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2019年11月14日 10:35:11
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BEIJING — A court in eastern China has ordered six companies to pay fines totaling about million for discharging waste acid into two waterways, according to the court’s microblog account.北京——中国东部一家法院的微账号宣布,该法院下令对六家将废酸排进两条河流的公司处以总计逾1.6亿元的罚款。The fine, 160 million renminbi, is the biggest of any Chinese environmental pollution case and seems to signal that officials are trying to crack down on companies that have steadily degraded much of China’s land, water and air.这是迄今中国环境污染案件中开出的最高罚单,似乎也表明,官方正在努力打击导致中国大量土壤、水和大气逐步恶化的企业。The court announced its verdict on Tuesday. The ruling rejected the companies’ appeal of a lower court’s verdict in a civil case brought by a public interest group, according to state news organizations.法院于周二宣布了判决。官方新闻机构称,该法院的判决维持了下一级法院对相关企业做出的裁决。这起民事案件的诉讼是一家公益组织提起的。Pollution has become a top concern of people in China, and some officials see those anxieties as a growing threat to the Communist Party.污染已经成了中国人最关心的事情,部分官员认为,这些担忧对共产党构成了日益严峻的威胁。The Higher People’s Court of Jiangsu Province said the companies had discharged 25,000 tons of acid into the two waterways, the Rutai Canal and Gumagan River, from January 2012 to February 2013. The companies are based in an industrial district of Taizhou, a city that is in a densely populated part of China. One company, Jiangsu Changlong, was ordered to pay .3 million. That company employs about 1,300 people and makes chemicals used in farming, including pesticides, herbicides and those that promote plant growth.江苏省高级人民法院称,2012年1月至2013年2月期间,涉事公司向泰运河和古马干河排放了2.5万吨废酸。相关公司均位于泰州市的一个工业区内。泰州所在地区是中国的人口稠密地带。法院下令其中一家公司江苏常隆赔偿8500余万元。该公司拥有约1300名员工,生产农用化学制品,包括杀虫剂、除草剂以及其他促进植物生长的产品。Four of the other companies fined — Jinhui, Fu’an, Shenlong and Zhenqing — also make chemicals. The sixth, Shimeikang, is a pharmaceutical company.其他受罚企业中还有四家,即锦汇、富安、申龙、臻庆,也是化工企业。另一家施美康是制药企业。The court said the companies must pay the fines to an environmental protection fund within 30 days.法院称,六家公司须在30日内将赔偿款项付给一家环保基金。Taizhou City Environmental Protection Association, the public interest group that brought the lawsuit, was established in February, according to an official document posted online. The chairman, Tian Jun, is also the head of Taizhou’s environmental protection bureau.公布在网上的官方文件显示,提起诉讼的公益组织泰州市环保联合会成立于去年2月。会长田军同时也是该市环保局局长。The document said the group had 60 members and “was formed voluntarily by local people who are enthusiastic about environmental protection, some government offices and other social organizations.”文件称该组织有60名成员,是“各界热心于环保事业的人士、企事业单位和其他社会组织自愿结成的”。Officials began investigating the companies after hearing complaints from local residents, according to a report by Henan Business Daily. In August, the Intermediate People’s Court, in a criminal case, sentenced 14 people whom it deemed responsible for the pollution to prison sentences ranging from two to five years. The court ordered the companies to pay fines of about ,000 to ,000.《河南商报》的报道称,在接到当地居民的举报后,政府开始对这些企业进行调查。去年8月,中级人民法院在刑事诉讼中判处14名污染事件的责任人两年到五年不等的有期徒刑,并判处这些企业16万到41万元的罚款。The Taizhou City Environmental Protection Association then filed civil lawsuits against the six companies with the same court. The court ruled against the companies and ordered them to pay million. The companies appealed that verdict to the higher provincial court, which upheld the lower court’s ruling.随后,泰州市环保联合会在同一家法院对这六家企业提起了民事诉讼。法院同样判决这些企业负有责任,判处它们1.6亿元的罚款。这些企业上诉至省高级人民法院,后者维持了原判。Some Chinese officials who are concerned about environmental deterioration in China have been seeking ways to increase the fines that polluting companies must pay. In April, the Chinese legislature voted to revise an environmental protection law to allow for larger fines against companies and longer detentions of executives responsible for pollution. Earlier in 2014, Li Keqiang, the Chinese prime minister, had said the nation was y to “declare war” on pollution.一些对中国环境恶化心存忧虑的中国官员一直在寻找提高污染企业罚款额度的方法。4月,中国的立法机构投票决定修改一部环保法律,从而能够对污染企业处以更大数额的罚款,对负有污染责任的管理人员处以更长的刑期。2014年早些时候,中国总理李克强表示,中国已经准备好向污染“宣战”。“China’s amended environmental protection law strengthened the authority for environmental public interest lawsuits,” said Alex L. Wang, a law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, who studies Chinese environmental policies and regulations. “The question has always been whether anyone would be able to bring these suits and whether courts would be willing to uphold judgments against companies that are often substantial contributors to local tax bases. This decision seems to be a good result, but it’s hard to tell whether it is a sign of things to come or a one-off anomaly.”“修订后的中国环境保护法强化了环保公益诉讼的权威,”研究中国环境政策和法规的加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)法学教授亚历克斯·L·王(Alex L. Wang)说,“一直以来的疑问是,是否有人能够提起此类诉讼,以及法院是否愿意持不利于作为地方税收主要来源的企业的判决。这个决定似乎是个不错的结果,但很难判断,它是代表着未来的趋势,还是仅仅是昙花一现。”Scientific studies in China have drawn direct connections between river pollution and high rates of cancer among people living near those water sources.中国的科学研究已经表明,河流污染与水源附近居民的癌症发病率较高存在直接关系。In late 2013, a senior Land Ministry official said that eight million acres of China’s farmland — about the size of Maryland — had become so polluted that planting crops “should not be allowed.” In April, the Land Ministry released a report that said nearly 60 percent of areas being monitored had “very poor” or “relatively poor” underground water quality in 2013.2013年末,国土资源部的一名高级官员说,中国约有330万公顷的耕地因过度污染而“不宜耕种”。这和马里兰州的总面积相差无几。去年4月,国土资源部发布的一份报告称,全国近六成受到监测的地下水水质为“极差”和“较差”级。 /201501/352413云南闭壳乌龟饲养方法技术技巧长寿区马来食螺龟云南闭壳龟马来西亚巨龟豹斑象龟黄额盒龟价格怎么养黄额盒乌龟批发采购价格报价

怀化市印度星龟密西西比红耳龟黄头侧颈龟东部网目鸡龟价格怎么养中部锦龟多少钱一只The perils of forecasting the Chinese agricultural market came to the fore earlier this month when the US Department of Agriculture slashed its predictions for Chinese corn imports.本月早些时候,对中国农产品市场的风险预测得到了验,美国农业部(USDA)大幅下调了其对中国玉米进口的预测。Last year, the USDA reckoned China was set to become the largest importer of grain. But mounting evidence of rising inventories and falling demand triggered a rethink and it has dramatically cut its forecasts. Last year’s long-term import forecast of 22m tonnes for 2023/24 has been reduced to just 6.5m.去年,美国农业部估计,中国将成为全球最大玉米进口国。但越来越多的据显示,中国库存增加和需求下滑,促使美国农业部改变想法,并大幅下调了其预测。去年,美国农业部对2023/24年度中国玉米进口的长期预测为2200万吨,如今已被下调至区区650万吨。“The whole picture has really changed over the past 18 months or so,” said Fred Gale, senior economist at the USDA’s economic research service.美国农业部经济研究局高级经济学家弗雷德#8226;盖尔(Fred Gale)表示:“过去18个月左右,整体状况确实发生了变化。”Stronger demand for overseas, especially US, corn in 2011 and 2012, saw analysts both inside and outside China predict the country would become a net importer of the grain, which is mainly used for livestock and poultry feed and processed foods.2011年和2012年中国对海外(特别是美国)玉米的需求上升,使得中国国内外分析人士都预测,中国将成为玉米净进口国。玉米主要用做牲畜和家禽饲料以及加工食品。So what happened?那么发生了什么?After record crops in 2012 and 2013, and an abrupt drop off in consumption, China has found itself with a huge corn stockpile.在2012年和2013年产量创下纪录后,消费突然下滑,中国发现本国出现大量玉米库存。“It could take years for China to dispose of such large surpluses,” says the USDA in its latest report on the country’s agricultural imports.美国农业部在有关中国农产品进口的最新报告中称:“中国可能需要数年来消化如此大规模的过剩库存。”Apart from the favourable weather, the story behind the rise in Chinese inventories will be familiar to traders in sugar and cotton. Beijing’s farmer support policies mean a higher support price for corn compared with international prices. Not only does it encourage domestic production but also purchases of cheap imports as global grain prices plunged.除了气候条件有利之外,中国玉米库存上升的内情与糖和棉花一样,糖和棉花贸易商对此相当熟悉。中国农业补贴政策意味着,与国际价格相比,中国玉米价格更高。这不仅鼓励了国内生产,还促使中国在全球粮价下挫之际购买廉价进口玉米。Reserves also ballooned as authorities bought domestic corn to support the market during the 2013/14 crop year, raising official corn stocks to 100m tonnes, about half of the country’s annual consumption.2013/14作物年度期间,随着中国政府购买国产玉米撑玉米市场,玉米储备也随之增加。官方玉米库存升至1亿吨,约占中国年度消费量的一半。Another factor has been a surge in Chinese imports of sorghum and barley, a corn substitute, says Mr Gale. Sorghum and barley — which have no import as unlike other grains — jumped to 11.5m tonnes in the 2014/15 crop year from 1.7m in 2010/11, according to USDA data.盖尔表示,另一个因素是中国高粱和大麦(都是玉米替代品)的进口飙升。根据美国农业部的数据,2014/15作物年度,高粱和大麦(与其他粮食不同,没有进口配额限制)进口量从2010/11年度的170万吨飙升至1150万吨。Although authorities placed 63m tonnes of corn through auctions to try to reduce its stockpile, only 25m tonnes were purchased, says the USDA. In spite of this, Beijing has announced that it would buy corn from the 2014 harvest to support prices. Current stock levels for corn are at a 14-year high.美国农业部表示,尽管中国政府为减少库存拍卖6300万吨玉米,但成交量只有2500万吨。即便如此,中国政府仍宣布将收购2014年收获的玉米,以撑价格。目前的玉米库存为14年以来的高点。Even when China does eventually turn to imports, it is likely to try to keep this to the minimum. Government officials view agricultural imports as unavoidable but also appear to distrust international markets, according to the USDA report.尽管中国最终仍会转向玉米进口,但中国可能会努力将进口量降至最低。根据美国农业部的报告,中国政府官员将农产品进口视为不可避免之举,但似乎不相信国际市场。“The food security strategy is strongly influenced by the perceived dominance of imports and foreign companies in China’s soyabean industry, which has been described as a potential threat to the country’s soyabean supply,” it says.报告称:“在中国大豆行业,进口产品以及外资企业明显占主导地位,这强烈影响着食品安全战略,这些被视为中国大豆供应的潜在威胁。”This stance helps explain China’s actions over food trade over the past few years. First, it has diversified food import sources in order to give the country’s importers greater price negotiating power as well as reduce risks from a potential trade embargo. For example, China’s authorities opened up its market to corn from Argentina and Ukraine in 2012 as imports from the US began increasing.这种态度有助于解释过去几年中国在食品贸易方面的举措。为了赋予中国进口商更大的价格谈判权,同时降低可能的贸易禁运的风险,中国对食品进口来源实现了多样化。例如,2012年,随着来自美国的进口玉米的增加,中国政府向产自阿根廷和乌克兰的玉米开放了市场。Second, China is looking to gain greater control over its agricultural import supply chains through overseas investments. The move by COFCO — or China National Cereals, Oil and Foodstuffs Corp — where the state-owned group took a stake in an agriculture joint venture with Noble Group, and separately purchased a controlling stake in Dutch agricultural trading house Nidera, seems to follow that strategy.其次,中国指望通过海外投资获得对其农产品进口供应链获得更大控制。国有企业中粮(COFCO)与来宝集团(Noble Group)组建了一家农业合资公司,另外还购入荷兰农产品贸易集团Nidera的控股权,这些举措似乎是在遵循上述战略。A rise in overseas investments will offer a larger share of profits for Chinese companies, establish reliable supplies for the domestic market, and gain more influence over international prices, says the report.报告称,扩大海外投资将让中国企业获得更多利润、为国内市场取得可靠供应,并对国际价格施加更大影响。 /201503/361991安塞县印度棱背龟佛罗里达红肚龟黄腿象龟中部锦龟安南龟海龟扁头长颈龟价格怎么养This winter Patrick Honohan, the governor of Ireland’s central bank, will be listening out for “jingle mail”. It is something of a novel sound for Europe. During America’s subprime crisis of the past decade, thousands of households escaped from hefty mortgages they could not repay by abandoning their homes – and loans – after posting the keys to the lender (with a jingle).今年冬天,爱尔兰央行行长帕特里克#8226;霍诺汉(Patrick Honohan)将留心倾听“叮当邮件”的声音。在欧洲,“叮当邮件”还是一件新事物。过去10年美国发生次贷危机时,成千上万的家庭为了逃脱他们无法偿还的高额按揭贷款,把房子的钥匙寄还给(由此得名“叮当邮件”),将房子和贷款一并抛弃。Until recently that idea was almost entirely unknown on the other side of the Atlantic. In countries such as Ireland, it has always been difficult for individuals to abandon a debt completely, even after default.直到不久以前,大西洋彼岸的人们对这个概念几乎一无所知。在爱尔兰这样的国家,个人很难完全甩开债务,即使在发生违约后也是如此。But this month Mr Honohan revealed during a debate at the International Monetary Fund that some Irish mortgage providers were now offering “non-recourse” loans, which give them the right to repossess property in the event of default but not to pursue borrowers personally. If these experiments sp, it could change the pattern of mortgages: in future some borrowers could walk away. Jingle mail would have an Irish tone.然而,霍诺汉本月在国际货币基金组织(IMF)的一场辩论中透露,爱尔兰一些按揭贷款提供者推出了“无追索权”贷款,让它们有权在出现违约的情况下收回房产,但无权追索借款人个人的偿债责任。如果这种试行方法推广开来,可能会改变按揭贷款的运作规律:未来,一些借款人能抛下债务一走了之。爱尔兰也将传出叮当邮件的声音。Is this a good idea? Some say No. Letting the irresponsible escape looks distasteful to responsible borrowers. And when Mr Honohan raised the issue at the IMF meeting, the European bankers in the room were unimpressed.这是个好主意吗?一些人认为不是。让不负责任的人逃脱债务,对负责任的借款人来说令人反感。当霍诺汉在IMF会议上提出这个议题时,与会的欧洲家并不满意。Such revulsion is natural, but it misses the point. Default is never pleasant. In the case of mortgages, it is usually more sensible for banks to restructure delinquent debt (or to avoid making unwise loans in the first place) than to create a system where borrowers can run away from bad loans. But there is one benefit to jingle mail: it draws a line in the sand. And that is something that the eurozone badly needs – in relation to debt of all kinds.这种厌恶情绪是正常的,但它没有抓住关键。违约从来就不是一件令人愉快的事。就按揭贷款而言,对来说,比起建立借款人能从不良贷款中脱身的制度,通常更明智的选择是重组不良贷款(或者从一开始就避免发放不明智的贷款)。但叮当邮件有一个好处:它划清了一条界限。这是欧元区迫切需要采纳的做法——对各类债务而言都是如此。To understand why, take a look at the numbers. During the credit bubble household debt as a proportion of disposable income jumped sharply in the US. But since then the ratio has tumbled more than 20 percentage points. About two-thirds of that decline reflects default, as banks foreclosed on delinquent debtors or borrowers ran away.要理解其原因,可以看一看统计数据。在美国出现信贷泡沫时,家庭债务占可配收入的比例大幅飙升。但此后该比例降低了20多个百分点。该降幅中三分之二的部分反映了违约,这是对拖欠债务者或一走了之的借款人进行止赎的结果。However, the ratio of household debt to gross domestic product in the eurozone has risen, not fallen, since 2008. Corporate debt has also grown. To a degree that reflects Europe’s lack of growth. But lenders have also been painfully slow to resolve bad debts.然而,2008年后,欧元区内家庭债务占国内生产总值(GDP)的比例不降反升。企业债务也增加了。从某种程度上说,这反映了欧洲增长较为疲弱。但在处理坏账方面的行动也的确很缓慢。That is partly because of unrealistic optimism about the future and a shortage of bank capital to absorb write-offs. But another issue is the legal framework: many parts of Europe simply do not have the mechanisms needed to resolve bad loans quickly, be that a system akin to America’s 11 code for company reorganisation – or jingle mail.部分原因是对未来的不切实际的乐观态度,以及缺乏资本来吸收坏账注销。但另一个问题出在法律框架方面:欧洲许多地方根本没有迅速解决不良贷款问题的机制,无论是类似于针对企业重组的美国破产法第11章(11),还是叮当邮件。Thus in Ireland (to name but one example), one-in-six mortgage borrowers are in default on their loans. However, two-thirds of those loans have never been restructured. Furthermore, while household debt has recently declined a little, a central bank study shows that this decline reflects the efforts of the rich to repair their balance sheets; not any real deleveraging among the poor. The latter remain in limbo.就以爱尔兰为例,六分之一的按揭贷款借款人已经发生了债务违约。然而,这些贷款的三分之二从未进行重组。此外,尽管爱尔兰的家庭债务最近略微下降,但央行的一项研究表明,下降原因是富人尝试修复他们的资产负债表,而不是穷人的去杠杆化进程取得了任何实质性进展。后者的问题依然被搁置。Perhaps that will eventually change. The new, looming, round of bank stress tests from the European Central Bank could prompt lenders to get tougher. And on the ground, there are some hints of practical reform. Sean Hagan, legal counsellor of the IMF, says that in Portugal there is now a big increase in out-of-court restructurings of corporate debt (to circumvent the woefully slow court system).或许这种状况最终会发生改变。欧洲央行(ECB)即将进行的新一轮压力测试将促使执行更严格的政策。在这方面,已经出现了一些实际改革的迹象。IMF法律顾问肖恩#8226;黑根(Sean Hagan)表示,葡萄牙的企业债务庭外重组(目的是绕开办事效率极低的法庭体系)出现了大幅增加。In Spain, corporate debt has recently declined because banks have been more aggressive in forcing through consolidation. Banks are also selling more non-performing loans in places such as Spain, Germany and France to private equity firms, which are aggressively seeking resolution.西班牙的企业债务最近降低了,因为在强迫进行债务重整方面更为强硬。西班牙、德国和法国等国家的将更多不良贷款卖给私人股本公司,由其积极争取清盘。But what is still missing, in many quarters, is a mindset – most notably a recognition by bureaucrats and bankers that failure is an inevitable part of the market system, and that it sometimes pays to wipe the slate clean rather than endlessly sweep problems under the carpet.但许多圈子依旧缺失一种心态——最显著的是,官僚与家没能认识到失败是市场体系无法回避的一部分,而且有时候,一笔勾销比无休止地掩盖问题更值得。Letting borrowers run away from bad loans may not be healthy; but it is even less healthy to leave a chunk of the population trapped in the virtual prison of debt that can never be repaid. For evidence of that, just look at Japan.让借款人从不良贷款中脱身或许并不健康;但让大量人群陷入永远无法偿清债务的困境更不利于健康。要找据的话,只要看看日本就明白了。Or to put it another way, if attitudes towards default are now changing in Ireland – a touch – that can only be a good thing, particularly if these ideas sp in the eurozone. The tragedy is that it has taken so long.换言之,如果爱尔兰对待违约的态度正在发生改变,就算只是一点点,也只会是一件好事,如果这种观念能在欧元区传播开来就更是如此。令人遗憾的是,这个过程花费的时间太长了。 /201411/341754棱背泥龟采购信息大全养殖方法

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