游戏着迷,因为即使我已经控制不了现实I still crave more.我却期望更多From an early age I learned to invest myself emotionally in what unfolded before me on screen.从很小时候,我就开始学习对屏幕上发生的事情产生真实的情感Today, after 20 years of watching TV geared to make me emotional,今天,在看过20年的电视以后even a decent insurance commercial can bring tears to my eyes.甚至一个好的保险广告都能让我流泪I am just one of a new generation that is growing up.我只是成长中的新一代中的一员A generation who may experience much more meaning这一代从游戏中体会到得滋味through games than they will through the real world.可能比现实生活中更多Video games are nearing an evolutionary leap,正在进行飞速的发展a point where game worlds will look and feel just as real游戏中的世界已经变得跟电影,电视as the films we see in theatres, or the news we watch on TV.相差无几And while my sense of free will in these virtual worlds我在虚拟世界里体验到的自由还是有局限的may still be limited, what I do learn applies to my real life.可是我在游戏学到的东西却可以拿到现实生活中来Play enough games and eventually you will玩过足够多游戏之后,你就会觉得really believe you can snowboard, fly a plane,你真的可以玩滑雪板,开飞机drive a nine-second quarter mile, or kill a man.9秒内潜到400米深的水下,或者杀一个人I know I can.我知道我可以Unlike any pop culture phenomenon before it,跟其他之前的流行文化不一样 games actually allow us to become part of the machine.让我们变成了机器的一部分They allow us to sublimate into the culture of interactive, downloaded, streaming, HD reality.它们允许我们沉浸到的文化中,这是一种互动的,可下载的,高清晰的现实文化We are interacting with our entertainment.我们可以跟它互动I have come to expect this level of interaction.这是我们预期的互动层次Without it, the problems faced in the real world --达不到这个层次,现实世界中的那些问题 ---poverty, war, disease and genocide -- lack the levity they should.贫穷,战争,疾病,种族灭绝在游戏里就失去了效果Their importance blends into the sensationalized drama of prime time TV.它们的重要性就跟黄金时段的电视剧融合为了一体But the beauty of games today lies not in the lifelike graphics,然而,的魅力不在它有真实的画面the vibrating joysticks or virtual surround sound.或者是那振动手柄或者立体的声音It lies in that these games are beginning to make me emotional.而在于,这些已经开始加入情感元素I have fought in wars, feared for my own survival,我在游戏里打过仗,在孤军奋战的时候害怕过watched my cohorts die on beaches and woods that look and feel more real than any textbook or any news story.看着自己的部队死在沙滩上和丛林里,那种感觉比任何的课本和新闻都真实The people who create these games are smart.制作游戏的那些人很聪明They know what makes me scared, excited, panicked, proud or sad.他们知道什么东西可以让我害怕,兴奋,慌张,骄傲或者悲伤Then they use these emotions to dimensionalize the worlds they create.他们用这些不同的情感元素来划分整个游戏世界A well-designed game will seamlessly weave the user into the fabric of the virtual experience.一个经过很好的设计的会把玩家完美的拼接到游戏的虚拟体验当中As one becomes more experienced the awareness of physical control melts away.随着一个人玩游戏玩得越来越好,那种通过控制在玩游戏的感觉就会渐渐消失I know what I want and I do it.我知道我想做什么就去做No buttons to push, no triggers to pull, just me and the game.不会去想按什么按钮或者扣什么扳机,我考虑的就只有我还有游戏My fate and the fate of the world around me lie inside my hands.我的命运还有我身处的世界的命运,都掌握在我的手中201512/412904。

Another example:还有一个例子a few years ago I got a call from a man who was 19 years old,几年前,我接到一个十九岁的男孩打来的电话who was born a boy, raised a boy,他生下来是个男孩,也被当作男孩来养had a girlfriend, had sex with his girlfriend,后来有了女朋友,也和女友发生了性关系had a life as a guy一直过着男孩的生活and had just found out that he had ovaries and a uterus inside.但是最近,他发现自己体内有卵巢和子宫What he had was an extreme form他所有的是一种很极端的病症of a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia.叫做类固醇21-羟化酶缺乏症He had XX chromosomes,他携带XX染色体and in the womb,并且在子宫内的时候his adrenal glands were in such high gear他的肾上腺很活跃that it created, essentially, a masculine hormonal environment.从而形成了一个男性荷尔蒙的环境And as a consequence, his genitals were masculinzed,结果就是,他发育了男性生殖器官his brain was subject他的大脑接受了to the more typical masculine component of hormones.更多的典型的男性荷尔蒙And he was born looking like a boy -- nobody suspected anything.因此他生下来看起来像个男孩儿--根本没人怀疑And it was only when he had reached the age of 19只有当他长到19岁的时候that he began to have enough medical problems当他开始遇到生理问题的时候actually from menstruating internally,其实是在体内出现月经起that doctors figured out that, in fact, he was female internally.医生发现,实际上他的内部是女性Okay, so just one more quick example好,我们再来快速的看一个例子of a way you can have intersex.另一个可能带来两性特征的情况Some people who have XX chromosomes有XX染色体的一些人develop what are called ovotestis,会发育一种叫做卵睾的器官which is when you have ovarian tissue也就是当卵巢组织with testicular tissue wrapped around it.被睾丸组织包裹起来的一种器官And were not exactly sure why that happens.我们还不能确定它的成因So sex can come in lots of different varieties.所以说性别可以是很多种形式The reason拥有这些身体特征的that children with these kinds of bodies --孩子们——whether its dwarfism, or its conjoined twinning,不论是侏儒症,或者连体婴儿or its an intersex type --或者是双性型的——are often normalized by surgeons常被外科医生手术纠正的原因is not because it actually leaves them better off实际上并不是为了in terms of physical health.身体健康In many cases, people are actually perfectly healthy.因为很多情况下,他们的身体其实都很健康The reason theyre often subject to various kinds of surgeries他们接受各种外科手术的原因is because they threaten our social categories.是因为他们受到我们社会上对人分类的威胁Or system has been based typically on the idea或者说社会上已经有一个典型的认识that a particular kind of anatomy comes with a particular identity.什么样的身体结构,有什么样的特征So we have the concept that what it means to be a woman因此,我们的概念就是作为一个女人is to have a female identity;就必须有女性的特性what it means to be a black person is, allegedly,以此类推,一个黑人is to have an African anatomy就得具有非洲人的身体结构特征in terms of your history.在你的履历中And so we have this terribly simplistic idea.因此我们就有了这种过于简单的认识And when were faced with a body当我们面对一个that actually presents us something quite different,某些方面是与众不同的身体的时候it startles us in terms of those categorizations.那些不能归类的想法让我们感到吃惊So we have a lot of very romantic ideas in our culture因此我们的文化中有很多天真的想法about individualism.是关于个人主义的And our nations really founded on a very romantic concept of individualism.并且我们国家建立在一个非常不实际的个人主义的概念上的Well you can imagine how startling then it is好,你可以想象那多么令人震惊when you have children that are born当你的两个孩子who are two people inside of one body.出生的时候是在一个身体中的Where I ran into the most heat from this most recently我最近一次遇到这种情况是was last year the South African runner, Caster Semenya,去年的时候,非洲田径运动员,卡斯特尔·塞门亚had her sex called into question at the International Games in Berlin.在柏林国际比赛中被质疑性别问题I had a lot of journalists calling me, asking me,许多记者给我打电话,问我;Which is the test theyre going to run“他们会用哪种检测方法that will tell us whether or not来向大家明Caster Semenya is male or female?;卡斯特尔·塞门亚是男还是女?”And I had to explain to the journalists there isnt such a test.于是我不得不跟他们解释说,根本没有检测的方法In fact, we now know事实上,我们现在已经了解that sex is complicated enough性别是非常复杂的that we have to admit我们不得不承认nature doesnt draw the line for us between male and female,大自然根本就没有一个明确的分界线来区分男性或女性or between male and intersex and female and intersex;或者男性和双性以及女性和双性we actually draw that line on nature.这条分界线实际上是我们自己画的So what we have is a sort of situation因此我们现在的情况是where the farther our science goes,科学越发展the more we have to admit to ourselves我们越得承认that these categories这些性别的分类形式that we thought of as stable anatomical categories也就是我们认为很理所当然的身体结构学上的分类that mapped very simply是过于简单地to stable identity categories给特性分了类are a lot more fuzzy than we thought.实际情况要比我们想象的模糊的多And its not just in terms of sex.并且这不仅仅是关于性别的问题Its also in terms of race,也同样是关于种族的问题which turns out to be vastly more complicated这个复杂程度than our terminology has allowed.远不是我们的学术语言所能形容的201508/394243。

In such circumstances, we have to work with others because collective action in these circumstances is more likely to succeed这些情况下 我们需要同他人合作原因在于 这些情况下 联合行动更有可能取得成功more likely to be sustained less likely to lead to costly mistakes更有可能持久更不容易出现代价沉重的错误This leads to my second point:这就引出了我的第二点For the foreseeable future the most direct threat to America at home and abroad remains terrorism在可以预见的未来对美国内外最大的直接威胁将仍然是恐怖主义But a strategy that involves invading every country that harbors terrorist networks is naive and unsustainable但是 攻入每一个包庇恐怖分子的国家不仅天真 而且无法持续I believe we must shift our counterterrorism strategy drawing on the successes and shortcomings of our experience in Iraq and Afghanistan我认为 我们必须转变自己的反恐战略从伊拉克和阿富汗的战争中吸取经验教训to more effectively partner with countries where terrorist networks seek a foothold在恐怖分子试图立足的国家寻求有效的合作伙伴And the need for a new strategy reflects the fact that todays principal threat no longer comes from a centralized al Qaeda leadership我们的新战略必须意识到如今的主要威胁不再来自于基地组织这样的集中领导Instead, it comes from decentralized al Qaeda affiliates and extremists many with agendas focused in countries where they operate而是来自于分散式的基地组织残党和极端主义者他们很多都将目标集中在自己国内And this lessens the possibility of large-scale 9/11-style attacks against the homeland这就减弱了美国本土遭受大规模 911式袭击的可能性but it heightens the danger of U.S. personnel overseas being attacked as we saw in Benghazi但美国人员在海外受到攻击的威胁却因此增大班加西的情况就是明It heightens the danger to less defensible targets as we saw in a shopping mall in Nairobi防御薄弱的目标比以往更加危险内罗毕商场的情况就是明So we have to develop a strategy that matches this diffuse threat one that expands our reach without sending forces我们的新战略需要考虑到这些分散式威胁在不派遣部队的前提下扩大作用范围that stretch our military too thin or stir up local resentments这样既能保持军队的集中作战能力又能避免激起当地不满情绪201505/376013。