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Why are we so often disturbed by Western media reporting and analysis of China? Why does ing commentary of China#39;s economy, foreign relations, politics, and society leave us feeling emotionally abused, injured, or even angry and resentful?为什么我们常常在西方媒体关于中国的报道和分析中感到困惑?为什么关于中国的经济、外交、政治和社会的总是让我们感到被欺负、伤害,甚至是愤怒与仇恨?I believe our reactions are a response to the pervasive, ugly, and malevolent, but largely unnoticed element of schadenfreude in this commentary. It is our natural revulsion to writing and thinking that is anti-humanistic, hostile, and harmful.我认为我们的感觉是对文章中普遍存在的、泼脏水式和恶意的,但是却很大程度上被忽视的幸灾乐祸式的的一种自然而然的反应。这种我们写作上和思考上天然的反对立场,是反人类的、敌视的,而且是有害的。Schadenfreude is a German-origin term defined by the Oxford Advanced Learner#39;s Dictionary as ;a feeling of pleasure at the bad things that happen to other people.; Schadenfreude is rarely expressed plainly, or in relation to a specific event or situation. Rather, it is an attitude and bias that disparages achievements, discredits sincerity, and hopes for failure.“Schadenfreude”是一个源于德语的词汇,根据《牛津高阶英语词典》,它的意思是“对他人遇上坏事感到的一种愉悦”。“Schadenfreude”这个词很少被清楚地表达出来,或者联系到特定的事件或者场合上。相反,这是一种态度与偏见,它贬低对方成就、诋毁对方诚意,并且满心希望对方失败。We see this vile sentiment often in Western media coverage of news events, in reporting on Chinese business, and particularly in analysis and commentary on policies, plans, and initiatives of the government and the Communist Party.我们经常在西方媒体关于中国事物的报道中见到这种卑鄙的情绪,尤其是在对中国政府和中共的政策、计划和举措的分析和上。It is not just reporting mainly ;bad news,; like tainted milk powder or cooking oil scandals, although this feature is common too, particularly in blogs and the popular press. Rather, it is reporting only of the facts that support a narrative of endemic amorality or immorality and government social irresponsibility, with a subliminal message that the Chinese people or system are immoral, corrupt, and will or should fail.它不只是主要报告一下“坏新闻”,像是毒奶粉或者地沟油,尽管这种事情也的确常见,尤其是在客和大众媒体上;相反的,它只报道那些地方性的不道德事件,或者关于政府不负责任的叙述,其潜台词就是中国人或者中国的体制就是不道德的、腐败的,是即将或者应该失败的。The commentator most identified with schadenfreude in writing on China is Gordon G. Chang. Chang, author of The Coming Collapse of China, released in 2001, has turned apocalyptic predictions and ill-wishing into a best-selling “brand.”在报道中国事物方面,这种幸灾乐祸式的典型就是章家敦(Gordon G. Chang)。他是2001年出版的《中国即将崩溃》一书的作者;这本书已经变成世界末日式的预言,并有望成为畅销书的品牌。On cue, writing on Forbes.com after Alibaba#39;s world-beating IPO in New York, Chang was quick to predict, and seemingly to hope, that the company#39;s ambition to surpass Walmart as the world#39;s largest retailer would be unrealized.正巧,在阿里巴巴震惊世界的纽约IPO时间后,章家敦很快在福布斯网站上预测,貌似也是希望,该公司“超过沃尔玛,成为全球最大的零售商”的壮志将无法实现。Indeed, at every major juncture on economic and social China#39;s development path, from WTO accession, to coping with the global financial crisis, to economic and financial system reform, to the current anti-corruption campaign, Chang has been predicting, and seemingly hoping for, massive failure and systematic collapse.事实上,在中国发展道路上的每一个重大关头,比如加入世界贸易组织(WTO)、应对国际金融危机、对经济和金融系统的改革、当前的反腐运动等,章家敦每每预测,并且似乎希望(中国迎来)大规模的失败和系统性崩溃。Chang has been consistently wrong on matters large and small. Instead of failure and collapse China was achieved successes, advancing to a new, higher level of development and prosperity. Chang#39;s errors reflect a fundamental incapacity, and psychological unwillingness, to understand China and its people, their feelings, aspirations, and loyalties.(但是)章家敦在大大小小的事务上一贯错误。中国并没有失败或者崩溃,相反的,它反而取得了成功,走向了一个新的、更高的、更繁荣的发展水平。在理解中国与中国人民,以及他们的感情、愿景与忠诚上,章家敦的错误反映了一种根本上的失能与心理上的不愿意。Chang#39;s brand is emblematic of the negative bias toward China, tinged with schadenfreude,that is more common than uncommon in the Western press.章家敦就是带点幸灾乐祸地看衰中国的媒体形象代言人,而这种现象在西方媒体中是更为常见的。Today this bias informs reporting and commentary on China#39;s top leadership#39;s two towering visions and initiatives: realizing a ;China Dream; and rooting out endemic corruption. Both visions, and the actions being pursued toward their realization, typically receive cynical, unsympathetic, skeptical, or derisive treatment in the Western media.如今这种偏见性的报道和集中在了中国最高领导人的两个宏伟目标和计划上:实现“中国梦”与铲除腐败。这两个愿景与他们根据认识所采取的行动,毫无例外地受到了西方媒体戏谑、无情、怀疑或者嘲讽的对待。The success of the anti–corruption campaign is of existential importance to China#39;s future, which is to say to the safety, security, and prosperity of the Chinese people. So is the vision of the ;China Dream.; Yet in publications like The New York Times, The Washington Post, Bloomberg, and The Wall Street Journal, the sincerity, or even the moral authority, of China#39;s leaders in pursuing these visions is regularly impugned or denied. Some reporting has seemingly aimed to undermine the authority of leaders, so as to complicate or derail related initiatives.反腐败斗争的胜利对中国的未来具有现实的重要性,这对中国人的财产安全、生命安全和经济繁荣具有重要意义。“中国梦”也一样。但是在像是纽约时报、华盛顿邮报、彭社与华尔街日报等出版物中,中国领导人追求这些愿景的诚意,甚至道德威信,总是被不时不时地责难或者否定。一些报道似乎旨在破坏领袖权威,从而搅浑水或者破坏相关举措。The government of China has felt obliged to protect the people#39;s vital interests by blocking publications like The New York Times that had acted as though its purpose was to sabotage those interests. This point was made by former Shanghai mayor, and now deputy head of the Chinese People#39;s Political Consultative Conference, Xu Kuangdi, in answering a member of the America Chamber of Commerce after the speech by former president Jimmy Carter in Shanghai on September 9.中国政府已经感到有必要屏蔽类似纽约时报这样的出版物来保护人民切身利益,但是这看起来又像是为了损害这些出版物的利益。这一观点在9月9日接待前美国总统吉米·卡特后对美国商会成员的演讲中,被前任上海市长、现任中国人民政治协商会议副主席徐匡迪提出。That the government of China should take measures is understandable. That China has blocked such internet search portals as Google (while affording open internet access to its citizens through portals like Sohu.com) is also understandable and justifiable from the standpoint of the interests of the Chinese people.因此中国政府采取的行动是可以理解的。中国屏蔽互联网搜索门户网站谷歌(同时开放门户网站比如搜狐等供公民接入互联网)同样是可以理解的,也是正当的——从中国人民的立场看来。China#39;s citizens nevertheless enjoy essential access to a range of domestic and foreign media that has not adopted an anti-China bias. Such unbalanced reporting is itself a expression of a biased, schadenfreude media mindset.尽管如此(屏蔽了谷歌),中国公民依旧可以访问大量未采用反中偏见的国内外媒体。这种不平衡的报道本身就是一种戴有色眼镜的、幸灾乐祸式心态的体现。A pervasively biased Western media unfortunately plays into the hands of persons seeking to characterize China as posing a security ;threat; to its neighbors or to the ed States. Possessing an attitude of schadenfreude, the media not only dismiss, but would seek to impugn and deny China#39;s leaders#39; sincerity when they express the Chinese people#39;s vital need for and yearning for peace and harmony with their Asian neighbors and with the ed States.很不幸地,在西方媒体手中,一个普遍的偏见就是寻求将中国打扮成“威胁”邻国或者美国安全的坏蛋。持有这种幸灾乐祸的态度,媒体不仅会被驳回,而且会寻求抨击和否定中国领导人诚意——当他们表达中国人民对与亚洲邻国和美国的构建和平与和谐关系的迫切需要和向往的时候。China#39;s actions, often in reaction to provocations of other countries (notably with Japan over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, and with Vietnam and the Philippines in the South China Sea) are described as ;aggressive;–therefore requiring counterforce–when in fact they are defensive. The reality of China#39;s long-standing policy of patience, restraint, and dispute resolution through bi-lateral negotiations is never mentioned.中国的行动,经常是对其他国家挑衅的一种反应(尤其是与日本关于尖阁/钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿、与越南和菲律宾关于南海诸岛的冲突),但是它们被描述为“侵略性的”——因此需要被平衡的——而事实上他们是被动防御性的。中国在长期采用的忍耐与克制政策,以及通过双边谈判解决争端的事实,却从未被提及。What to do about foreign media schadenfreude toward China? It is too serious, malevolent, and potentially harmful a problem to ignore.对于外国媒体总是对中国采用幸灾乐祸式的态度该怎么处理?这是一个相当严肃的问题,因为当前的媒体环境充满恶意,故意忽视具有潜在危害的问题。The most important counter-measure is to shine a light on this vile attitude, to sharpen ers#39; and listeners#39; perception of its presence. The second is to call out and condemn instances (and their authors) that are clearly malevolent in intent or effect.最重要的应对措施就是曝光这些卑鄙的行为,提高在读者与听众中的存在感。第二就是调查并谴责在意图和效果上带有明显恶意的报道(以及他们的作者)。The third is to join with and to support, through loyalty and goodwill, the efforts of persons in China and the ed States, within and without government, working to further peace, harmony, mutual respect between our countries, and better lives for both our citizens.第三就是通过忠诚和善意,加入与持中美两国为致力于持久和平与和谐、互相尊重与奔向更好明天的政府与民间交流而努力。Stephen M. Harner is a former Foreign Service Officer (U.S. Department of State), international banker, and consultant in Japan and China. He is a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS).Stephen M. Harner 是美国国务院前外交事务主任,国际家,中日问题顾问。他毕业于约翰·霍普金斯大学高级国际关系研究学院(SAIS)。 /201501/354353。

The Wesley Chapel McDonald#39;s on State Road 54 is the only location in the state with the new Create Your Taste and self-ordering kiosks. The store is one of only 12 nationwide with both options。国道54号(State Road 54)上的韦斯利教堂麦当劳店是全弗罗里达州唯一一家能提供“创建自己口味”菜单以及自助订购销售机的分店。全美国仅有12家麦当劳能使顾客享受这两种务,韦斯利教堂的这家分店便是其中之一。Customers at a McDonald#39;s in Wesley Chapel can order their food at a self-service kiosk。在韦斯利教堂麦当劳店,顾客们可以在自助机上点餐。The new self-ordering kiosks and Create Your Taste s are the latest for the burger giant trying to stay on top of the fast-food world。这个汉堡剧透最新推出了新型的自助点餐机和;我创我味来;菜单,努力在快餐业维持其领头地位。;Our customers are telling us that#39;s what they like, that#39;s what they love, and that#39;s what they want to continue to see us move forward with into the future,; said John Frost, who has been the owner operator at this location for 35 years and jumped at the chance to have these kiosks。约翰·弗罗斯特(John Frost)在这家分店做了35年的业主和运营商,这次他抓住机遇,引进了这些自助点餐机。他说道:;我们的顾客告诉我们他们所喜爱的。而自助点餐机正式是他们的所爱,他们也想要继续见我们向着未来前进。;;We need to do something different to change the trajectory of our business we have to stay relevant with our customers,; Frost said。弗罗斯特还表示:;我们需要标新立异,从而改变生意轨迹。我们的商业要与顾客相关。;There is even a new station devoted to preparing the Create Your Taste items and with a different look. The items take a little longer to prepare and then they#39;re delivered to your table。麦当劳甚至还有个新的门店正在筹备;我创我味来;菜单选项,显示的样子也有点不一样。(与排队点餐的食物相比)顾客在自助点餐机上点的那些食物需要更长的时间来准备,然后所点的食物就会被送上餐桌了。;Yeah, I like that option, too, sit down, maybe do a little ing wait for it to come,; Fettner said。费特纳尔称:;对,我也喜欢这种(点餐)选择。也许坐下读会儿书,我就能等到汉堡送上来了。;But what about that self-ordering kiosk?但关于自助点餐机的反馈如何呢?;Little bit of a learning curve, but it#39;s kind of playing with an iPad,; said Fettner。费特纳尔表示:;需要学习一下(如何操作),但这就像是在玩iPad。;;It#39;s better than standing in line and trying to do it with everybody else. Plus it comes with a nice little basket, it#39;s a little nicer dinning,; said David Fowler。大卫·福勒说:;这比站着排队更好,还能迎合其他所有人。另外点好的汉堡是装在一个小篮子中,这样用餐更为精致。; 话说,魔都的筒子们不用羡慕,魔都有两家麦当劳也可以DIY自己的汉堡哒~ /201507/384741。

They may look like your average building sites, but these houses were created with nothing more than a 3D printer.这些建筑看起来可能很一般,但是这些楼房都是由3D打印机建造的。The houses, one of which is five storeys high, were created in an industrial park in China#39;s Jiangsu province using new3D printing technology.这些房屋(其中一栋为5层楼)位于中国江苏省的一处工业园区内,使用的是新的3D打印技术。The incredible engineering, by Shanghai Win Sun Decoration Design Engineering Co., was pioneered ten months ago when the company printed ten buildings - costing just #163;3,100 - entirely out of concreteusing a giant printer.这个伟大的建筑工程在10个月前由一家上海公司创造,总共10栋楼房,成本只要3100英镑,利用一款巨型打印机通过混凝土打印出来。Now they have taken the technology further to build the first 3D printed villasand the tallest ever 3D printed building.现在他们利用这种技术来建造首座3D打印的别墅以及最高的3D打印建筑。The homes are created using a printer which is 21ft tall, 32ft wide, and 500ft long, according to 3ders.这个3D打印机高21英尺,宽32英尺,长500英尺。The #39;ink#39; used is a mixture of recycled construction waste, glass, steel and cement which is sprayed onlayer by layer until a thick wall is created.而打印机所使用的“墨水”则是回收的建筑材料、玻璃、钢筋以及水泥的混合体,将“墨水”一层层的喷射在一起,直到形成厚厚的墙壁。Ma Yi He, CEO of WinSun, explained that the construction industry produces a large amount of carbon emissions, but with 3D printing, waste material can berecycled.该公司的CEO马一和说,建筑行业产生了大量的二氧化碳排放,但是使用3D打印技术,这些建筑废料都可以得到回收再利用。This process also means that construction workers are at less risk of coming into contact with hazardous materials.这还意味着建筑工人接触有害材料的风险变小了。The new technology could also lead to the building sites of the future could be far less noisy, more clean and easier onthe eye.这种建筑技术还意味着未来的建筑工地将不会有那么多噪音,也更加的干净,也更加的美观。The process is expensive, but at #163;100,000 a house the properties are cheaper than the average home.这种技术是昂贵的,使用这种技术所建造的一个房子的价格是10万英镑,所以还是比一般的房子来得便宜。The display site also featured a single-story house pre-ordered by the Egyptian government, which will soon beshipped to its owner.在这处房屋展示地点上还有一个单层的房子,提前被埃及政府订购,很快将被运送给埃及政府。Mr Ma said: #39;This house was printed within a single day, and is part of a total order of 20,000 units.#39;马先生说:“这栋房子只用了一天就打印完成了,总共有两万个这个的订单。 /201501/355184。

They may look like your average building sites, but these houses were created with nothing more than a 3D printer.这些建筑看起来可能很一般,但是这些楼房都是由3D打印机建造的。The houses, one of which is five storeys high, were created in an industrial park in China#39;s Jiangsu province using new3D printing technology.这些房屋(其中一栋为5层楼)位于中国江苏省的一处工业园区内,使用的是新的3D打印技术。The incredible engineering, by Shanghai Win Sun Decoration Design Engineering Co., was pioneered ten months ago when the company printed ten buildings - costing just #163;3,100 - entirely out of concreteusing a giant printer.这个伟大的建筑工程在10个月前由一家上海公司创造,总共10栋楼房,成本只要3100英镑,利用一款巨型打印机通过混凝土打印出来。Now they have taken the technology further to build the first 3D printed villasand the tallest ever 3D printed building.现在他们利用这种技术来建造首座3D打印的别墅以及最高的3D打印建筑。The homes are created using a printer which is 21ft tall, 32ft wide, and 500ft long, according to 3ders.这个3D打印机高21英尺,宽32英尺,长500英尺。The #39;ink#39; used is a mixture of recycled construction waste, glass, steel and cement which is sprayed onlayer by layer until a thick wall is created.而打印机所使用的“墨水”则是回收的建筑材料、玻璃、钢筋以及水泥的混合体,将“墨水”一层层的喷射在一起,直到形成厚厚的墙壁。Ma Yi He, CEO of WinSun, explained that the construction industry produces a large amount of carbon emissions, but with 3D printing, waste material can berecycled.该公司的CEO马一和说,建筑行业产生了大量的二氧化碳排放,但是使用3D打印技术,这些建筑废料都可以得到回收再利用。This process also means that construction workers are at less risk of coming into contact with hazardous materials.这还意味着建筑工人接触有害材料的风险变小了。The new technology could also lead to the building sites of the future could be far less noisy, more clean and easier onthe eye.这种建筑技术还意味着未来的建筑工地将不会有那么多噪音,也更加的干净,也更加的美观。The process is expensive, but at #163;100,000 a house the properties are cheaper than the average home.这种技术是昂贵的,使用这种技术所建造的一个房子的价格是10万英镑,所以还是比一般的房子来得便宜。The display site also featured a single-story house pre-ordered by the Egyptian government, which will soon beshipped to its owner.在这处房屋展示地点上还有一个单层的房子,提前被埃及政府订购,很快将被运送给埃及政府。Mr Ma said: #39;This house was printed within a single day, and is part of a total order of 20,000 units.#39;马先生说:“这栋房子只用了一天就打印完成了,总共有两万个这个的订单。 /201501/355184。

Oakland-Based Imperfect Will Sell Only ;Ugly; Fruits And Vegetables奥克兰的Imperfect公司专卖“丑”蔬果Experts estimate that six billion pounds or about twenty percent of all produce grown in the US ends up either in landfill or as animal feed, annually. Now Ben Chesler, Ben Simon and Ron Clark want to change that with their aptly named startup ;Imperfect.; The Oakland-based company plans to purchase the;cosmetically challenged produce; from farmers and sell it either through a supermarket chain they recently signed a deal with or by delivering it directly to consumers.据专家估计,在美国每年就有约六十亿磅(或近20%)的农产品因为长得“丑”而被用于动物饲料,甚至被白白丢掉。现在,Ben Chesler, Ben Simon和Ron Clark打算通过他们巧妙命名的Imperfect公司来改变这个情况。该公司计划向农场主收购那些长得“丑”的蔬菜瓜果,并于今年7月开始通过当地超市进行销售或者直接送递到用户家中。Chesler and Simon believe that once consumers realize that ;ugly; fruits and vegetables taste as good as the ;beautiful; produce supermarkets display, they will embrace the cause. The company who is working with farmers in California, plans to start selling the produce to the residents of Oakland and Berkeley by July 2015. If all goes well, Imperfect will extend the service to other California cities and then hopefully, to other states as well.Chesler和Simon相信,顾客如果能意识到蔬果的美丑跟口感并无关系,就会开始接受卖相不好的蔬果。该公司与加利福尼亚的农场主合作,打算2015年7月起向奥克兰和伯克利地区的居民销售这样的农产品。如果进展顺利,Imperfect公司将把生意拓展到加利福尼亚其他城市,甚至其他州。In addition to preventing waste, Imperfect#39;s idea will also result in additional income for farmers who are sometimes forced to trash as much as 50% of their harvest just because it doesn#39;t look ;right.; Consumers that eat the produce will benefit too. That#39;s because the entrepreneurs estimate it will cost as much as 30-50% less than grocery store produce.除了防止浪费,Imperfect公司的理念还包括帮助那些因为果蔬卖相不好而被迫丢掉近农产品的农民增加收入。购买这些“丑”蔬果的顾客也将受益,因为这些果蔬的售价比一般果蔬商店要便宜30%-50%左右呢。And if that#39;s not enough to convince you that ;ugly; produce may be worth a try, how about this? It will help the environment too! That#39;s because rotting produce releases harmful methane into the atmosphere. Additionally, for drought-ridden California the business could not have come at a better time. Each pound of food that gets sold prevents the 25-50 gallons of water it takes to grow a pound of produce from being wasted! The one benefit the entrepreneurs have not factored in is that kids may consume more fruits and vegetables if look ;different; than the boring ones they encounter today!如果上述还不能打动你购买“丑”蔬果,那下面这些呢?您的持还将有利环保——因为丢弃的农产品腐烂后会产生对环境有害的沼气。除此之外,这对于经常遭受旱灾的加利福尼亚来的正是时候。每卖出一磅这样的蔬果,就减少了生长丢弃生长一磅蔬果所需要的25-50加仑的水资源的浪费。还有一点创业者没考虑到,就是比起普通的蔬果,现在孩子们会更愿意吃长相奇特的蔬果呢!译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/381891。

If you are a woman, do you sometimes get annoyed when a man assumes you are an ignorant little girl and tries to explain something to you? And it often turns out he knows no more on the subject than you do.如果你是一名女性,你是否常因被男人当作无知小女生来说教而感到恼怒?而通常,他在这个问题上懂的并不比你多。Now you have an English word to describe this irritating behavior — “mansplaining”. The word has been included in Oxford Dictionaries’ online database and is defined as: “v. (of a man) explain something to someone, typically a woman, in a manner regarded as condescending and patronizing.”现在,你可以用一个英文单词来形容这种令人生厌的行为了——男人说教(mansplaining)。该词已被收入牛津在线词典,其定义为:“(一个男人)以一副居高临下的姿态向别人,通常为女性,解释某件事情。”According to an Atlantic article tracing the cultural history of “mansplaining”, the word began its life in 2008 when writer Rebecca Solnit wrote an essay titled “Men explain things to me” published in the Los Angeles Times. Solnit described the time a man explained a book to her without realizing that she wrote it. Solnit didn’t coin the word “mansplaining” herself, but she drew attention to the problem. In her words:《大西洋月刊》曾有一篇文章追溯该词的历史渊源:它出现于2008年,源自作家丽贝卡#8226;索尔尼发表于《洛杉矶时报》的一篇文章,题为“男人们向我侃侃而谈”。该文讲述了一个男人向索尔尼侃侃而谈一本书,却不知道这本书正出自索尔尼之手。“男人说教”一词并非索尔尼所创,但她的文章引起了人们对这一问题的注意。在文中,索尔尼写道:“Every woman knows what I’m talking about. It’s the presumption that makes it hard, at times, for any woman in any field; that keeps women from speaking up and from being heard when they dare; that crushes young women into silence by indicating, the way harassment on the street does, that this is not their world. It trains us in self-doubt and self-limitation just as it exercises men’s unsupported overconfidence.”“女人们一定都深有同感。因为这样的假设,每个领域的女性都举步维艰;她们缄口不言,即使有人大胆发声也无人倾听;就算在路上遭到了骚扰,也只能忍气吞声,因为人们认为世界不属于她们。这样的假设让我们怀疑自己、限制自己,却让男人们毫无理由地过度自信。Gone viral病毒式传播Solnit’s essay struck a chord with so many ers that “mansplaining” popped up in the comment sections of many websites. It entered the mainstream, and it began to be used not only in the workplace and academia, but also in politics. In the US media for example, you will often stories criticizing Republicans for “mansplaining” birth control to women. There are also headlines such as “GOP (Republican party) tries to woo women voters by mansplaining that they shouldn’t care about equal pay” and “Is Congress guilty of mansplaining to Janet Yellen?”索尔尼的文章引起了众多读者的共鸣,而“男人说教”一词也在诸多网站的区乍现。该词随之进入主流文化,不仅被用在职场或学术界,还被用在政治领域。以美国媒体为例,批评共和党人像“男人一样说教”女性节育的文章比比皆是。还有这样的标题:“大老党(共和党)为赢得女性选民持,劝其不在乎男女同酬”,或者“国会是否应对‘男人式说教’ 珍妮特#8226;耶伦(美联储百年历史上首位女主席)而感到愧疚?”After “mansplaining”, a group of “man”-prefixed words appeared to shame men for their bad behavior. There is “mansping”, the habit some men have of taking up too much space in public places, especially sping their legs when sitting on public transit. There is “manterrupt”, coined from “man” and “interrupt”. The latest “man”-word is “manslamming”, coined recently by New York magazine to describe “the sidewalk M.O. (modus operandi) of men who remain apparently oblivious to the personal space of those around them.”在“男人说教”一词之后,一系列“男人”为前缀的词语应运而生,用以讽刺男人们的不良行为。比如“大爷式占座”,比喻男性在公共场合占用过多空间的行为,尤其是在交通工具上张开双腿而坐;还有 “男人(man)”和“插嘴(interrupt)”组合而成“男人插嘴”;以及最新出现的“男人式碰撞”,它来自《纽约客》杂志最近的一篇文章,用以描述“男人走人行道时只看自己周围的个人空间(如果你不先让道,他们会直接撞过来)”。These words tend to catch on because they describe behaviors that men usually adopt unconsciously and that women find annoying or sometimes offensive, says Megan Garber in The Atlantic. According to Garber, these words point to forms of privilege that men think they are rightfully entitled to. These words are descriptive as well as prescriptive. Garber says: “They both describe a behavior and strongly advise against it. They hint at that the troubling fact that privilege tends to be highly apparent to everyone except the people who enjoy it.”梅根#8226;加伯尔在《大西洋月刊》的文章中写道,这些词语的流行正是因为男性对这些行为毫无意识,女性却早已恼怒不堪、时常感到不适。在加伯尔看来,这些词语都指出了一种共同的现象:男性认为一些特权是他们生来就有的。这些词语既是描述性的,也是规范性的。加伯尔说,“它们既是对一种行为的描述,也是对这种行为的告诫。它们反应出一个不容乐观的事实:人人都能看到这种特权的存在,而享受它的人却对此浑然不觉。” /201502/358682。