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西安市临潼区人民医院消化病怎么预约城市助手

2020年01月26日 02:26:46 | 作者:安活动 | 来源:新华社
Within China, there#39;s an ages-old argument over which province has the spiciest food. There#39;s an old saying that #39;Guizhou people like spiciness, Sichuan people don#39;t fear spiciness, and Hunan people fear there is no spiciness.#39;在中国,围绕哪个省份食物最辣的争议由来已久。有句老话说,贵州人爱吃辣,四川人不怕辣,湖南人怕不辣。Fu Niu Tang, a recently opened beef noodle restaurant in Beijing, is trying to take the spicy crown for Hunan. It claims to have the world#39;s spiciest rice noodles and is challenging patrons to finish a bowl of the signature dish in 10 minutes. Those who can finish the task are awarded with a T-shirt and a card that entitles them to a permanent 10% discount.最近在北京开业的一家名为“伏牛堂”的牛肉面馆正努力为湖南争取“第一辣”的头衔。该餐馆声称拥有全世界最辣的米粉,而且正在举办挑战赛,邀请顾客在10分钟之内吃完一碗这样的招牌米粉。能够完成这一任务的顾客将被奖励一件T恤和一张打折卡,永久享受九折优惠。The restaurant says the hot sauce for its rice noodles is 125 times hotter than Tabasco sauce.伏牛堂称其米粉中的辣椒酱要比塔瓦斯科辣椒酱(Tabasco sauce)辣125倍。So far, about 300 people have taken the spicy noodle challenge, but only 15 have been able to complete the task. Zhao Lu is one of them.到目前为止,已有大约300人接受了吃辣米粉的挑战,但只有15人能够完成这一任务。赵路就是他们中的一个。Mr. Zhao, 37, is originally from northeastern Shandong province--not a place particularly known for its spicy food. After paying a 35 yuan (.60) registration fee and signing a liability waiver, Mr. Zhao was served the bowl of rice noodles--which at first glance appear like any other regular bowl of beef noodles, with seasonings and chili sauce in the middle and green scallions sprinkled on the top.今年37岁的赵路来自山东省,这并不是一个特别以辛辣食物闻名的地方。在缴纳了人民币35元的注册费并签署了免责协议后,有人给赵路端来了一碗牛肉米粉。第一眼看上去,这碗米粉与其他普通牛肉米粉似乎并无不同,作料和辣椒酱都在碗中央,米粉上还撒着绿色的葱花。After two minutes, Mr. Zhao#39;s eyes began to tear up and his hands were shaking. But he kept going, cheered on by the restaurant#39;s other patrons. At one point, he asked a waiter for some sugar, which was allowed. He finished the noodles in eight minutes--and promptly retreated to the bathroom, where he remained for 20 minutes.两分钟后,赵路的两眼开始流泪,双手开始颤抖。但他继续埋头大吃,其他顾客在一旁为他加油助威。吃到半截,他请务员给他拿点糖,他的请求被接受了。他在八分钟内吃完了米粉,然后立即去了卫生间,他在那里待了20分钟。#39;I had some stomach convulsions, but I#39;m OK now,#39; he said. #39;I wouldn#39;t recommend that normal people try this.#39;他说:“我胃有点痉挛,这会儿好一点。”他还说:“我建议一般人不要做这种挑战。”Asked whether he would ever give the noodles another go, he was adamant. #39;No! No! No!#39; he said.当被问到他是否会再来一次时,他态度坚决地说:“不!不!不!”Zhang Tianyi, the restaurant#39;s manager who hails from Hunan, said he had tried the noodles himself but could only finish a quarter of a bowl. #39;As a local Hunanese person, I#39;m confident these are the spiciest beef rice noodles in the world,#39; he said.这家餐馆的经理张天一是湖南人,他说他自己曾经吃过这种米粉,但只吃完了四分之一碗。他说:“作为湖南人,我相信这是世界上最辣的牛肉米粉。”The noodles#39; not-so-secret ingredient is the seven-star chili, a searing off-shoot of China#39;s popular facing-heaven chilies, so-called because they grow with their pointed ends facing upward.这种米粉中一种并非秘密的原料是七星椒,是中国颇受喜爱的朝天椒的一种。之所以叫朝天椒,是因为它们的尖是朝上长的。#39;We did a lot of research and went to the chili plantation ourselves before we decided to buy this chili--the best--there,#39; said Xiong Wen, an employee at the restaurant. #39;These chilies are only grown in a very small part of the whole plantation, where they call it the king of chilies.#39;这家餐馆的店员温雄(音)说:“我们做了很多研究,亲自去了辣椒种植园,然后才决定买这种辣椒,这种辣椒是那里最好的。”温雄还说:“这种辣椒只在整个种植园的一小片区域种植,那里的人称它为辣椒王。”Still, it#39;s debatable whether Hunanese food is really the spiciest in China. After all, Mr. Zhang admits, #39;the farmer plants this chili in Hunan province, but they introduced it and got the seven-star chili seed from Sichuan.#39;不过,湘菜是否是中国最辣的,这还值得商榷。毕竟张天一承认,湖南的农民种这种辣椒,但他们是从外地引进的,七星椒的种子来自四川。 /201408/323323Recently, an almost literal case of lifeboat ethics occurred. On Aug. 4, Graham and Sheryl Anley, while yachting off the coast of South Africa, hit a reef, capsizing their boat. As the boat threatened to sink and they scrambled to get off, Sheryl#39;s safety line snagged on something, trapping her there. Instead of freeing his wife and getting her to shore, Graham grabbed Rosie, their Jack Russell terrier. (One media account reported that Sheryl had insisted that the dog go first). With Rosie safe and sound, Graham returned for Sheryl. All are doing fine. 最近发生了一个关乎救生艇伦理(lifeboat ethics)的真实案例。8月4日,格雷厄姆#12539;安莱(Graham Anley)和谢里尔#12539;安莱(Sheryl Anley)夫妇在南非海岸附近乘快艇时撞到了暗礁,船被撞翻了。眼看游艇就要下沉,他们挣扎着想要下船,这时谢里尔的安全索被什么东西绊住了,她被困在了那里。格雷厄姆没有去解开安全索把妻子送上岸,而是抓住了他们的杰克罗素小猎犬罗西(Rosie)。(一家媒体报道称谢里尔当时坚持让先上岸。)罗西安全后,格雷厄姆才回去救谢里尔。目前夫妇二人和他们的都安然无恙。 It#39;s a great story, but it doesn#39;t strike me as especially newsworthy. News is supposed to be about something fairly unique, and recent research suggests that, in the right circumstances, lots of people also would have grabbed their Rosie first. 故事不错,但我没觉得有多大的报道价值。新闻素材应该是比较独特的东西,而最近的研究显示,如果形势允许的话,很多人也都会先救他们的罗西。 We have strange relationships with our pets, something examined in a wonderful book by the psychologist Hal Herzog, #39;Some We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat: Why It#39;s So Hard to Think Straight About Animals.#39; We lavish our pets with adoration and better health care than billions of people receive. We speak to pets with the same high-pitched voices that we use for babies (though when addressing pets, we typically don#39;t repeat and emphasize key words as we do with babies, in the hope of boosting their language acquisition). As a grotesque example of our feelings about pets, the Nazis had strict laws that guaranteed the humane treatment of the pets of Jews being shipped to death camps. 我们和自己养的宠物有着奇怪的关系,心理学家哈尔#12539;赫尔佐格(Hal Herzog)所写《为什么是宠物?猪是食物?人类与动物之间的道德难题》(Some We Love, Some We Hate, Some We Eat: Why It#39;s So Hard to Think Straight About Animals)这本精的书对此进行了研究。我们会给予宠物很多爱,会给它们比世界上数十亿人都要好的医疗保健。我们用和对婴儿说话一样的高调门声音跟宠物说话(不过对宠物说话时一般不会像和对婴儿一样重复和强调关键字以加强孩子的语言学习)。有一个荒唐例子可以看出我们对宠物的情感,即纳粹有严格的法律规定要仁慈对待被运到死亡集中营的犹太人的宠物。 These are unique ways for one species to interact with another. On occasion, a predatory cat, after killing an adult prey, adopts the prey#39;s offspring for a few days; these cats are usually confused adolescent females, swirling with the start of those strange maternal urges. But there is certainly no other animal that puts costumes on members of another species on Halloween. 不同物种之间会有特殊的互动方式。有时猫在猎杀掉成年猎物时会把猎物的后代养育几天;这些猫通常是处在困惑时期的未成熟雌性,奇怪的母性冲动正处于萌芽状态。但绝对没有其他哪种动物会在万 节扮成其他物种。 A recent paper by Richard Topolski at George Regents University and colleagues, published in the journal Anthrozoos, demonstrates this human involvement with pets to a startling extent. Participants in the study were told a hypothetical scenario in which a bus is hurtling out of control, bearing down on a dog and a human. Which do you save? With responses from more than 500 people, the answer was that it depended: What kind of human and what kind of dog? 佐治亚摄政大学(George Regents)的理查德#12539;托波尔斯基(Richard Topolski)及其同事最近在《人与动物》期刊(Anthrozoos)上发表的论文指出,人类与宠物的这种关系到了令人吃惊的程度。参与研究者被告知一种假设的情形:一辆巴士横冲直撞失去了控制,马上要压到一只和一个人,你会救哪个?在超过500多人的回应中,都是看情况而定:什么样的人和什么样的? Everyone would save a sibling, grandparent or close friend rather than a strange dog. But when people considered their own dog versus people less connected with them -- a distant cousin or a hometown stranger -- votes in favor of saving the dog came rolling in. And an astonishing 40% of respondents, including 46% of women, voted to save their dog over a foreign tourist. This makes Parisians#39; treatment of American tourists look good in comparison. 每个人都会救自己的兄弟、爷爷奶奶或亲密好友,而不会救一只陌生的。但在自己的宠物和关系不那么紧密的人――比如远房表亲或陌生的同乡人――之间,很多人都选择了救。令人震惊的是,40%的参与者都选择救自己的而不会救外国游客,包括46%的女性。这样一对比,对待美国游客还算是不错的。 What does a finding like this mean? First, that your odds aren#39;t so good if you find yourself in another country with a bus bearing down on you and a cute dog. But it also points to something deeper: our unprecedented attitude toward animals, which got its start with the birth of humane societies in the 19th century. 这样的研究结果说明什么?首先,如果你在另一个国家发现自己和一只可爱的快要被一辆巴士压到,你被救的几率不会太大。但同时也表明一个更深层次的问题:我们对动物前所未有的态度,这种态度始于19世纪动物保护组织的诞生。 We jail people who abuse animals, put ourselves in harm#39;s way in boats between whales and whalers, carry our childhood traumas of what happened to Bambi#39;s mother. We can extend empathy to another organism and feel its pain like no other species. But let#39;s not be too proud of ourselves. As this study and too much of our history show, we#39;re pretty selective about how we extend our humaneness to other human beings. 我们把虐待动物的人关进监狱,我们不顾危险在四周布满鲸鱼和捕鲸船的船上游玩,我们带着童年时期关于小鹿斑比(Bambi)妈妈的悲惨遭遇的痛苦回忆。没有哪个物种可以像我们这样对另一个有机体感同身受和感受到它的痛苦。不过我们还是不要太自傲。上述研究以及太多历史都表明,我们对给予他人慈悲和情感是相当有选择性的。 /201309/256749

BASEL, Switzerland — In an old market hall adjacent to the cavernous center where Art Basel, the gold standard of contemporary art fairs, is taking place, there is a happening unlike anything ever staged here. Called ;14 Rooms,; it consists of 14 mini-performances created by artists including Marina Abramovic, Damien Hirst and Yoko Ono, each secreted in a small space behind mirrored doors. Open one door, and there#39;s a Marina Abramovic look-alike naked and astride a bicycle seat, arms outstretched. In another, identical twins sit in front of identical spot paintings by Mr. Hirst.瑞士巴塞尔——巴塞尔艺术展(Art Basel)是现代艺术展会的金标,它在巴塞尔洞穴般的艺术中心内举行,在它旁边,一个古老的市场里,一件前所未有的事情登场了。它名叫“14个房间”(14 Rooms),由14个小型表演组成,它们由玛丽娜·阿布拉莫维奇(Marina Abramovic)、达米恩·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)和小野洋子等艺术家创作,他们每人隐藏在一个装镜子的门后的一个小空间里,打开门后,会有一个长得很像玛丽娜·阿布拉莫维奇的人裸体跨坐在一个自行车座上,双臂伸开。在另一扇门里,有一对双胞胎坐在赫斯特创作的同样的几幅点油画前面。;Performance art is usually at the periphery, so why not put it front and center?; said Klaus Biesenbach, director of MoMA PS1 in New York, who organized the project with Hans-Ulrich Obrist, a director of exhibitions at the Serpentine Gallery in London. ;It#39;s a temporary museum. Nothing here is for sale.;“行为艺术通常处于边缘,为什么不把它推向前台和中心呢?”纽约MoMA PS1的理事克劳斯·比森巴赫(Klaus Biesenbach)说,他与伦敦蛇形画廊的展览主管汉斯-乌尔里希·奥布里斯特(Hans-Ulrich Obrist)一起组织了这个项目。“这是一个临时艺术馆,这里的一切都不出售。”But next door at Art Basel, almost everything is. As big and boisterous as ever, with 285 galleries from 34 countries participating, this fair is still a magnet for the contemporary art world. Spotted at Tuesday#39;s V.I.P. opening were big-money collectors like Steven A. Cohen, the hedge fund billionaire; Daniel S. Loeb, the activist hedge fund manager and Sotheby#39;s new board member; Mitchell P. Rales, the Washington industrialist, and his wife, Emily; Jerry I. Speyer, chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; and Daniel Brodsky, chairman of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and his wife, Estrellita, an independent curator. Few artists ever make an appearance at art fairs but Oscar Murillo, the Colombian-born painter, did.但在隔壁的巴塞尔艺术展,一切都是用来出售的。它和往常一样喧嚣庞大,有来自34个国家的285个画廊参加,这个展览对于当代艺术世界来说仍然极具吸引力。在周二的贵宾开幕式上,有许多富有的收藏家光临,比如对冲基金亿万富翁史蒂文·A·科恩(Steven A. Cohen);激进的对冲基金经纪人与苏富比新的董事会成员丹尼尔·S·罗伊布(Daniel S. Loeb);华盛顿工业家米歇尔·P·拉莱斯(Mitchell P. Rales)和他的妻子艾米莉(Emily);MoMA馆长杰里·I·斯派尔(Jerry I. Speyer),以及大都会艺术物馆的馆长丹尼尔·布罗德斯基(Daniel Brodsky)和他的妻子——独立策展人艾斯崔尔丽塔(Estrellita)。几乎没有什么艺术家会来艺术市场,但是哥伦比亚出生的画家奥斯卡·穆里洛(Oscar Murillo)来了。Last month, .2 billion worth of art changed hands at the big auctions in New York. The strength of those sales affected everything about this year#39;s fair, from the higher prices to the choice of art. So have museum exhibitions. ;Collectors are driven by institutional context,; the dealer David Zwirner said. Prominently displayed in his booth is a shiny blue stainless-steel sculpture of a dolphin by Jeff Koons, whose retrospective is opening this month at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Priced at million, it sold on Tuesday to a collector from China, Mr. Zwirner said. His booth also features paintings by the South African-born Marlene Dumas, who has a traveling show opening at the Stedelijk in Amsterdam in September; and canvases by Gerhard Richter, who is the subject of an exhibition at the Beyeler Foundation in Basel.上个月,有价值22亿的艺术品在纽约的大型拍卖会上易手。这些拍卖会的后果影响了今年艺术展的方方面面,从更高的价格到艺术上的选择。画廊的展览也受到了影响。“藏家会跟着美术馆走,”艺术商大卫·泽沃纳(David Zwirner)说。他的摊位上最醒目地展示出一尊闪亮的蓝色不锈钢海豚雕塑,是杰夫·库恩斯(Jeff Koons)的作品,他的回顾展本月将在惠特尼美国艺术馆展出。泽沃纳说,星期二,一位来自中国的藏家以500万美元买下了它。他的摊位上还有南非艺术家玛丽娜·杜马(Marlene Dumas)的油画,她的流动展将于9月在阿姆斯特丹的市立物馆展出;还有格哈德·里克特(Gerhard Richter)的油画,他的作品将在巴塞尔贝列尔基金会主办的展览中展出。Mr. Zwirner wasn#39;t the only dealer touting works with a museum presence. Dominique Levy, a New York dealer, had a 1964 black-and-white comic book drawing by Roy Lichtenstein that was in a show at the Morgan Library amp; Museum four years ago. It sold for an undisclosed price to an American collector.和泽沃纳一样,其他很多艺术商也按照物馆的展览安排出售艺术品。纽约艺术商多米尼克·利维(Dominique Levy)有一本1964年罗伊·李奇登斯坦(Roy Lichtenstein)的黑白漫画书,四年前曾在根图书馆与艺术馆展出过。它以一个保密的价格被一位美国收藏家买走。;Sotheby#39;s and Christie#39;s went through a record cycle, and that gives people confidence,; Mr. Zwirner said. ;Basel is our biggest weapon, if we want to go mano a mano with the auction houses.;“苏富比与佳士得不断创新纪录,这给了人们信心,”泽沃纳说,“如果想同拍卖行抗争,巴塞尔是我们最大的武器。”Brett Gorvy, chairman of postwar and contemporary art at Christie#39;s, was here, too. Prices, he said, are ;informed by the auctions.; ;Collectors have sticker shock, yet they#39;re pulling the trigger,; he added, using as an example one of Andy Warhol#39;s ;fright wig; self-portraits from 1986 that several people said had belonged to Thea Westreich, the New York collector and dealer. It was bought by another New York collector for around million, according to Per Skarstedt, the dealer who sold it. In addition to examples of Warhol and Bacon — both top sellers at auction last month — Mr. Koons, whose sculptures had adorned the covers of both Sotheby#39;s and Christie#39;s contemporary art auction catalogs, was ubiquitous. The Gagosian Gallery is featuring ;Hulk (Wheelbarrow),; a giant green painted bronze Hulk carrying a wheelbarrow filled with live flowers; it is priced at million. Almine Rech, another dealer, brought two ;Gazing Ball; sculptures made this year, one priced at million and the other at .6 million. Both sold to European collectors, she said.佳士得战后与当代艺术部的负责人布莱特·戈尔维(Brett Gorvy)也来到了这里。他说,价格“是由拍卖行提供的”。“收藏家们看了价钱会很震惊,但他们还要买,”他补充说,并以安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)1986年的“恐怖假发”自画像为例,有人说它曾经属于纽约收藏家与艺术商提亚·威斯特里彻(Thea Westreich)。经销商珀尔·斯卡斯特兹(Per Skarstedt)说,它被另一位纽约收藏家以3400万美元买走。除了沃霍尔与培根(两人都是上个月在拍卖中拍出顶尖高价的艺术家),库恩斯的作品也无所不在,他的雕塑曾经用于苏富比与佳士得当代艺术拍卖目录的封面。加戈西安画廊推出了《绿巨人(独轮手推车)》(Hulk[Wheelbarrow]),一个巨大的青铜绿巨人推着独轮手推车,里面装满鲜花,它标价400万美元。另一位艺术商阿尔米恩·莱彻(Almine Rech)带来今年完成的两座《凝视球》(Gazing Ball)雕塑,一座价格是200万美元,另一座是160万美元。她说,两件作品都卖给了欧洲收藏家。Younger trendy artists are also represented here, with paintings by Jacob Kassay, Joe Bradley and Mark Bradford, many of which were spoken for.年轻时尚的艺术家们的作品也在这里出售,有雅克布·卡塞(Jacob Kassay)、乔伊·布拉德利(Joe Bradley)和马克·布拉德福特 (Mark Bradford)的油画,很多都已被卖出。One young artist determined to control his market is Wade Guyton, the American painter who produces canvases on inkjet printers. Last month, protesting an enormous price asked for one of his paintings at auction, he made copies of the 2005 image from the original disk and posted them on Instagram. (Prices for his paintings were stronger than ever anyway, with one bringing nearly million.) Undeterred, for Art Basel he gave each of the five dealers he works with — Frederich Petzel from New York, Gió Marconi in Milan, Galerie Gisela Capitain from Cologne, Galerie Francesca Pia from Zurich and Galerie Chantal Crousel in Paris — a black painting, all the same size and all made from the same disk. They each had a 0,000 price tag, and all of them sold either on Tuesday or before.年轻的美国画家韦德·盖伊顿决定不去控制自己的市场,他主要在帆布上创作喷墨画。上个月,为抗议他的一幅作品在拍卖会上定为高价,他从原始光盘复制这幅2005年的画作,贴在Instagram上(但他的画作价格却继续上涨,其中一幅接近600万美元)。他未被阻挠,在巴塞尔艺术展上给了纽约的弗里德里克·佩泽尔(Frederich Petzel)、米兰的齐奥·马可尼(Gió Marconi)、科隆的吉塞拉船长画廊(Galerie Gisela Capitain)、苏黎世的弗朗西斯卡·皮亚画廊(Galerie FrancescaPia)和巴黎的尚塔·克鲁瑟画廊(Galerie Chantal Crousel)这五位合作者每位一张画,这是一张黑色的油画,五张画尺寸一样,都是用同一张光盘复制而成。每张上面都标价35万美元,周二之前都卖出去了。In an email, Mr. Guyton explained that he instructed the dealers to hang his paintings at identical heights, ;so each time you walk up to one, you would have a similar physical encounter.; He added: ;On the one hand, it is a way to satisfy all my galleries simultaneously and fairly. It#39;s also a way of talking about the repetitive experience of seeing similar artworks throughout a fair and embracing that aggressively by showing almost identical works.;在电子邮件中,盖伊顿解释说,他要求经销商把自己的油画悬挂在同一高度:“所以每次你走过一家画廊,就会有同样的身体感觉。”他补充,“另一方面,这可以同时公平地满足我的所有画廊。这也是一种艺术方式,去表达在艺术展上看到类似重复的艺术作品,把出示几乎相同的作品视为具有攻击性,这样一种体验。”For a few years now, people have complained that dealers have been selling or reserving work by sending collectors images of what will be on view in Basel well before the fair opens. That discussion grew louder this week. ;Preselling should be forbidden,; said Philippe Ségalot, a private New York dealer whose antics in years past — including hiring a Hollywood makeup artist to disguise him so he could sneak into the fair before everyone and snap up the best works — have become Art Basel legend.近几年来,人们抱怨经销商在出售或保留作品的时候,不等巴塞尔艺术展召开,就把商品的图像拿给收藏家看。这个星期,有关讨论更加热烈了。“应该禁止预售,”纽约私人经销商菲利普·塞加洛(Philippe Ségalot)说,他在去年做出了许多奇异举动,诸如雇了一个好莱坞化妆师帮他易容,让他提前溜进会场,抢购最好的艺术品,今年这些事已经成为巴塞尔艺术展的传奇。;If I had done that this year,; Mr. Ségalot said, ;there would have been nothing to buy.;“如果我今年还做这种事,”塞加洛说,“那这儿也没什么好买的了。” /201409/327062

Have I fallen in love? Is this love real? Maybe I like this person? I don#39;t know my own feelings… Everyone has had these worries about love at least once. If s/he is aly married or is a type completely opposite to yours, you may feel crazy and don#39;t want to admit to your feelings. But aren#39;t there times when you realised “love” through your unconscious attitude towards someone or something that he said that keeps running in your head?我是不是坠入了爱河?这就是所谓的爱情吗?我是不是喜欢上了这个人?真搞不懂我这是怎么了……遇到爱情,每个人都经历过这样的纠结。要是碰上对方已经结婚,或完全不是预想的类型,你会觉得自己肯定疯了,无论如何也不愿承认自己有这种感情。可你潜意识里还是会隐隐察觉到对某人的“爱意”,或在脑子里不自觉地回想他说过的话吧?Is this LOVE? Or is it just another LIKE?这是爱情吗?抑或只是喜欢?You can diagnose your “love” in this test, just count the number of items that ring true to you.通过下面这个测试来诊断你的“爱情”吧,看看你符合多少选项。 /201310/259369

As a rule, Dietmar Wunder prefers his martinis shaken and not stirred. But don’t ask him to order one at a Berlin bar, at least not in German.柏林——通常,迪特马尔·文德尔(Dietmar Wunder)更喜欢用摇晃而非搅拌手法调制的马提尼酒。但是不要请他在柏林的酒吧点马提尼,不管怎样就不要在德国的酒吧做这件事。“I would never do that,” said Mr. Wunder, who was born in Berlin. “I would be too embarrassed.”“我永远不会那么做,”生于柏林的文德尔说,“我会很尴尬的。”Since the 2006 release of “Casino Royale,” Mr. Wunder, 48, has been the German-speaking voice of James Bond, and he is now so closely associated with the role that strangers often ask him to repeat some of Bond’s better-known catchphrases.从2006年《007:皇家》(Casino Royale)上映以来,48岁的文德尔一直是詹姆斯·邦德(James Bond)的德语配音演员,现在他和这个角色紧密相连,一些不认识的人也经常让他重复邦德一些更为出名的口头禅。“It can get tiring,” he said.“有时挺烦人的,”他说。Mr. Wunder is part of a small but tightly knit group of actors in Germany who make a living dubbing the voices of English-speaking movie stars. In addition to the Bond star Daniel Craig, Mr. Wunder provides the voices of Adam Sandler, Don Cheadle and several others. Since he began in 1992, he has worked on more than 500 movies and 125 television series.文德尔是德国一个紧密团结的演员小团体中的一员,他们以给讲英语的电影明星配音为生。除了给饰演邦德的明星丹尼尔·克雷格(Daniel Craig)配音,文德尔还为亚当·桑德勒(Adam Sandler)、唐·钱德尔(Don Cheadle)等明星配音。从1992年起,他已经给500多部电影、125部电视剧配过音。On a drizzly day here, Mr. Wunder was in a darkened studio, standing before a microphone, teeth bared, shoulders hunched, as he exploded with a vicious expletive in German.在一个下着毛毛细雨的天气里,在一个光线昏暗的录音棚中,文德尔站在麦克风前,呲着牙,弓着肩,用德语发出恶毒的咒骂。On the opposite wall, a large television set showed two menacing-looking men squaring off on the deck of a ship. Mr. Wunder performed the scene with astonishing vigor.对面墙上的一台大电视正播放着两个看起来恶狠狠的男人在轮船甲板上摆出打斗的姿势。文德尔以令人吃惊的气势演绎着那个场景。“Even though you are not on camera, you have to still act the part, physically,” he said.“虽然不是出镜表演,你也仍然要用身体表演,”他说。Mr. Wunder was directing the voice actors, including himself, on “Black Sails,” the Starz drama series. He and a team of actors, editors and directors faced a tight deadline to translate dialogue into German and voice more than a dozen characters.文德尔当时正在导演Starz频道的电视剧《黑帆》(Black Sails)的配音工作,他本人也参与配音。因为时间紧,他和一个由演员、编辑和导演组成的团队正忙着把对话翻译成德语并给十多个人物配音。Over the last few decades, especially in Western Europe, dubbing has emerged as something close to an art form, with actors making a living speaking for cherished global movie stars. In Germany, dubbing, or synchronization, as it is known, has also become a big business.在过去几十年里,特别是在西欧,配音几乎变成了一种艺术形式,演员们靠给大受欢迎的国际影星配音为生。在德国,配音还变成了一个大产业。The German-speaking market, which includes Austria and Switzerland, is the largest in Europe, with more than 40 dubbing companies, most of them around Berlin and Munich. The industry generated 5 million in 2013, according to the country’s Institute for Acting, Film and Television Professionals.讲德语的市场——包括奥地利和瑞士——是欧洲最大的市场,这里有40多家配音公司,大多位于柏林和慕尼黑。据德国表演、电影和电视职业协会(Institute for Acting, Film and Television Professionals)的数字,这个行业在2013年创收1.25亿美元。While subtitles remain the most popular way of watching a film in Norway, Poland and the Netherlands, in other countries, particularly France, Spain and German-speaking nations, dubbing is a prerequisite for market access. Of the 175 or so English-language films released here last year, the German Federal Film Board estimates that more than 90 percent were dubbed.虽然字幕在挪威、波兰和荷兰仍然是最受欢迎的观影方式,但在其他国家,尤其是法国、西班牙和讲德语的国家,配音是进入市场的首要条件。据德国联邦电影委员会估计,德国去年上映的约175部英语影片中,超过九成是配音版。“If an American major distribution company wants to place a movie successfully in a German market, it has to be dubbed,” says Michael Johnson, head of production at Film- amp; Fernseh-Synchron, a dubbing company with offices in Berlin and Munich. “There’s no way around it. Otherwise, they are going to lose a lot of the audience.”“如果美国的一家主要发行公司想把一部片子成功打入德国市场,那它必须得配音,”电影电视同步公司(Film- amp; Fernseh-Synchron)的制作主管迈克尔·约翰逊(Michael Johnson)说。这家配音公司在柏林和慕尼黑设有办公室。“没有别的办法。否则他们将失去很多观众。”It takes an average of two weeks to dub a feature film, with each actor usually working two or three days. On average, Mr. Johnson said, voice actors make about 0 a day. Top performers like Mr. Wunder can make ,000 to ,000 per movie.一般来说,一部剧情片需要两周的时间来配音,每位演员通常工作两三天。约翰逊说,配音演员平均每天挣700美元左右。像文德尔这样的顶级演员每部电影能挣1.5万至两万美元。The low pay sometimes irks actors when a movie becomes popular. In 2010 Marcus Off, a Berlin actor, asked the Walt Disney Company for more money after dubbing Johnny Depp in the first three “Pirates of the Caribbean” movies, which had grossed well over billion globally.如果一部电影很卖座,那低廉的报酬有时会惹恼配音演员。柏林演员马库斯·奥弗(Marcus Off)曾在《加勒比海盗》(Pirates of the Caribbean)前三部为约翰尼·德普(Johnny Depp)配音。2010年他要求迪士尼公司付更多报酬,因为该系列在全球的收入超过20亿美元。When Disney refused, he sued under the German fairness law, which says that if a production is more successful than average, producers have to pay the creative talent more money at a later date. “Disney argued that dubbing is not a creative work,” Mr. Off said. The case is still pending in German court.迪士尼公司拒绝后,他依照德国公平法起诉了该公司。根据该法,如果一部影片的受欢迎程度高出平均水平,制片方必须在日后向创作人员追加报酬。“迪士尼公司辩称配音不是创造性工作,”奥弗说。此案仍在德国法院等待判决。Over all, dubbing is expensive: A two-hour film can cost upward of 0,000 for a single language, and some films are dubbed in dozens of languages. The process involves marathon recording and editing sessions to match actors’ voices to the sound mix. While it can make sense, therefore, to produce a dub for the German-speaking population of Europe, which is 80 million strong, the same cannot be said of, say, Estonia (population, 1.3 million).总的来说,配音成本昂贵:一部时长两小时的电影配一种语言的花费可达15万美元以上,有些电影要用几十种语言配音。这包括漫长的录音和剪辑过程,为演员的声音做后期混音。所以,为欧洲的德语观众配音还能说得通,因为这是一个达8000多万人口的观众群,但是为爱沙尼亚(人口130万)等国的观众配音就没有意义了。Moreover, as the technology has radically improved, good sound has become paramount in filmmaking, and dubbing has had to keep up. Gone are the days when dubs were an afterthought, hastily added after a film was long finished.另外,随着科技的飞速发展,完美的音效已经变得对电影制作至关重要,所以配音也得跟上。不像以前,配音不再是在电影拍完后很久才仓促加上的事情。“In the last decade, there’s much more attention on perfect dubbing,” Mr. Johnson said, requiring the kind of devotion to detail that the German film industry takes pride in.约翰逊说,“过去十年,人们越来越关注配音的完美”,这需要对细节的投入,而这一点正是德国电影业引以为豪的。“It’s really in the German heart to have a good dub, and German studios are perfectionists about them,” said Sven Sturm, vice president and managing director of Paramount Pictures Germany. “Sometimes a film can live or die with a good or bad dub.”“好的配音对德国人来说真的很重要,德国的录音公司对配音抱着完美主义的态度,”派拉蒙电影公司德国分公司的副总裁、总经理斯文·斯特姆(Sven Sturm)说,“有时一部电影的成败与配音的好坏有直接关系。”With dubbing quality so much improved, casting has become much more selective. Actors are chosen for their ability to match the cadence and vocal peculiarities of a particular star closely. In many cases, a voice actor will become the official voice of a specific Hollywood actor.随着配音质量的大幅提高,选角也变得更加挑剔。演员们要想入选,需要具有与明星非常接近的说话节奏和音质。很多时候,一个配音演员会成为某个好莱坞演员的指定配音演员。“It’s a lot of pressure,” said Claudia Urbschat-Mingues, who dubs Angelina Jolie, among others.“压力很大,”为安吉莉娜·朱莉(Angelina Jolie)等演员配音的克劳迪娅·乌尔布沙特-明格斯(Claudia Urbschat-Mingues)说道。Some voice actors have become something close to celebrities themselves. Perhaps the most famous in Germany is Christian Brückner, who has dutifully dubbed Robert De Niro in more than 60 films. His gravelly baritone is so well known that here he is called simply “the voice.”有些配音演员本身也快变成了名人。德国最著名的配音演员也许是克里斯蒂安·布吕克纳(Christian Brückner),他尽职尽责地在60多部影片中为罗伯特·德·尼罗(Robert De Niro)配音。他粗重沙哑的男中音非常出名,德国人直接称他为“那个声音”。Mr. Brückner, 70, said he was content with such recognition. “To be honest, I like it,” he said. “I love it, in fact. That’s a word I didn’t use years ago, and I’m proud of it.”70岁的布吕克纳说他对获得这样的认可感到满足。“坦白地说,我很满意,”他说,“实际上我很爱它。很多年前我不会用这个词来形容,但是现在我为它感到骄傲。”Mr. Wunder began dubbing in 1991, starting with a minor character in the television comedy “Happy Days.” His big break came in 2006, when Mr. Craig starred in “Casino Royale,” and Mr. Wunder won the part for his ability to render the star’s mix of cool and cruel.文德尔从1991年开始做配音,开始是在电视喜剧《欢乐时光》(Happy Days)中为一个小角色配音。2006年克雷格主演《007:皇家》后,文德尔的事业迎来重大转机,他能表现出这位明星的冷静与狠心,所以赢得了这个角色。Sitting at an editing console in the Berlin studio, Mr. Wunder showed how different actors require different postures. His Daniel Craig stands erect and speaks in a low, menacing monotone; his Adam Sandler slumps and speaks through his teeth.文德尔坐在柏林那个录音棚的剪辑操控台旁,展示不同的演员要用不同的姿势。他给丹尼尔·克雷格配音时,就站得笔直,用低沉、恐吓、毫无变化的腔调说话;他给亚当·桑德勒配音时,则弯着腰,嗓音透过牙齿迸发出来。“The best compliment that you can get as a dubbing artist is that no one actually realizes it was dubbed,” Mr. Wunder said. “Our job is to vanish behind the original version, so you don’t think about it.”“作为一名配音演员,你能得到的最好赞美就是没人意识到这是配的音,”文德尔说,“我们的工作就是消失在原版后面,让观众不会想起这一点。” /201409/329632

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