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Saudi Arabia has struck a landmark deal with Russia to freeze oil output, in the first co-ordinated move to try to reduce a near record supply glut and halt the collapse in prices.沙特阿拉伯与俄罗斯签署了具有里程碑意义的冻结石油产量的协议,这是双方首次合作以努力减少接近创纪录的供应过剩,遏止油价暴跌。After watching oil prices fall 70 per cent since mid-2014, Ali al-Naimi, Saudi Arabia’s powerful oil minister, said an output freeze by some of the world’s leading producers should start to stabilise the market.在目睹油价自2014年中期以来下0%之后,沙特阿拉伯石油部长阿里纳伊Ali Al-Naimi)表示,全球一些主要产油国冻结产量应当开始稳定市场。Yesterday’s deal, which requires other big producers to agree to cap output, was reached at a closed-door meeting in Doha with Opec members Qatar and Venezuela also in attendance.昨日的协议是在多哈的一场闭门会议上达成的,欧佩OPEC)成员国卡塔尔和委内瑞拉也参加了此次会议。协议要求其他大型产油国同意设置产量上限。The deal between Saudi Arabia and Russia comes against a backdrop of strained political relations between the parties. Tensions remain high over the civil war in Syria, with Moscow and Tehran propping up the regime of Bashar al-Assad, while Riyadh backs opposition forces.沙特与俄罗斯是在双方政治关系紧张的背景下签署上述协议的。围绕叙利亚内战的局势依然高度紧张,莫斯科和德黑兰持叙利亚的巴沙尔阿萨Bashar al-Assad)政权,而利雅得持反对派力量。While the speed of the deal between the Opec powerbroker and Russia, the world’s biggest producer, surprised the market, traders remained sceptical that the provisional agreement would gain wider acceptance. Opec member Iran is seen as the biggest stumbling block.尽管欧佩克权力掮客沙特与全球最大产油国俄罗斯迅速敲定协议让市场感到意外,但交易员们仍怀疑这份临时协议能否获得更广泛的接受。人们认为,欧佩克成员国伊朗是最大的绊脚石。In a bid to bring the most reluctant Opec members on board, Eulogio del Pino, Venezuelan oil minister, who has led the diplomatic push for a deal, will travel to Tehran today to meet officials from Iran and Iraq.为了争取最不情愿冻结产量的几个欧佩克成员国配合,委内瑞拉石油部长欧洛希奥德尔皮Eulogio del Pino)将于今日前往德黑兰与伊朗和伊拉克官员会晤。他引领了达成协议的外交努力。Bijan Zangeneh, Iran’s oil minister, said the country would not give up its share of the market, according to Iranian news agency Shana. The country has only just started raising exports after the lifting of sanctions last month.伊朗新闻机构Shana报道称,伊朗石油部长比詹帠格兰多(Bijan Zangeneh)表示,该国将不会放弃其市场份额。在上月被取消制裁之后,伊朗只是刚刚开始增加出口。News of the meeting between Saudi and Russian officials caused oil prices to spike as much as 6 per cent but the formal announcement resulted in a sharp reversal as traders calculated it mght not remove a significant number of barrels from the market. Brent crude, the global benchmark, had fallen 3 per cent to .39 a barrel late in the day, marking a near 10 per cent intraday swing.沙特和俄罗斯官员会晤的消息导致油价一度飙%,但随后正式发布的声明导致油价急剧回落,因为交易员们认为该协议不会让市场显著减少石油供应。全球基准原油布伦特原油到格林尼治标准时间周84分时下跌4%,至每桶32.06美元,使日内波动幅度达到10%。来 /201602/427037The state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is something of a backwater. 梅克伦堡-前波莫瑞州(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,以下简称梅前州)有点儿闭塞。Otto von Bismarck is said to have quipped that, if the world was about to end, he would move to Mecklenburg as it would take a further 50 years for the apocalypse to arrive there. 据说奥托#8226;#8226;俾斯Otto von Bismarck)曾打趣说,如果世界末日到来,他将会搬到梅克伦堡去住,因为大灾难还0年才能抵达那里。Yet the election to its state legislature put this rural corner of northeastern Germany at the heart of a long-overdue debate.然而该州立法机构的选举让这个位于德国东北部的偏远地区成为一场拖延已久的辩论的焦点。Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats (CDU) finished third in Sunday’s poll behind the rightwing populist Alternative for Germany and the Social Democrats (SPD).德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)的基民盟(CDU)在上周日梅前州议会选举中的得票位列第三,落后于右翼民粹政党德国新选择Alternative for Germany)和社民党(SPD)。The question is how to deal with the AfD now it is here to stay. 问题是如何应对现在已经站稳脚跟的德国新选择党。The difficulty is that this is a party to which many of the usual rules of German political life do not seem to apply.困难在于,这是一个似乎不适用诸多德国政治常规的政党。Normally, voters shun parties whose top officials publicly fight among themselves. 在正常情况下,选民不会持最高层官员公开内讧的政党。Not so with the AfD. 这并不适用于德国新选择党。Public mudslinging among party leaders does not appear to be putting people off. 该党领导人彼此公开诋毁似乎并没有让人们放弃持。Moreover, voters normally abandon their support for anti-establishment parties once a particular problem is solved or is no longer at the top of the political agenda.此外,一旦某一特定问题得到解决或者不再处于政治议程的首位,选民通常就会放弃对反建制政党的持。This is what happened in the early summer of 2015 when the crisis in the eurozone was solved, for the time being at least, with a third bailout deal for Greece. 015年夏初相关各方就希腊第三轮纾困达成协议、欧元区危机得到解决(至少暂时得到解决)的时候就是这样。The AfD’s opinion poll ratings went down almost immediately. 德国新选择党的民调持率几乎应声下跌。Not so this time. 这次却不是这样。The massive influx of refugees and migrants from Syria and elsewhere in the Middle East has long since slowed to a trickle yet the AfD is still going strong.来自叙利亚和其他中东地区的难民和移民已经从大规模涌入转变为零星进入,然而德国新选择党仍在壮大。This is bad news for Ms Merkel. 这对默克尔来说是坏消息。Her style is pragmatic rather than emotional or charismatic. 她的风格是务实型、而非情感型或魅力型。But it is emotion and fear that are fuelling the rise of the AfD, and the chancellor appears to have no answer to it. 但正是情感和担忧促成了德国新选择党的崛起,默克尔似乎没有解决办法。Nevertheless, she will not budge. 然而,她不会动摇。Last week, she reaffirmed her refugee policy. 上周,她重申了自己的难民政策。I don’t regret anything, she said in an interview with the Bild newspaper.她在接受德国《图片报Bild)采访时表示:我不后悔任何事。In the wake of the CDU’s third place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, party officials, as well as ordinary members, are getting nervous. 基民盟在梅前州议会选举中的得票位列第三位之后,党内官员以及普通党员越来越感到担忧。They ask anxiously whether the party can still win elections with Ms Merkel at the helm.他们不安地质问,在默克尔掌舵下,基民盟还能否赢得选举。At the same time, adding to the sense of helplessness, they know that there is no obvious or plausible alternative to her. 与此同时,他们也知道没有明显或貌似合理的替代人选,这更让他们感觉无助。Win or lose, the party is chained to Ms Merkel, who will urge her colleagues and supporters to be patient. 无论赢得还是输掉选举,基民盟都与默克尔休戚相关,她将敦促同僚和持者保持耐心。In December, a CDU convention is supposed to re-elect her as party leader. 在今2月,默克尔有望在基民盟大会上再次当选为领导人。It is highly likely that she will use the occasion to announce her intention to run for the chancellorship again.她届时很可能宣布有意再次竞选总理。In short, the AfD is not going away and nor is Ms Merkel. 简言之,德国新选择党不会走开,默克尔也不会。So the CDU must decide whether the taboo on coalition-building with the AfD will be permanent. 因此基民盟必须决定,不能与德国新选择党缔结联盟的禁忌是否是永久性的。The discussion in the party will be painful, as much as the one the SPD had to undergo when the formerly communist Die Linke party did not vanish after reunification in 1990.该党将会进行痛苦的讨论,就像是在1990年两德统一后,原共产主义党派德国左翼党(Die Linke)没有消亡的时候,社民党不得不展开的讨论那样。Bringing the AfD into the fold might be a way to defang a populist movement that is clearly anti-establishment and xenophobic. 拉拢德国新选择党可能大大削弱显然是反建制和排外的民粹运动。AfD officials say openly that they do not want to be in government but they cannot explain why. 德国新选择党官员公开表示,他们不想上台执政,但他们无法说清原因。Pressing them on this point might be a more effective way of draining support for the populist party than any of the other strategies that the CDU has attempted.与基民盟已尝试的其他战略相比,在这一点上施压可能会更为有效地削弱该党的持。Unfortunately, Ms Merkel is not a particularly daring or audacious politician. 遗憾的是,默克尔不是特别勇敢或者大胆的政客。In all likelihood, she will try to keep on doing business as usual instead of broaching the delicate subject of coalition or co-operation with the AfD.她将很有可能像往常那样行事,而不是提出与德国新选择党组建联盟或合作的敏感话题。The chancellor might even tacitly count on the AfD entering the Bundestag after the elections in autumn 2017 because, if it does, it will be mathematically impossible to construct a governing majority without her and the CDU. 默克尔可能甚至暗中希望新选择党在2017年秋季选举之后进入德国联邦议院,因为如果该党进入联邦议院,在缺少默克尔和基民盟的情况下,组成执政所需的多数席位从数学角度来说是不可能的。The paradox is that a strong AfD will probably help Ms Merkel stay in power for another term.矛盾之处在于,一个强大的新选择党很可能将帮助默克尔再连任一届。来 /201609/465576

Michigan voters this week cast their lot with Republican frontrunner Donald Trump and Democrat Bernie Sanders, registering the angst America’s blue-collar workers feel over globalisation, trade and China. 密歇根选民最近把自己的命运与共和党总统竞选人领跑者唐纳德#8226;特朗Donald Trump)和民主党总统竞选人角逐者伯#8226;桑德Bernie Sanders)绑在了一起,这表明了美国蓝领工人对全球化、贸易和中国的焦虑But not all of them, perhaps. From his perch in America’s rust belt, Randy Adams, a 55-year-old veteran of a US motor parts industry that has endured years of struggle, rejected both of the rising populists. He is instead a newly-minted fan of China. 但是,或许并非所有人都是这样。生活在美国“工业锈带”的兰迪#8226;亚当Randy Adams)现年55岁,是经历了多年挣扎的美国汽车零件制造业的一名老将,他拒绝把选票投给上述两位人气不断上升的民粹主义者。相反,他成为了中国的新粉丝It is a political stance born of a recent change in his personal circumstances. Since late last year Mr Adams has been working as a supervisor for Fuyao Glass, a rapidly expanding Chinese company, inside what by the end of the year is predicted to be the world’s largest motor glass factory by production volume. 这种政治立场是因最近他个人境遇的的变化而起。自从去年末以来,亚当斯在福耀玻璃(Fuyao Glass)担任监工。该公司是一家迅速扩张的中国企业,到今年底有望成为全球产量最大的汽车玻璃制造厂Fuyao plans to spend 0m refurbishing the former General Motors plant in Moraine, Ohio, into a factory that will employ up to 2,000 workers by the end of the year. The investment is part of a nascent trend that is reshaping the economic relationship between China and the US and may one day alter longstanding electoral habits in places such as Michigan. 福耀计划斥资4.5亿美元,对通用汽车(General Motors)之前在俄亥俄州莫雷纳(Moraine)的这家工厂进行改造,到今年底该厂将雇用至000名工人。这笔投资代表了一种正在重塑中美经济关系的新趋势——或许有一天也会改变密歇根等地长久以来的选举习惯Chinese foreign direct investment into the US reached a record .7bn in 2015 and this year is aly on pace to top that, according to the Rhodium Group, a research company. 据研究咨询公司荣鼎咨Rhodium Group)表示015年中国对美国的外商直接投FDI)创下157亿美元的纪录,而今年迄今的数字已经有望超越去年Moreover, a growing share of China’s investment in the US is in the form of greenfield investments by companies such as Fuyao Glass. 此外,越来越多的中国在美投资是像福耀玻璃等企业进行的绿地投资“It’s a game-changer in US-China economic relations,says Thilo Hanemann, an analyst with the Rhodium Group. “You are actually seeing Chinese companies investing here and putting American workers on their payroll.“这将是美中经济关系中一件改变游戏规则的事情,”荣鼎咨询的分析师韩其洛(Thilo Hanemann)称,“你实实在在地看见中国企业在这里投资,雇用美国工人。The numbers remain relatively small compared with other longstanding Asian investors in the US. According to Rhodium, 80,000 US workers were employed by Chinese companies at the end of 2014 versus almost 900,000 for Japanese companies. Honda, for example, is the largest employer in Ohio’s motor sector, with more than 14,000 employees, or seven times the number Fuyao will employ by the end of year. 相比那些在美国投资已久的其他亚洲投资者,中资企业的用工人数仍然相对较少。根据荣鼎咨询的数据,截014年底,中国企业雇用了8万名美国工人,而日本企业雇佣的美国工人达到将近90万。比如,本田(Honda)是俄亥俄州汽车产业最大的雇主,拥有超.4万名员工,相当于福耀到今年底计划雇用的员工数量的7倍But as they continue to deal with the enduring industrial scars of the 2008 financial crisis the trend is something local politicians across industrial America have noted and even begun dare using in political campaigns. 但是,在美国工业腹地的地方政界人士继续应008年金融危机留下的迟迟难以愈合的工业伤痕之际,这种趋势成了他们注意到——甚至开始敢于在政治活动中使用——的情况Ohio Governor and Republican presidential candidate John Kasich worked with local officials to woo Fuyao to Moraine, a scrappy industrial suburb south of Dayton. Tomorrow, the Chinese-owned factory will provide the backdrop for one of his final rallies ahead of the state’s crucial March 15 primary contest which the Ohio governor needs to win. 俄亥俄州州长、共和党总统候选人角逐者约#8226;卡西John Kasich)曾与当地官员一起吸引福耀落户代顿Dayton)以南粗旷的工业化郊区莫雷纳。这家中资工厂成了卡西奇初选竞选集会宣传的功绩5日,俄亥俄州将迎来至关重要的初选,身为该州州长的卡西奇势在必得The move is meant to highlight his record on job creation, but it also serves as a political poke in the eye for Mr Trump, who has vowed to wage what would amount to a trade war on China to bring jobs back to the US. 此举旨在凸显他在创造就业方面的政绩,但也是对特朗普发起的一记政治“点穴”,因为特朗普誓言要对中国采取可能演化为贸易战的行动,目的是让就业岗位回到美国“With Fuyao John Kasich has proof that he has brought jobs from China to Ohio and that he has brought many other jobs to Ohio. He knows how to compete and he knows how to win,says Mike Turner, a Republican congressman whose district includes Moraine. “有了福耀的例子,约翰#8226;卡西奇就可以明他把就业从中国带到俄亥俄、并给俄亥俄带来了很多其他岗位。他知道如何竞争、如何赢,”共和党议员迈克#8226;特纳(Mike Turner)称。特纳的选区包括莫雷纳But bringing China into the campaign and boldly proclaiming the benefits of trade has risks for Mr Kasich, who is locked in a tight race with Mr Trump. 但是,在竞选中引入中国话题、并且大胆宣称贸易的好处,会给卡西奇带来风险。目前他与特朗普难分上下His attempt to beat Mr Trump in Ohio is part of a bigger effort by the Republican mainstream to try to block the property tycoon’s push to win the party’s nomination for November’s general election. 他希望在俄亥俄州打败特朗普,这是共和党主流努力的一部分,目的是阻止这位房地产大亨赢得代表该党参1月大选的资格While Mr Kasich touts his record of job creation in Ohio the reality is that there are 400,000 fewer Ohioans working in manufacturing than in 1990 and 80,000 less than before the financial crisis of 2008. 尽管卡西奇鼓吹自己给俄亥俄带来就业岗位的记录,但是现实情况是,如今在制造业工作的俄亥俄人较1990年减少了40万,008年金融危机发生前减少万But as the Fuyao investment illustrates, there is also a manufacturing recovery under way. 不过,正如福耀的投资所表明的那样,制造业正在复苏By the end of this year, says John Gauthier, president of Fuyao’s US subsidiary, the Moraine facility will have the capacity to produce a quarter of all the motor glass used in North America and fill a huge gap in capacity that had previously been filled by glass produced in China. 福耀美国公司总裁约翰#8226;高蒂John Gauthier)称,到今年底,莫雷纳工厂将具备供应北美市场四分之一汽车玻璃的产能,填补之前由中国制造的汽车玻璃填补的巨大空癀?Higher labour costs in the US than in China mean the plant is heavily automated. But what is making the investment possible is also the much lower energy costs, with electricity costing half the amount it does in China. 美国的劳动力成本高于中国,这意味着该工厂将高度自动化。但是,促成该投资的因素还包括比中国低得多的能源成本。美国的电力成本是中国的一半“That is a huge competitive advantage,Mr Gauthier says. “这是一个巨大的竞争优势,”高蒂尔称For Mr Adams, that means a new job and a new focus on efficiency. At its current pace the new assembly line he oversees can turn out more than 1,000 windscreens a day, although that is just the beginning, according to Mr Adams. 对于监工亚当斯来说,这意味着一份新工作,更注重效率。亚当斯称,按照目前的速度,他负责的新生产线每天可以生000块以上的挡风玻璃,尽管这还仅仅是开始“It can run a little faster,he says. “We just haven’t pushed it yet.“速度还能更快点,”他称,“我们只是还没开足马力。”来 /201603/431711

Four years and some hundreds of billions of dollars later, China’s ambitious global trading strategy known as the “Maritime Silk Roador “One Belt, One Roadis now coming to life, particularly in parts of East Africa where major infrastructure and defense projects are being built. 四年以来数百亿美元过后,中国雄心勃勃的全球贸易战略,“海上丝绸之路”或者称作“一带一路,现在正在变成现实,特别是在东非的部分地区,主要的基础设施建设和国防安全项目正在建设中。New ports in Tanzania, rail lines in Kenya, naval facilities in Djibouti and industrial zones along the Suez Canal in Egypt are all intended to support this massive new trade network that President Xi Jinping hopes will become a key pillar of his foreign policy agenda.坦桑尼亚的新港口,肯尼亚的铁路线,吉布提的海军设施和沿埃及苏伊士运河的工业区都被用来撑这个庞大的新贸易网络,习近平主席希望这个贸易网络能够成为他的对外政策议程的关键柱Matt Ferchen is an associate professor of international relations at Tsinghua University and a resident scholar at the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy where he is a leading OBOR expert with a particular focus on how the venture will impact the Global South. Matt Ferhen是一位清华大学的国际关系学副教授、卡耐基-清华全球政策中心的常驻学者,在那里他是一位领导性的一带一路权威专家,特别聚焦于这项冒险将如何影响南半球。Matt joins Eric amp; Cobus in the podcast above to discuss the new politics of Chinese trade.Matt参加了一个播客节目Ericamp;Cobus,讨论中国贸易新决策。来 /201606/451077Donald Trump has come under fire for suggesting that women should be punished for having abortions, as the Republican presidential frontrunner risks further alienating female voters. 由于暗示妇女应该因堕胎而受到处罚,唐纳#8226;特朗Donald Trump)受到了众人的抨击。这位共和党总统候选人头号竞争者因此面临进一步疏远女性选民的风险In an interview with MSN television, Mr Trump repeated his stance that abortion should be banned. But he sparked controversy by stating that women as opposed to the doctors who perform the operation should be punished if the Supreme Court overturned the landmark Roe v Wade decision that legalised the procedure in 1973. 在接受微软全国广播公MSN)电视采访时,特朗普重申了他禁止堕胎的立场。不过,引发争议的部分在于,他说,假若美国最高法Supreme Court)推翻了里程碑式的罗伊诉韦德案(Roe v Wade)的结论,那么妇女应该因堕胎而受到处罚——而不是执行堕胎手术的医生973年,正是对罗伊诉韦德案的裁定,令堕胎合法化“There has to be some form of punishment [for women],Mr Trump said under pressure after the MSN anchor told the New York mogul who has a tendency to be evasive when pressed not to “dodgethe question. 这位纽约富豪在被强制问到这个问题时曾出现推诿倾向,MSN的主持人告诉他不要“回避”这个问题。于是,面临压力的特朗普表示:“(对涉事妇女)应该处以某种形式的处罚。While the vast majority of Republicans, including all three GOP presidential contenders, oppose abortion, critics of the procedure typically argue that the doctor, and not the woman, should face punishment if it was outlawed. 虽然包括三名共和党总统候选人竞争者在内,绝大多数共和党人反对堕胎,但是通常对堕胎的批评意见认为,如果堕胎非法,应该面临处罚的是医生而不是妇女Mr Trump’s remarks sparked criticism from across the political spectrum. The Democratic National Committee said they showed that his “vileness and contempt for women knows no bounds Jeanne Mancini, president of an anti-abortion group called March for Life, said he was “incredibly out of touch with [the] pro-life movement and women in general 特朗普的说法引发了整个政界的批评。民主党全国委员Democratic National Committee)表示,这些话显示他“对妇女的厌恶和蔑视毫无底线”。反堕胎组织March for Life总裁珍妮#8226;曼西Jeanne Mancini)表示,他“与反堕胎运动、与妇女总体的脱节令人难以置信”Hillary Clinton, the former New York senator who will make a strong play for the female vote if she becomes the Democratic nominee, said: “We can’t let someone with this much contempt for women’s rights anywhere near the White House.Ted Cruz, the Texas senator who remains the only candidate who can stop Mr Trump from getting the 1,237 delegates needed to win the Republican nomination before the party convention, also attacked the tycoon. 曾任纽约州参议员的希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)表示:“我们不能让如此蔑视妇女权益的人接近白宫。”一旦成为民主党总统提名人,希拉里将大力争取女性的公民权。此外,德克萨斯州参议员特德#8226;克鲁Ted Cruz)也抨击了这位大亨。目前,克鲁斯是唯一可能在共和党党代会以前,阻止特朗普获得赢得共和党总统提名人所需237个代表席位的候选人。“Once again Donald Trump has demonstrated that he hasn’t seriously thought through the issues, and he’ll say anything just to get attention,said Mr Cruz. “What’s far too often neglected is that being pro-life is not simply about the unborn child. It’s also about the mother, and creating a culture that respects her and embraces life.克鲁斯表示:“唐纳德#8226;特朗普再次显示出他对这个问题从未认真思考过,只要能吸引眼球,他会随便乱说。一个被忽视太多次数的问题是,反对堕胎不仅仅事关未出生的儿童,还涉及到孩子的母亲,涉及到如何打造尊重这位母亲、接纳新生命的文化氛围。After his remarks ignited a firestorm, Mr Trump reversed his position. “If Congress were to pass legislation making abortion illegal and the federal courts upheld this legislation, or any state were permitted to ban abortion under state and federal law, the doctor or any other person performing this illegal act upon a woman would be held legally responsible, not the woman,he said in a statement. “The woman is a victim in this case as is the life in her womb. My position has not changed like Ronald Reagan, I am pro-life with exceptions.在言论引发巨大风暴之后,特朗普逆转了他的立场。他在一份声明中表示:“假若国会要通过法案令堕胎非法,而联邦法院也持这一法案,或者任何州被允许依照联邦法律和州法律禁止堕胎,那么对妇女实施这一非法行为的医生或任何其他个人应该承担法律责任,而不是这位妇女。在这种情况下,妇女和其子宫内的生命一样都是受害者。与罗纳#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)类似,我的立场并未改变,我反对堕胎——除了某些例外情况。”来 /201603/434780

China is rolling out a nationwide system of social control known as “grid managementin a revival of state presence in residential life that had receded as society liberalised during recent decades. 随着近几十年中国社会的开放,国家的身影原本已渐渐淡出居民生活。现在中国正在推行一个叫做“网格化管理”的全国性社会管控体系,让国家的身影重新出现在居民生活中From smog-blanketed towns on the North China Plain to the politically sensitive Tibetan capital of Lhasa, small police booths and networks of citizens have been set up block by block to reduce neighbourhood disputes, enforce sanitation, reduce crime and keep an eye on anyone deemed a troublemaker. 从华北平原雾霾笼罩的城镇,到具有政治敏感性的西藏首府拉萨,小型警务站和居民网络在一个又一个街区建立起来,目的是减少邻里纠纷、实施卫生管理、减少犯罪,以及监控任何被视为麻烦制造者的人The rollout coincides with a broader tightening of state control over civil society and crackdown on dissent under President Xi Jinping. 网格化管理体系的推出,适逢国家在更大范围内收紧对公民社会的管控和对异见的压制“The grid management system is an attempt by the authorities to re-establish its control over individuals,said Li Dun, an expert in public management at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “The aim is to reinstate the idea of upholding the party’s leadership.“网格化管理体系是当局重新确立对个人的控制的一次尝试,”清华大学公共管理问题专家李楯表示,“其目的是重新树立‘坚持党的领导’的理念。An earlier system of neighbourhood committees, which monitored every urban citizen, has declined since the mid-1990s as private housing became more common and social controls faded. “Grid managementalso harks back to the baojia system of the ancient Chinese dynasties, when groups of neighbours were responsible for mutually enforcing proper behaviour. 自上世纪90年代中期以来,随着私有住房变得更为普遍、社会管控消减,曾经监控每一个城镇居民的居委会体系日渐式微。“网格化管理”还让人想起中国古代王朝的“保甲”制度,该制度把若干户编成一组,让同一组的居民相互督促,确保每个人的行为举止符合规范。来 /201604/436060

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