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江门手术治疗早泄要多少钱江门人民医院前列腺冶疗江门阳萎治疗哪家好 Your birthday may be more important than you think when it comes your health.考虑到健康因素,你的生日可能比你想象的更重要。Scientists at Columbia University used an algorithm to identify ;significant associations; between the time a year a person is born and 55 diseases, including ADHD, asthma and heart disease. The new study, which was published in the Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, concludes that people born in May have the lowest overall risk for disease, while people born in October have the highest.哥伦比亚大学的科学家们通过某种算法发现生日和55种疾病之间存在明显联系,这些疾病包括小儿多动症、哮喘和心脏病。这一新研究发表在《美国医疗信息学协会杂志》上,它的结论认为,五月出生的人得病几率最低,而十月出生的人几率最高。Though previous research had explored the connection between disease risk and birth season, this study confirmed 39 associations as well as laid out 16 new ones. Researchers looked at more than 1,600 diseases and 1.7 million patients treated in New York between 1985 and 2013 to identify the months most associated with asthma (October and July babies), ADHD (November babies, matching a Swedish study), and nine kinds of heart disease. They plan to replicate the study in other locations, to better identify the environmental factors contributing to such disparities.尽管之前有研究探索了患病风险和出生季节的联系,但此次研究确认了39种,并对新的16种联系加以说明。为了发现出生月份和哮喘(十月和七月的婴儿最易患此病)、小儿多动症(十一月婴儿,和瑞典的一项研究结果一致)以及9种心脏病之间的联系,研究人员对1985至2013年期间在纽约治疗的170万患者以及查过1600种疾病进行分析。他们计划在其他地区重复这一研究,以便更准确的鉴别环境因素在其中起的作用。;It#39;s important not to get overly nervous about these results because even though we found significant associations the overall disease risk is not that great,; said Nicholas Tatonetti, the study#39;s senior author and an assistant professor at Columbia University Medical Center. ;The risk related to birth month is relatively minor when compared to more influential variables like diet and exercise.;该项研究的主要作者,哥伦比亚大学医学中心的尼古拉斯·塔托内蒂教授表示:;重要的是,不要对这些结果过于紧张。虽然我们发现了这些明显的联系,但总体患病风险并不高。和饮食、锻炼等其他因素相比,出生月份带来的患病风险相对较小。; /201506/379920江门福康男科医院收费标准

江门市治疗男性不育哪家医院最好General Description概述Among the Han people,which constitute a vast majority of China#39;s total population,the passage into adulthood is no longer celebrated,except in those very, very traditional families. In ancient times,this ceremony marked a person#39;s transition to adulthood and was generally referred to as the capping or hair-pinning ceremony.汉族占中国人口的绝大多数。在汉族人中,除了那些非常传统的家庭,成人礼已不再举行。在古代,这一仪式标志着一个人进入了成年阶段,通常被称为“冠礼”或“异礼”。This ceremony started from the dan society of the long past and continued to be held until the Qing Dynasty(1644一1911).The Manchu rulers then felt that this ceremony of the Han people had become“hypocritical; and meaningless and thus mandated that this ceremony,which had lasted for thousands of years,should be abolished. From then on the Han people have to enter the stage of adulthood without knowing it. Nowadays,it is mainly in those minor ethnic groups fihat this life passage is still celebrated. In some parts of China,this ceremony is experiencing a revival.这一礼仪始于远古的氏族社会,一直延续到清朝(1644一1911)。清朝的满族统治者感到汉族的这一礼仪已经变成了一种虚文假醋,无足轻重,于是一纸令下,终结了汉族绵延几千年的成人礼。从此后,汉族人只能在“不知不觉”中进人成年。现在,中国的成人仪式主要集中在一些少数民族。有些地方,汉族的成人礼也在渐渐复兴。Capping and Hair-Pinning冠礼和异礼The capping and hair-pinning ceremony of the ancient times was originally intended to prevent non-adults from getting married and later evolved into a moral test on adults#39; marriage qualifications.古代的成年礼本意是为了禁止与未成年的异性通婚。冠礼是成年礼的一种高级的代表形式,也可以说是对成年人婚姻资格的一种道德审查。When a young man reached 18 or 20 years old,the capping ceremony would be held. It consisted of several procedures. The hair of the young man should be done up and pinned. Then three caps of different materials which carried different meanings should be placed the youth#39;s head. This was called ;Three Caps Cer emony;.After this,the father or other seniors would appoint an alias to the new adult apart from his name. Only those men who had been through the“Three Caps Ceremony; and had an alias could get married in the past.一个年轻的男人十八岁或二十岁时,要举行冠礼。冠礼的程序可以分为三部分。首先要把参加冠礼的年轻人的头发盘起替上。然后给他戴上三顶不同材质不同含义的帽子,这一礼仪叫“三加”。“三加”之后,由父亲或其他长辈在其本名之外另起一个“字”,只有“冠而字”的男子,才具备日后择偶成婚的资格。The hair-pinning ceremony would be held when a girl was 15 years old. At the ceremony the mother or another senior did up and pinned the girl#39;s hair. This change of hairstyle meant that the girl had reached maturity and can be wedded.与男子的冠礼相对,女子的成年礼叫异礼,也叫加笋,在巧岁时举行,就是由女孩的母亲或长辈替她把头发盘结起来,加上一根簪子;改变发式表示从此结束少女时代,可以嫁人了。Teeth-Painting and Tattooing漆齿和纹身People from the Dai and Bulang nationalities celebrate the passage into adulthood through teeth-painting and tattooing. Those without painted teeth cannot engage themselves in socialising. Before his/her teeth are painted,the child usually smears them with some acid juice. And then some pine wood is lit to smoke the teeth. This may continue for several days until the teeth are all black.漆齿和纹身是傣族、布朗族等成人礼的组成部分。没有漆齿者不能公开参加社交活动。染齿前,需先用酸汁涂抹一遍牙齿,再点一束松明,以黑烟熏齿,连染数日,直至将雪白的牙齿染成墨黑色。Tattooing is only for men. There is folk saying among the Dai and Bulang people,“Frogs have patterns on their legs;how can men have no tattoos on their legs; Men are proud of their tattoos;those without tattoos will be looked down upon and regarded as cowards by girls. The tattooing ceremony is usually held when the bov is fourteen or fifteen.只有男人才会纹身。民间有谚语说:“蛙腿尚有花纹,男人之腿怎可没有花纹。”男性以纹身为荣,身上不刺纹者,会被姑娘们视为懦夫。纹身一般在十四五岁时进行。Changing into Trousers or Skirts换裙和换裤The Mosuo,Naxi,Pumi and Yi nationalities celebrate their passage of life into adulthood by changing into trousers or skirts.梭族、纳西族、普米族、彝族等都通过更换饰象征成年,女的换裙,男的换裤。When a Mosuo child reaches 13,the rite of passage into adulthood will be held. This ceremony usually takes place on the first day of the lunar new year. The boy stands beside the“male column; on the left of the main hall and the girl beside the ;female column; on the right, with one foot on pork and the other on a bag of grains,which means that they will be prosperous all along their life. Then the mother dresses her girl in a skirt and the uncle dresses the boy in adult men#39;s clothes. The rites of passage into adulthood held by the Naxi and Pumi people are similar to this.梭族孩子长到13岁,便要举行成年礼。成年礼仪式一律在农历大年初一凌晨举行。行礼时,男孩站在正房左边“男柱”下,女孩站在右边“女柱”下,一只脚踩着猪膘肉,一只脚踩着粮袋,象征终生吃用不尽。女孩由阿妈为其穿上裙子。男孩由舅舅为其穿戴簇新男装。纳西族、普米族的成人礼与此相似。Other Customs其他风俗There are other interesting customs concerning celebration of the passage into adulthood. For example the rite of passage into adulthood of the Jinuo people involves cattle slaying and saga-chanting. Boys of the Yao nationality have to pass about ten dangerous tests and take oaths not to conduct bad deeds. There are 56 ethnic groups in China and customs vary,it is simply impossible to discuss all of them.关于成人礼,还有其他一些有意思的风俗。比如基诺族举行成人礼时要杀牛唱诗;瑶族的男孩要通过近十项危险的考验,而且要发誓不干坏事。中国有五十六个少数民族,要讨论所有的风俗习惯是不可能的。 /201505/377070江门市第二人民医院男性专科 江门台山市治疗阳痿哪家医院最好

江门福康医院在线咨询Breast biopsies are good at telling the difference between healthy tissue and cancer, but less reliable for identifying more subtle abnormalities, a new study finds.一项新的研究发现,乳房活检尽管在分辨健康组织和癌变组织差异的时候相当有效,但要辨别出更细微的异常,这种方式就不太可靠了。Because of the uncertainty, women whose results fall into the gray zone between normal and malignant — with diagnoses like “atypia” or “ductal carcinoma in situ” — should seek second opinions on their biopsies, researchers say. Misinterpretation can lead women to have surgery and other treatments they do not need, or to miss out on treatments they do need.研究人员表示,由于存在这样的不确定性,如果一位女性的活检结果处于正常和恶性之间的灰色地带——诊断书中有“异型性”或“导管原位癌”这样的字眼——她就应该寻求关于活检结果的第二诊断意见。误判可能会导致女性接受其实并不需要的手术等治疗方法,或者让她们没有得到确实需要的治疗。The new findings, reported Tuesday in JAMA, challenge the common belief that a biopsy is the gold standard and will resolve any questions that might arise from an unclear mammogram or ultrasound.人们普遍认为活检是最可靠的标准,可以解决不明朗的乳房X光或超声波检查结果提出的任何疑问,而本周二发表在《美国医学会杂志》(The Journal of the American Medical Association,简称JAMA)上的这项研究结果对这个观点提出了挑战。In the ed States, about 1.6 million women a year have breast biopsies; about 20 percent of the tests find cancer. Ten percent identify atypia, a finding that cells inside breast ducts are abnormal but not cancerous. About 60,000 women each year are found to have ductal carcinoma in situ, or D.C.I.S., which also refers to abnormal cells that are confined inside the milk ducts and so are not considered invasive; experts disagree about whether D.C.I.S. is cancer.在美国,每年约有160万女性做乳房活检;约20%的活检发现存在癌细胞。10%诊断为异型性,即发现乳房导管内的细胞异常,但没有发生癌变。每年大约有6万名女性发现患有导管原位癌(ductal carcinoma in situ,简称DCIS)。这同样指的是异常细胞仅存在于乳管内,因此不具侵袭性。DCIS究竟是否属于癌症,专家的意见也尚未统一。“It is often thought that getting the biopsy will give definitive answers, but our study says maybe it won’t,” said Dr. Joann G. Elmore, a professor at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle and the first author of the new study on the accuracy of breast biopsies.“人们常常认为,活检可以给出确切,但我们的研究显示未必如此,”在西雅图的华盛顿大学医学院(University of Washington School of Medicine)担任教授的琼·G·埃尔莫尔(Joann G. Elmore)说。她是这篇关于乳房活检准确度的新研究论文的第一作者。Her team asked pathologists to examine biopsy slides, then compared their diagnoses with those given by a panel of leading experts who had seen the same slides. There were some important differences, especially in the gray zone.她的团队请病理医师查看活检切片,并让一个权威专家小组查看相同的切片,然后把病理师和专家小组的诊断结果进行比较。研究发现,二者之间存在一些重大差异,在灰色地带尤其如此。An editorial in JAMA called the findings “disconcerting.” It said the study should be a call to action for pathologists and breast cancer scientists to improve the accuracy of biopsy ings, by consulting with one another more often on challenging cases and by creating clearer definitions for various abnormalities so that diagnoses will be more consistent and precise. The editorial also recommended second opinions in ambiguous cases.JAMA发表了一篇社论称这个发现“令人不安”,并表示此项研究应该提醒病理医师和乳腺癌方面的科学家行动起来,提高活检诊断的准确性,方法是互相讨论疑难病例,并对各种异常状况给出更明确的定义,以便提高诊断的一致性和准确性。社论还建议在遇见模棱两可的病例时寻求第二诊断意见。A second opinion usually does not require another biopsy; it means asking one or more additional pathologists to look at the microscope slides made from the first biopsy. Dr. Elmore said doctors could help patients find a pathologist for a second opinion.第二诊断意见通常不需要再做一次活检;而是指请另外一位或多位病理医师查看第一次活检获得的显微镜切片。埃尔莫尔士称,医生可以帮助患者去找另一位病理医师,以便获得第二诊断意见。A surgeon not involved with the study, Dr. Elisa Port, a co-director of the Dubin Breast Center and the chief of breast surgery at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan, said the research underlined how important it is that biopsies be interpreted by highly experienced pathologists who specialize in breast disease.埃莉萨·波特士(Elisa Port)在曼哈顿西奈山医院(Mount Sinai Hospital)担任杜宾乳房中心(Dubin Breast Center)的联合主任兼乳房手术负责人,没有参与这项研究。她认为,该研究强调了活检应由擅长乳房疾病的经验丰富的病理医师来解读的重要性。“As a surgeon, I only know what to do based on the guidance of my pathologist,” Dr. Port said. “Those people behind the scenes are actually the ones who dictate care.”“作为一名外科医生,我进行治疗的依据就是病理医师的诊断意见,”波特士说。“这些幕后工作者才是真正决定治疗方案的人。”In Dr. Elmore’s study, the panel of three expert pathologists examined biopsy slides from 240 women, one slide per case, and came to a consensus about the diagnosis.埃尔莫尔士的研究使用了240名女性的乳房活检切片,每个病例一个切片。由三名病理学专家组成的小组会查看这些切片,并对诊断结果达成共识。“These were very, very experienced breast pathologists who have written textbooks in the field,” Dr. Elmore said.“这些病理学家对乳房疾病有非常、非常丰富的经验,一直在撰写这个领域的教科书,”埃尔莫尔士说。Then the slides were divided into four sets, and 60 slides were sent to each of 115 pathologists in eight states who routinely breast biopsies. The doctors interpreted the slides and returned them, and the same set was sent to the next pathologist. The study took seven years to complete.然后,切片被分成四组,每组60个,分别送往8个州的115名在日常工作中对乳房活检结果进行判断的病理医师。他们每一个人都对这组切片做出解读,然后返还。同一组切片再被送到下一名病理医师那里。整项研究历时七年才完成。The goal was to find out how the practicing pathologists stacked up against the experts. The task was tougher than actual practice, because in real cases pathologists can consult colleagues about ambiguous findings and ask for additional slides. They could not do so in the study.研究的目标是找出日常执业的病理医师与专家的意见有多大差异。这个任务要比一般情况更加困难,因为在现实工作中,病理医师遇到疑难病例时可以和同事讨论,并且要求提供更多的切片。而在这项研究中,他们不能这样做。There was good news and bad news. When it came to invasive cancer — cancer that has begun growing beyond the layer of tissue in which it started, into nearby healthy tissue — the outside pathologists agreed with the experts in 96 percent of the interpretations, which Dr. Elmore called reassuring. They found the vast majority of the cancers.研究结果表明,好消息与坏消息并存。当出现侵袭性癌症时——癌细胞已经超出最初生长的组织层,发展到了附近的健康组织中——日常执业的病理医师和专家的意见吻合度达96%。埃尔莫尔士说这一结果让人感到安心。绝大多数的癌症都被他们发现了。For completely benign findings, the outside pathologists matched the experts in 87 percent of the ings, but misdiagnosed 13 percent of healthy ones as abnormal.对于完全良性的病例,日常执业的病理医师与专家的意见吻合度为87%,但他们把13%的健康切片误判为异常。The next two categories occupied the gray zone. One was D.C.I.S. For this condition, the pathologists agreed with the experts on 84 percent of the cases. But they missed 13 percent of cases that the experts had found, and diagnosed D.C.I.S. in 3 percent of the ings where the experts had ruled it out.接下来的两个类别则属于灰色地带。第一个是DCIS。对于这种情况,日常执业的病理医师和专家的意见吻合度为84%。不过,有13%的病例经专家发现存在DCIS,但医师没有看出来;还有3%的病例被专家认为不存在DCIS,却被他们判断为存在。The finding is of concern, because D.C.I.S. sometimes becomes invasive cancer, and it is often treated like an early-stage cancer, with surgery and radiation. Missing the diagnosis can leave a woman at increased risk for cancer — but calling something D.C.I.S. when it is not can result in needless tests and treatments.这一发现令人担忧,因为DCIS有时会发展成侵袭性癌症,而且通常被当成早期癌症在治疗,会动用手术和化疗手段。没有判断出实际存在的DCIS,可能会增加女性的患癌风险——但误判没有DCIS的病例的话,则会导致不必要的检查和治疗。The second finding in the gray zone was atypia, in which abnormal, but not cancerous, cells are found in breast ducts. Women with atypia have an increased risk of breast cancer, and some researchers recommend surgery to remove the abnormal tissue, as well as intensified screening and drugs to lower the risk of breast cancer.灰色地带的第二个发现涉及异型性,即乳房导管里发现了异常但并未癌变的细胞。这类女性患乳腺癌的风险会有所上升,除了通过加强筛查和使用药物来降低罹患乳腺癌的风险之外,一些研究者还建议用手术来去除异常组织。But in the study, the outside pathologists and the experts agreed on atypia in only 48 percent of the interpretations. The outside pathologists diagnosed atypia in 17 percent of the ings where the experts had not, and missed it in 35 percent where the experts saw it.这项研究发现,在异型性方面,日常执业的病理医师和专家的判断只有48%的吻合度。有17%的病例专家认为不存在异型性,却被医师判断为存在;还有35%的病例专家认为存在异型性,但医师并没有发现。“Women with atypia and D.C.I.S. need to stop and realize it’s not the same thing as invasive cancer, and they have time to stop and reflect and think about it, and ask for a second opinion,” Dr. Elmore said.“有异型性和DCIS的女性不要匆忙采取行动,而是要认识到它们和侵袭性癌症不是一回事。她们有时间停下来考虑一下,想想这件事,寻求第二诊断意见,”埃尔莫尔士说。Abby Howell, 57, who lives in Seattle, two years ago had some calcifications show up on a mammogram, which are sometimes a sign of cancer. She was given the option of just mammograms every six months or having a biopsy. She chose the biopsy, thinking it would be definitive. But instead, it showed atypia.57岁的艾比·豪厄尔(Abby Howell)住在西雅图。两年前, X光检查显示她的乳房有钙化现象,而有时这是癌症的征兆。她可以选择简单地每半年做一次乳房X光检查,也可以选择做活检。她选择了后者,以为活检结果会明确无误。但检查结果为异型性。Ms. Howell, who has a master’s degree in public health, looked up the condition and realized it was unclear whether those odd-looking cells would ever lead to cancer. Surgery was recommended, but she decided to watch and wait instead. So far, her mammograms have been normal, but the experience has shaken her peace of mind.豪厄尔拥有公共卫生硕士学位,她了解了一下情况,发现目前还不清楚这些异常细胞会不会导致癌症。医生建议手术治疗,但她决定观望等待。迄今为止,她的乳房X光检查结果一直正常,但这段经历让她感到心里不踏实。“If I had to do it all over again, I wouldn’t have jumped for the biopsy,” Ms. Howell said. “I really regret it. In a way it’s made more anxiety in my life.”“如果不得不再来一遍的话,我就不会匆忙选择活检了,”豪厄尔说。“我真的很后悔。从某种程度上说,这给我的生活带来了更多的焦虑感。” /201503/365369 Lenore Skenazy, a New York City mother of two, earned the sobriquet “America’s Worst Mom” after reporting in a newspaper column that she had allowed her younger son, then 9, to ride the subway alone.家住纽约市的莉诺·斯科纳兹(Lenore Skenazy)是两个孩子的母亲,自从报纸专栏报道了她让9岁的小儿子独自乘坐地铁的事情之后,“美国最差妈妈”的绰号就落在了她的头上。The damning criticism she endured, including a threat of arrest for child endangerment, intensified her desire to encourage anxious parents to give their children the freedom they need to develop the self-confidence and resilience to cope effectively with life’s many challenges.她承受了严厉的谴责,甚至面临着因危害儿童罪而受到逮捕的威胁,但这一切反而令她的信念更加坚定,她期望能通过自己的努力,鼓励焦虑的家长们放手,给孩子更多自由,让孩子们有机会建立自信心和适应力,从而更有效地应对生活中的诸多挑战。One result was the publication in 2009 of her book “Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children (Without Going Nuts With Worry).” A second result is the Free Range Kids Project and a 13-part series, starting Thursday on Discovery Life Channel, called “World’s Worst Mom.” In it, Ms. Skenazy intervenes to rescue bubble-wrapped kids from their overprotective parents by guiding the children safely through a sequence of once-forbidden activities and showing their anxious parents how well the children perform and how proud they are of what they accomplished.为此,她在2009年出版了一本书,名为《放养孩子》(Free Range Kids: How to Raise Safe, Self-Reliant Children [Without Going Nuts With Worry])。此外她还建立了“放养孩子计划”(Free Range Kids Project),并拍摄了名为《世界上最糟糕的妈妈》(‘World’s Worst Mom’)的13集系列片,从周四开始在探索生活频道(Discovery Life Channel)播出。在这个节目里,斯科纳兹试图通过干预将受到过度保护的“花骨朵”们从父母手中解放出来,指导他们安全地完成一系列一度被父母严格禁止的活动,向那些总是忧心忡忡的父母们显示,他们的孩子有多棒,以及他们的孩子对自己的成就有多么感到自豪。The term “helicopter parents” applies to far more than those who hover relentlessly over their children’s academic and musical development. As depicted in the first episode of the series, it applies to 10-year-old Sam’s very loving mother who wouldn’t let him ride a bike (“she’s afraid I’ll fall and get hurt”), cut up his own meat (“Mom thinks I’ll cut my fingers off”), or play “rough sports” like skating. The plea from a stressed-out, thwarted Sam: “I just want to do things by myself.”“直升机父母”这个词常形容的是那些每分每秒都悬在孩子头顶,督促他们在学业和音乐上不断进步的父母,但其实这个词的适用范围远远不止于此。斯科纳兹系列片的第一集中介绍的、10岁男孩山姆的母亲就是典型的“直升机父母”。她对自己的儿子过分爱护,以至于不允许他骑自行车(“她怕我会跌倒受伤”),不许他自己用餐刀切碎盘中肉食(“妈妈认为我肯定会切到手指头”),更不许参加滑冰之类“粗野的运动”。压力山大且倍受挫折的山姆恳求道:“我想要的,不过是自己的事情自己做而已。”In an interview, Ms. Skenazy said, “Having been brainwashed by all the stories we hear, there’s a prevailing fear that any time you’re not directly supervising your child, you’re putting the child in danger.” The widesp publicity now given to crimes has created an exaggerated fear of the dangers children face if left to navigate and play on their own.斯科纳兹女士在一次采访中说:“被道听途说的传闻洗脑之后,人们普遍存在这么一种忧虑:只要没有紧紧盯着自己孩子的一举一动,就是将孩子置于险境。”现如今对犯罪行为的广泛宣传,也大大夸大了让儿童独立行动和玩耍时可能遇到的危险。Yet, according to Peter Gray, a research psychologist at Boston College, “the actual rate of strangers abducting or molesting children is very small. It’s more likely to happen at the hands of a relative or family friend. The statistics show no increase in childhood dangers. If anything, there’s been a decrease.”然而,美国波士顿学院(Boston College)的研究心理学家彼得·格雷(Peter Gray)指出:“实际上,陌生人拐骗或猥亵儿童的案发率非常低,亲戚或家庭友人作案的机率反而更大。而且,统计数据并未显示儿童面临的危险增加,实情是此类事件是呈下降趋势的。”Experts say there is no more crime against children by strangers today — and probably significantly less — than when I was growing up in the 1940s and ’50s, a time when I walked to school alone and played outdoors with friends unsupervised by adults. “The world is not perfect — it never was — but we used to trust our children in it, and they learned to be resourceful,” Ms. Skenazy said. “The message these anxious parents are giving to their children is ‘I love you, but I don’t believe in you. I don’t believe you’re as competent as I am.’ ”专家们表示,与我小时候,也就是20世纪40年代和50年代相比,今天由陌生人实施的针对儿童的犯罪非但没有增加,很可能还显著减少了。要知道,我们那时候是自己步行上学,还在户外跟朋友玩耍,旁边都没有成年人的监管。“世界不是完美的——从来就不是,但过去我们一直相信孩子们自己能行,相信他们可以从中学会随机应变,”斯科纳兹女士说。“而如今的这些焦虑的父母传达给子女们的信息却是:‘我爱你,但我不信任你。我不相信你像我一样能干。’ ”Dr. Gray, author of “Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life,” said in an interview, “If children are not allowed to take routine risks, they’ll be less likely to be able to handle real risks when they do occur.”格雷士撰写了《会玩才会学——当野孩子有什么不好?》(Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life)一书。他在接受采访时说,“如果孩子们从没有机会面对日常风险,那么,当真正的危险降临时,他们越不可能有能力应对。”Case in point: His college’s counseling office has seen a doubling in the rate of emergency calls in the last five years, “mainly for problems kids used to solve on their own,” like being called a bad name by a roommate or finding a mouse in the room. “Students are prepared academically, but they’re not prepared to deal with day-to-day life, which comes from a lack of opportunity to deal with ordinary problems,” Dr. Gray said. “Over the past 60 years, there’s been a huge change, well documented by social scientists, in the hours a day children play outdoors — less than half as much as parents did at their children’s ages,” he said.举例为:在过去五年内,他所在学院的辅导办公室接到的紧急求助电话翻了一番,“基本上都是为了一些以往孩子们可以独立解决的问题”,比如被室友起了个难听的昵称或是在房间里发现一只老鼠等等。“学生们只准备好了如何搞定学业上的困难,却并没有准备好要如何应对日常生活,因为他们一直没什么机会去处理那些寻常的问题,”格雷士说。“社会科学家的资料显示,在过去的60年里发生了巨大的变化——现在孩子们每天在户外玩耍的时间还不到他们父母当初的一半,”他说。In decades past, children made up their own games and acquired important life skills in the process. “In pickup games,” Dr. Gray said, “children make the rules, negotiate, and figure out what’s fair to keep everyone happy. They develop creativity, empathy and the ability to the minds of other players, instead of having adults make the rules and solve all the problems.”几十年前,孩子们自创游戏,并从这一过程中习得重要的生活技能。格雷士说:“在临时组织的比赛中,孩子们自己制定规则并相互协商,最后确定下来让每个人都满意的最公平的玩法。由此他们的创造力得到了开发,也学会了揣度和体谅其他玩家的心理,而不是任由成年人给他们定下规矩并大包大揽地解决所有问题。”Dr. Gray links the astronomical rise in childhood depression and anxiety disorders, which are five to eight times more common than they were in the 1950s, to the decline in free play among young children. “Young people today are less likely to have a sense of control over their own lives and more likely to feel they are the victims of circumstances, which is predictive of anxiety and depression,” he said.格雷士认为,今天儿童抑郁症和焦虑症会飙升至20世纪50年代的五到八倍,与儿童自由玩耍时间的减少有关。他说:“如今的年轻人对生活的掌控力较弱,相反,他们更容易觉得自己不过是客观环境下的牺牲品,这当然会产生焦虑和抑郁情绪。”There are also physical consequences to restricting children’s outdoor play because there are no adults available to supervise it. Children today spend many more hours indoors than in years past, which in part accounts for the rise in childhood obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Many elementary schools have even canceled recess, believing it is time better spent cramming children’s heads with facts and figures.由于成年人没有足够的时间和精力来监管,就限制孩子们能在户外玩耍的时间,这对他们的身体也会造成影响。与以前相比,如今的孩子们待在室内的时间大大增加,从某种程度上导致了儿童肥胖和2型糖尿病的多发。很多小学甚至把课间休息也取消了,他们认为与其休息,还不如抓紧这些时间把资料和数字塞进孩子们的脑袋里。“Childhood should be a time of freedom and play, not building a résumé for college,” Dr. Gray said.格雷士说:“童年本就应该自由玩耍,这段时光不是用来打造漂亮的大学入学简历的。”As Ms. Skenazy put it, “if parents truly believe children must be supervised every second of the day, then they can’t walk to school, play in the park, or wake up Saturday morning, get on their bikes and go have an adventure.”正如斯科纳兹女士所说的那样:“如果家长真的认为自己的子女每分每秒都离不开照管,那么孩子们就不能自己走路去上学或是在公园玩耍,更不能在星期六早上起床后骑上自行车出门去探索新天地。”Some 2,000 families were screened by the Discovery Life Channel to find 13 families crippled by anxiety yet willing to have an intervention. “The parents weren’t easy pushovers,” Ms. Skenazy said. “Some were very unhappy to see me at first. But once pride in what their children achieved replaced their fears, they were ecstatic — relaxed and happy instead of crippled with fear.”探索生活频道筛查了约2000个家庭,从中找到了13个深受焦虑困扰却愿意尝试接受干预的家庭。“要说父母们可不是件容易的事,”斯科纳兹说。“有些人一开始根本不想见到我。但当他们对孩子成就的自豪感冲淡了恐惧,每个人都欣喜若狂,变得又轻松又快乐。”Ms. Skenazy spent four days with each family, introducing a different challenge each day. Sam learned to cut cheese and slice a tomato with a sharp knife and then made sandwiches for his parents. He also learned to ride a two-wheeler.斯科纳兹与每个家庭都共处了四天,每一天都给他们提出不同的挑战课题。山姆学会了用锋利的餐刀将奶酪和西红柿切片,然后给父母做三明治。他还学会了骑两轮脚踏车。“I don’t guarantee I’ll take away all their worry, just give them the confidence to loosen the reins on their kids,” she said. “Kids need roots and wings. Parents give them roots. I give them wings.”“我无法保我可以解除他们所有的忧虑,我只是给了他们一点信心,让他们放松对孩子们的束缚而已,”斯科纳兹说。“孩子们需要根基和翅膀。如果说父母给了他们根基,那么,就让我来给他们翅膀吧。” /201503/367277中山包皮手术多少钱江门福康医院泌尿科



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