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郴州安仁县有治疗前列腺炎吗百度卫生郴州治疗前列腺增生费用多少

2019年10月16日 04:07:46
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Science and technology科学技术AIDS research艾滋病研究Cured of HIV?HIV感染者被治愈了?An American child seems to have been美国HIV感染幼童似乎真是如此IN JOURNALISM, cynics suggest, three data points are enough for a trend.愤世之士认为,在新闻界里三个数据点就足以确定一条曲线走势。As of March 4th, AIDS researchers hope two might be sufficient.然而在3月4日,艾滋病研究人员却满怀信心地认为,也许两个数据点就足够了。On that day Deborah Persaud of Johns Hopkins University announced to the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, in Atlanta, Georgia, that a patient under her care had been cured of HIV infection.约翰斯·霍普金斯大学的黛拉·佩尔绍德于当日在佐治亚州亚特兰大的逆转录病毒和机会感染会议上宣布,她负责的一个感染HIV的病人已被治愈。The announcement was hedged with caveats.说是治愈,其实是有一定前提。But the bottom line was clear.但最关键的信息已经很明确了。Dr Persaud thinks her patient, a two-and-a-half-year-old girl, has joined Timothy Brown, a man known to many as the Berlin patient, as a human who was once infected with HIV and now no longer is.佩尔绍德士认为,她的患者—一名两岁半的女婴和柏林病人—蒂莫西·布朗一样,虽然曾经感染了HIV,但现在已经康复了。The girl was born infected because her mother was infected but was not under treatment at the time.这名女婴的母亲是HIV病毒携带者,但她错过了治疗时间,所以该女婴一出生就感染了病毒。She was given standard anti-retroviral drugs almost immediately and for 18 months afterwards.之后女婴立即接受了抗逆转录病毒治疗,治疗持续了18个月。Doctors then lost track of her for five months and when she returned to their attention, they found the virus had vanished.随后的五个月里,医生与女婴失去联系。当她再次返回接受治疗时,医生们发现她体内的病毒已经消失了。Half a year later, despite the fact that she is no longer taking anti-AIDS medicine, there is no sign of HIV having returned.半年后,女婴体内也检测不到HIV的迹象,尽管在这期间内她已停止用抗艾滋病药物。This is a result of great potential significance.这个结果可能带来重大意义。Mr Browns cure was effected because his bone marrow was destroyed and replaced during a course of treatment for leukaemia.布朗治愈案例之所以成功,是因为他在白血病治疗中,骨髓先被损毁,然后进行了替换。That is hardly a viable approach for most people.这种途径对大多数人来说几乎不可行。But if HIV infection can be cured with drugs, as Dr Persauds observations suggest, a whole new line of investigation opens up.但如果诚如佩尔绍德士的观察所示,HIV感染者能够通过药物治疗痊愈,那么它就为艾滋病研究打开了一条全新的思路。 /201312/269085郴州看尿道炎到那个医院好Science and technology科学技术Astrochemistry天体化学The great test tube in the sky空中的大试管Space is one big chemistry set宇宙是一个很大的化学装置MOST people think of the empty space between the stars as being, well, empty.大多数人们认为星星之间就是空无一物,但事实并非如此。But it is not. It is actually filled with gas.实际上有气体弥散其中。Admittedly, at an average density of 100-1,000 molecules per cubic centimetre, it is a pretty thin gas.诚然,分子平均密度102-103/cm3的气体非常稀薄。But space is big, so altogether there is quite a lot of it.不过由于空间很广阔,气体分子总体数量是可观的。Most of it, about 92%, is hydrogen.大部分的气体是氢,另外8%是惰性气体氦。A further 8% is helium, which is chemically inert.还有一小部分由氧、碳、氮等其他元素构成的分子。But a tiny fraction—less than one-tenth of a percent—consists of molecules with other elements, such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, in them. Though these other elements are a mere soupon of the interstellar soup, they do give it real flavour.虽然这些元素仅仅是“星际浓汤”轻微的调料,但它们确实增添了汤的味道。Signs of life生命的迹象So far about 180 types of these molecular ingredients have been detected in space from their microwave spectra—the energy produced when molecules rotate around their chemical bonds.到目前为止,人们已经通过微波谱线探测出约180种分子成分。分子绕其化学键旋转时,分子能级会发生改变,从而产生微波谱线。There are two reasons for wanting to study them.研究微波谱线有两个原因。One is that these molecules are probably the precursors of life.一是分子可能是生命的预兆。The other is that the rarefied nature of astrochemistry changes the way processes work.二是天体化学其稀薄的属性会改变化学反应的过程。It means the individual steps in chemical reactions can be disentangled from one another in a way that is hard—and sometimes impossible—on Earth.人们可以用这种方式把化学反应中独立的一步从彼此步骤间分离出来,有时这在地球上很难实现。And it allows reactions to happen that are unknown on Earth.并且还有可能发生人类未知的化学反应。Now the astrochemists have a new tool:the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array in northern Chile.现在天体化学家有了新工具:阿塔卡马大型毫米/亚毫米波天线阵。It was officially opened on March 13th but has aly been making discoveries, including the most intense bursts of star birth in the early universe.3月13日ALMA正式运作,到现在已经有了发现,例如宇宙早期恒星诞生最激烈的爆发。ALMA consists of 66 dishes and is the worlds most powerful radio telescope.ALMA有66台天线,是世界上最强劲的射电望远镜。At a cost of 1.3 billion it should provide a hundredfold increase in sensitivity and resolution over the best older instruments.花费13亿美元想必会使灵敏度分辨率比过去最好的仪器还要好百倍。Those older telescopes had to focus on nebulae, where the interstellar gas is most concentrated.以往的望远镜必须关注星云,那里是星际气体最集中之处。And older telescopes can detect only strong, simple signals of the sort emitted by small molecules like carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, which have two and three atoms respectively.一个可用双筒望远镜看到的典例是气体环绕恒星所形成的猎户座的”剑”。并且老望远镜只能探测到一氧化碳、氢氰化物等小分子释放出的强的,简单的信号。Spotting more complex substances was almost impossible because their rotational energy is scattered by their numerous bonds across a wide range of frequencies.而鉴别更复杂的物质几乎不可能,大量化学键占有很宽的频率范围,以至于旋转能被散射掉。ALMA, by contrast, can detect such things routinely.相反ALMA可以轻易探测到这些信号:It has aly identified glycolaldehyde and acetone, molecules that have eight and ten atoms respectively.它已经鉴定出了乙醇醛和丙酮。In particular, ALMAs masters, a consortium of research agencies from Canada, Chile, Europe, Japan, Taiwan and the ed States, hope to find simple sugars and organic acids—molecules most researchers in the field believe were needed to get life going on Earth.特别的,由加拿大、智利、欧洲、日本、台湾及美国的财团组成的研究机构掌控ALMA,希望以此寻觅简单的糖类和有机酸——该领域大多数研究人员认为它们是地球上生命的必需之物。The ability to study chemical reactions stage by stage will be equally important.能够研究化学反应中的每一步同样很重要。High-school chemistry lessons, with their neat equations transforming, say, 2H+O into 2HO, miss out a plethora of intermediate steps such as the formation of hydroxyl, OH.高中化学课上简单的反应方程式省略了大量的中间步骤。例如 2H? + O? 2H?O 就没有体现形成羟基的过程。In a lab, these intermediates are often too short-lived to be detectable.实验室里,这些中间过程非常短暂,人们难以探测。But in space an intermediate may hang around a long time before it encounters its partner in the next stage of a reaction.不过在太空中,一个中间过程会持续很长时间,直到碰到下一步反应的搭档。ALMA can see the microwave traces of such intermediates, and thus gain a better understanding of them.ALMA可以看到这些中间过程的微波轨迹,因此研究者可以更好的了解这些过程。There are also completely new reactions to discover.还有全新的反应有待人们发现。Anthony Remijan, of Americas National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who is one of the astronomers putting ALMA through its paces, is studying the formation of methyl formate, a compound widely used on Earth in applications from insulation to insecticides.美国国家射电天文台的Anthony Remijan是将ALMA引入这个方向的天文学家中的一员。他正在研究甲酸甲酯的形成过程。从绝缘体到杀虫剂,可以说地球上到处都是甲酸甲酯。Usually it is synthesised either from methanol and formic acid, or methanol and carbon monoxide.通常它由甲醇和甲酸,或甲醇和一氧化碳合成。But there is, in theory, a third route that uses formic acid and an unstable substance made from methanol and hydrogen.但是在理论上,还可以使用甲酸和一种不稳定的物质来制造甲酸甲酯。This has not been seen in an Earthly laboratory, but Dr Remijan thinks it is an important pathway in space, and ALMA should soon tell him if he is right.这还没有在地球上的实验室中发现,但Remijan士认为在太空中这是一个重要的过程。ALMA应该很快就会告诉他他是否正确。Probably, that particular discovery will have no practical consequences.也许,上述特别的发现不会产生实用效果。The known syntheses are effective, and methyl formate is aly cheap.甲酸甲酯熟知的合成方法很有效,而且它很便宜。But it will prove a principle about using the cosmos as a chemistry laboratory, and the hope is that similar findings about other molecules that are harder to make may allow chemical engineers at home to reformulate their processes.但是,这明了一个理念:用宇宙充当化学实验室。希望有关其他较难制造的分子的类似发现能够让化学工程师在家里重新制定它们的合成过程。If that happens, the test tube in the sky really will have proved its worth.如果可以,天空中的试管确实有其价值。 /201312/267955宜章县人民中妇幼保健医院治疗阳痿早泄Business商业报道Mahindra amp; Mahindra马恒达呀马恒达SUVival of the fittest最适的运动型多功能车Mahindra has become the pin-up of Indian capitalism—a home-grown automotive champion.马恒达广受印度资本家喜爱—系国产汽车冠军。Now it must resist complacency and be prepared to take bigger risks现在,它必须杜绝得意忘形,为更大的挑战做好准备。INSIDE Anand Mahindra, an Indian tycoon, there is a rebel bursting to get out. He works amid aircraft models and walls of framed posters and has a mildly indiscreet Twitter account with a million followers.在印度企业大亨阿南德·马欣德拉心里,有一个叛逆小人要爆发冲出来。A former film student at Harvard, he describes his countrys malaise using the metaphor of Star Wars.他从事于飞机模型制造和带框装饰画的墙壁,拥有一个些微张扬的推特号,关注者百万。Graft and cronyism in India are like an evil Empire that has struck back.作为一名哈佛电影系学生,他用把国内不安的现状比喻成星球大战。His hope is that middle-class and young Indians become Jedi knights to battle the Dark Side.印度的贪污和任人唯亲风气就像一个邪恶帝国回击着,而他的希望就是,中产阶级和印度青年们化身为绝地武士与黑暗面斗争。Most of the time, though, Mr Mahindra, aged 58, is a senior statesman—the acceptable face of Indian capitalism, especially since the retirement in 2012 of the admired Ratan Tata from Tata Sons.尽管年已58的马欣德拉在大多数情况下被视为政界元老—受欢迎的印度资本家面目,尤其是倍受崇敬的Rantan Tata在2012年从塔塔集团退休后。Mahindra amp; Mahindra dominates Indias market for sport-utility vehicles and is the worlds largest tractor firm by volume, selling them in India and abroad—it is sufficiently entrenched in America to sponsor Texan bull-riding tournaments.马恒达集团主导印度SUV市场,其拖拉机倾销国内外,在销售数量上成为世界最大的拖拉机制造商—在美国有足够能力赞助德克萨斯骑野牛竞标赛。It is not huge, being the fifth-biggest Indian family group by sales and the 17th largest Indian firm by market capitalisation.马恒达并不大—按销售额算,排印度第五大家族企业;按市场资金算,仅排第17位。But it is notable in several ways.但是该公司在其他方面很著名。First, it is a rare Indian manufacturing success—and has created its technology at home.首先,马恒达是印度少有的制造业成功典例—并在国内创造了自己的技术。Indian conglomerates are often financial quagmires but Mahindra has high returns and little debt, and uses capital efficiently.印度联合企业常陷入经济困境,但是马恒达收益很高,几乎没有债务,资金也得到有效利用。In a country where power is dynastic it is the business house closest to being controlled by outside investors: the family and its allies own only 25%.在这个权力世袭的国家,商业才是最有可能被外来投资者控制的:家族和其合盟者只占25%。Mr Mahindra is the third generation, and probably the last, to be boss—there is no obvious family successor. Lastly, the group is known for avoiding cronyism.马欣德拉是第三代领导班子,也许是最后一代——没有一个明显的家族继承者。最后,这个集团在反任人唯亲方面做得很出色。Mr Mahindra has kept away from industries that require a competence for lobbying, and says he avoids Delhi, Indias capital, like the plague.马欣德拉远离了需要游说能力的企业,他说他避开了首都德里,例如瘟疫。The magic formula has ordinary ingredients:神奇公式的因式组成很普通:luck and judgment.幸运和判断力。When India liberalised in 1991 Mahindra was sprawling and flabby like many of its peers—making everything from jeeps to lifts.1991年印度独立时,马欣德拉像其他许多同龄人一样,漫无目的,性情疲软。It slimmed fast, perhaps because the familys low stake made it vulnerable to a takeover.企业经济缩减很快,也许是因为家族占比低,使得企业很容易被收购。In 1993 it hired PawanGoenka, a veteran of Detroit, who now runs the automotive unit.1993年,马恒达聘请了底特律老兵PawanGoenka,他现在掌管汽车部门。Then came a fall in property prices, in 1997-98, which stretched the firms finances and forced it into some hard choices, says Bharat Doshi, a director.一位名叫Bharat Doshi的经理叙述说,之后,1997年和1998年,迎来了一次房地产价格的下降,公司经济紧张,被迫做出一些艰难的选择。Rather than put more cash into a joint venture with Ford, Mahindra backed its own SUV project.马欣德拉坚持了自己的SUV计划,并没有投入更多的现金在与福特合资的企业中。By 2002 a model called the Scorpio was born and by 2005 it was a huge hit.到2002年,一个代号为蝎子的模型诞生了,到2005年,成效显著。More good decisions have come since then.从那以后,所做的正确决定越来越多。New SUV models were launched.新的SUV模型推出了。In 2007 Mahindra had a sniff at Jaguar Land Rover, a British carmaker, but backed off.2007年,马欣德拉拒绝了英国一家汽车制造商捷豹路虎,但是后来又放弃了。Although JLR has since prospered under Tatas control, the 1 billion of cash it ate up in the first year of its new ownership would have overwhelmed Mahindra, which then had a market capitalisation of only 4 billion.尽管自此之后JRL在塔塔集团的管理之下蓬勃发展,但是在第一年里,它吞下新买主的10亿美元很有可能对马恒达造成冲击,因为之后其市值仅为40亿美元。In Mahindra bought Satyam, an IT-services firm that had been floored by a huge fraud.年,马恒达收购了萨蒂扬。这是一家信息技术咨询与务供应商,曾遭受惨重欺骗。It fully merged Satyam with its own IT arm in June, lowering its stake to 26% in the process but helping to boost the value of the combined entity, which has reached 6 billion.在6月,马恒达完全将萨蒂扬与本公司IT部合并,在这一过程中,持股降低到26%,但是帮助提高了联合体的价值,这一数值达到了60亿美元。The big worry is that Mahindra will have a Nokia moment, when an apparently unassailable position crumbles.较大的担忧就是,马恒达可能出现诺基亚时刻,到那时,明显攻不可破的地位也会崩塌。The Indian SUV unit contributes about 55% of operating profits and cashflow.印度SUV产业对操作利润和资金流转做出的贡献比占总量的55%。It has a market share of 41% according to Hitesh Goel of Kotak, a broker.据Kotak的经纪人Hitesh Goel所说,SUV现已有41%的市场份额。Its returns on capital are tremendous, partly reflecting a relatively low level of technology investment.资金的收益极大,这部分反映出技术投资相对较低。Tractors, also with a 41% market share, contribute one-third of profits—and demand is booming thanks to this years heavy monsoon rains.拖拉机也占41%的市场份额,获得的收益占总收益的1/3—需求的增长多亏了今年的滂沱季风雨。Max Warburton of Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, notes that the global SUV craze has created other successful specialists—China has Great Wall, a firm now worth 20 billion.伯恩斯坦研究公司的麦克斯沃伯顿指出,全球SUV时尚促成了一些其他成功行家—中国的长城企业现值200亿美元。But Mahindras strong position in its home market is vulnerable to attack from the global carmaking giants, as they seek to diversify away from the unprofitable mass market for conventional cars towards such profitable niches.但是马恒达强有力的位置只限于国内市场,很容易受到来自全球汽车制造巨头的攻击,就像他们企图在不获利的大众市场来寻求传统汽车的多样化,使之转向为有利可图的商机。Renault and Ford have launched new SUVs and now everyone and his uncle, cat and dog is leaping in, says HormazdSorabjee, editor of Autocar India.《印度汽车》编辑HormazdSorabjee这样说:雷诺和福特推出了新的SUV。In tractors, too, foreign firms are developing the smaller machines that tend to do best in India, says AbhijeetNaik of CLSA, another broker.另外一位来自CLSA的经纪人AbhijeetNaik也表示:同样的,在拖拉机方面,外国公司也正在发展更小型的拖拉机,试图做到印度最好。Mahindra is not asleep at the wheel.马恒达也并没有心不在焉。It has new SUV models in the pipeline and a rural distribution network that will be hard for rivals to replicate.它在管道上建立了新的SUV模型,以及一个难以被竞争者复制的农电网。Still, it makes sense for it to invest in new areas.并且,如果它投资在新的领域,也很有意义。In 2011 it bought SsangYong, an ailing South Korean firm, and is nursing it back to health.2011年,马恒达收购了一家衰落的韩国公司Ssang Yong,逐渐使其恢复正常运营。Mahindra hopes to use its brand to build a presence in pickup trucks and two-wheelers—efforts which analysts tend to hate, arguing that both product lines are losing money and face formidable competitors.马恒达希望能用现有的牌子在小型卡车和自行车领域建立一席之地—分析家讨厌这样的努力成果,他们认为这两条生产线都在赔钱并且将面对强大的对手。Yet taken together these three experimental areas are hardly big bets, consuming only about one-fifth of the groups underlying cashflow.但是如果仅用掉集团1/5潜在流转资金,来把这三项实验性领域都集中起来,这并不是什么大赌注。Mahindra spends only 170m a year on research and development—1.9% of its market value.每年马恒达在研发上只花费1.7亿美元—市值的1.9%。It has a conservative balance-sheet, with no almost no net debt once you exclude the liabilities in its listed finance arm.它的资产负债表很稳定,如果你将财政分部的债务除开,马恒达几乎没有净负债。Sometimes being an admired firm is a trap.其实有时成为一个受人仰慕的公司是个坑。Investors get addicted to steady cashflows and become jittery about risky new projects.投资者一心想稳定资金流转,对于新的风险投资项目会显得过分紧张。Mahindra could legitimately invest heavily in developing big tractors for the American market, trying to export more SUVs under its own brand or SsangYongs, and broadening its rural presence into new areas such as logistics.马恒达会对美国市场进行大型拖拉机的大规模正当投资,寄望于能够在自身或者Ssang Yong的品牌下出口更多的SUV,扩大农村市场到新的领域,比如物流。It could also buy a Western car firm, to acquire better technology—aly it is considering a new research centre in Britain.它还有可能买下另外一个西方的汽车公司,来获取更好的技术—马恒达已经在考虑在英国建一个研究中心。Mr Mahindra says it is not in our culture to bet the ranch.马欣德拉说:在我们文化里并不会拿全部家当做赌注。But it must not be too conservative either.但是它也不能太保守。Capitalism only works when the best firms rebel a bit and take some risks.只有当最好的公司些微有点叛逆意识,并敢冒险时,资本主义才会奏效。 /201311/263729In the Cretaceous Period, dinosaurs rarely die of old age. Predators rule. Their killers engineered for one purpose, attack. 在白垩纪时期,恐龙很少因为衰老而死。这是一个食肉动物统治的时代。而这些食物动物们的存在只为一个目的:攻击。Tyrannosaurus Rex was of ten thousand pound, self-propelled, antitank weapon. 雷克斯霸王龙体重1万英镑,行动迅速,能够攻击大型恐龙。Now, sixty five million years later, cutting-edge imaging technology lets us look deep inside their bodies to reveal just how the world’s greatest carnivores really work. Dinosaurs arm themselves with the most advanced weaponry nature has ever unleashed, tools that allow them to survive for over 100 million years. 如今,在6500万年后,高科技成像技术使我们更深入地了解这些恐龙的身体,以揭示这些世界上最大的食肉动物是怎样捕食的。恐龙们用最先进的“武器”武装自己,这些“武器”使它们存货了1亿多年。North America, 115 million years ago, reptilian creatures have evolved into killing machines. Death is everywhere, sweeping down from the air, stalking the forest, and sometimes thundering through the trees in the form of Tyrannosaurus Rex. 在北美洲,一亿一千五百万年前,爬行动物进化成了猎杀机器。到处充满死亡的气息,有的“杀手”从空中一掠而下,有的潜伏在森林中,有时,则能听见树林中雷克斯霸王龙咆哮的声音。T-Rex was the ultimate predator in the history of terrestrial animals. 雷克斯霸王龙在陆栖动物历史中是顶级捕猎者。T-Rex is one of the largest and deadliest animals ever to walk on two legs. For 2 million years, it rules the American West. Powerful and intelligent, this predator is equipped with the tools to bring down massive and well-armed prey. 雷克斯霸王龙是使用两条腿行走的动物中体型最大,也是最凶残的一类。它们统治美洲西部长达200万年。它们强壮并充满智慧,它们的身体结构使他们能够打倒大型恐龙或是身上布满盔甲的恐龙。The head, the skull of T-Rex is awesomely large. 雷克斯霸王龙的头骨十分巨大。And each tooth is an armor-crushing weapon.它的每一颗牙齿都能轻易刺穿盔甲。Tyrannosaurus Rex means tyrant lizard king. This alfa predator is 12 meters long, 5.5 meters tall and weighs 6 tons. 雷克斯霸王龙就是类蜥蜴爬行动物君王。这种顶级捕猎者身长12米,身高5.5米,体重6吨。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/275232郴州市割包皮坏处

郴州东方医院男科挂号郴州哪里可以治疗包皮Its eleven oclock Sunday morning, and youve just woken up after a late night of carousing.现在是周日上午11点,而你刚从前一晚的狂欢过后醒来。You stumble out of bed, brace yourself on the bathroom sink and blink into the mirror.你跌跌撞撞地走下床,双手撑在盥洗台上,睡眼惺忪地看向镜子。There, under your eyes, are dark, puffy patches that make you look like an NFL linebacker.看到了吗,你眼睛下面那深色浮肿的眼袋,让你看起来像美国橄榄球联盟的后卫队员。I need more sleep, you think, fingering the dark spots. And so you stumble back to bed.用手抚摸着黑眼袋,你想,我需要更多的睡眠。于是你又踉跄着回到床上。You may indeed need to sleep a bit longer, but despite the common misconception, dark circlesand puffiness under or around your eyes appear to have little to do with lack of sleep.也许你的确需要多睡一会儿,尽管有着普遍的误解,但眼周或眼底的黑眼圈和浮肿似乎与睡眠不足没有太大的关系。In fact, what seems to be a fairly common and hence supposedly explainable phenomenon remains something of a mystery to scientists.事实上,这个看起来相当容易解释的常见现象对科学家们来说却仍然是个谜。What scientists do know is that the skin under the eyes is very thin and sensitive.科学家们所知道的是,眼底的皮肤非常薄,非常敏感。When for avariety of reasons blood and other fluids accumulate in the area under your eyes, the delicacy ofthe skin makes the fluids color partly visible.当由于种种原因,血液和其他液体在眼底部位积聚时,这层细腻的皮肤就会使得液体的颜色浮现出来。This is what appears to account for the dark patches.这似乎才是黑眼圈形成的原因。Allergies may also be to blame.过敏也是可能的原因之一。An allergic reaction can cause cells under the skin of the eyes torelease histamine, a chemical that causes fluid accumulation and swelling.过敏反应导致眼底皮肤细胞释放出组胺,这种化学物质会引起积液和皮肤肿胀。This is what appears tocause puffy eyes.这似乎才是眼袋形成的原因。And finally, there is heredity.最后还有遗传因素的影响。Do your parents have dark circles under their eyes?你的父母是否有黑眼圈?If so, you mayhave found the source for your own dark circles.如果有,也许你就能够找到你有黑眼圈的原因。 201402/277303Books and Arts; Book Review;The end of the Soviet Union; Walking dead;文艺;书评;前苏联的末途;行尸走肉;The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》,奥利佛·布洛。Stagnation, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus (“Let our Fame be Great”), Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗·布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代——布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里·杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里·杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里·杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格(关押叛国罪罪犯的苦役监狱)而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里·杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里·杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里·杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里·杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里·杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里·杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里·杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里·杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔·索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里·杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里·杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里·杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里·杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201306/244713郴州人民医院男科泌尿科郴州治疗包皮过长哪家医院比较好

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