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2019年11月13日 16:31:59 | 作者:康泰媒体 | 来源:新华社
The voice is all the more credible because it belongs to someone who by rights,这种说法更为可信 因为按理说 写这句话的人should have found nothing to fault in the Norman Conquest the monk Orderic Vitalis,断不会刻意责难诺曼征 他就是修道士奥尔德里克·维塔利斯whose family came over with William and belonged, therefore, to the conquering class.他的家族跟着威廉来到这里 因此他应属征者一方In the early 12th century,he began to pen his account of the Conquest and its aftermath,十二世纪早期 他开始记录这场征及其影响and, in complete contrast to the others,Orderic never minces his words about what he thought of as a colonisation.但与他人截然不同的是 奥尔德里克从未矫揉做作地解释过 他认为什么是殖民化Foreigners grew wealthy with the spoils of England,while her own sons were either shamefully slain从英格兰掠夺的财富让外来入侵者变得富有 而她的子民却被受尽凌辱惨遭荼毒or driven as exiles to wander hopelessly through foreign kingdoms.或被驱逐 流亡国外 背井离乡His account conveys the traumatic magnitude of what happened in England in the years following 1066.他的记录向我们传达了1066年后 英格兰所经受的巨大创伤Pre-Conquest England was an old country,as Orderic describes it.照奥尔德里克所述 被征前的英格兰是个古老的国家Afterwards, it was a completely new one.被征后的英格兰 却犹如新生Of course, not everything changed,and to look at a list of governing institutions当然 也不是所有东西都变了 看一看治理国家的制度you might suppose that nothing had changed;你可能会发现 什么也没变that one class of governors had kicked out another class of governors.Big deal!只是新的统治者赶跑了原来的统治者而已 有什么了不起But I rather think it was a big deal.但我却认为 这很了不起Imagine the county gentry of England,Priests, Squires, judges想象一下 英格兰各地的贵族们 牧师 乡绅 法官all wiped out overnight, half of them dead,the rest humiliated, broken,replaced by an alien class.一夜之间被推翻 半数惨死 幸存者只得任人羞辱 变得一文不名 地位早被外族替代 /201608/460982Hi, my name is Emma, and in todays lesson we are going to be looking at the IELTS.大家好,我是 Emma,今天继续聊聊雅思备考技巧。The IELTS is a test that a lot of ESL students have to take when they want to go to a Canadian university, an Australian university, an English university.雅思是许多有意向前往加拿大、澳大利亚、英国等国家学习或移民的同学必考的一项语言测试。When they want to study overseas or often times, when they want to immigrate to one of these countries.当他们想要去海外留学的时候,往往要接受雅思测试,当他们想要移民到这些国家的时候。Were looking specifically at the speaking part of the IELTS, part two.今天我们重点探讨一下如何在雅思口语第二部分取得高分。The IELTS speaking task is split up into three sections.雅思口语测试分为三部分。We are going to be looking at section two in this .今天着重讨论第二部分。Let me first explain what happens in section two,首先我们会分析一下第二部分的考试要求,and then we are going to look at some tips on what you should do if you want to do well on this section, and things you shouldnt do. Lets get started.接着跟大家分享一些得分技巧和一些应该避免的事情。现在开始。In part two of the speaking component of the IELTS, you will be speaking for about two minutes.口语第二部分要求你用英语讲两分钟。This part lasts for about three minutes, so you have three minutes.这部分总时长三分钟,所以你有三分钟的时间。The first minute you will be handed a question card.第一分钟会发给你一张话题卡。Here is an example of a question card. It will tell you, often times, to describe something.话题卡通常要求你描述某个事物,;Describe a museum that you have visited.; It will tell you what you need to say.比如说,“描述你去过的某个物馆”。题目还会告诉你应该怎么描述:You should say:Where it is?Why you went there?What you particularly remember. This is just an example.这家物馆位于哪里你为什么去参观你记忆犹新的是什么等等。这只是举例。It can be on different topics, but you will get a card that looks something like this.当然实战中的话题可能有很多种,但你拿到的话题卡大致是这样的。You have one minute to look at the question and to make notes, and to think: ;Okay, what am I going to say?;你有一分钟的时间读题、做笔记、快速思考应该怎么说。That takes one minute, and then after that the examiner will tell you: ;Okay, you can begin.;一分钟结束时,考官会提示你“可以开始了”。You must talk for one to two minutes. A lot of students actually consider this the hardest part of the speaking component because its not a dialogue.你的答题时间为一至两分钟。因为这部分不是对话,所以很多同学其实觉得这部分是口语里最难的。The examiner isnt asking you questions and youre giving responses, and youre going back and forth.并不是考官提问你来回答,一来一往的形式。In this part of the IELTS, you just talk and you talk for one to two minutes.在这部分,你需要自己说足一到两分钟。A lot of students find this difficult because talking for two minutes, even for some native speakers, is a little difficult.所以很多同学觉得这部分很难,因为即使对于一些母语人士,就一个话题说两分钟也有点难度。Thats whats going to happen in this part. What are some of the topics you might be asked about in this part of the IELTS?以上就是这部分考试的要求。那么在这部分你可能会遇到什么话题呢?Well, topics often covered include: you might be asked about a precious item, so you might have to describe a precious item that you own.经常考到的话题有:描述一件珍贵的物品,也就是说,你需要谈谈自己的某件心爱之物。You might have to say something about where you bought it from or: how did you get it, what does it look like, why is it so precious?比如你在哪里买的,或者你如何得到的,这件物品的外观如何,为什么珍贵,等等。You might be asked about a special day, a sporting event that you went to or a concert, a special trip or journey or vacation, people who have influenced you.还可能考到的话题有:一个特别的日子、你看过的体育比赛或者演唱会、一段难忘的假期或旅程、对你影响最大的人等等。For example: they might ask you to describe your favorite teacher. What was she like? Why was she so great?比如:说说你最喜欢的老师。她长什么样子?她为什么了不起?You might be asked about a book, music, a television program, a movie you saw or even items of clothing.还可能考到你看过的书、音乐或者电视节目,甚至是你喜欢的饰。Sometimes youre asked about historical buildings, you might be asked about a neighborhood in your city.有时还有可能问到历史建筑或者你家乡的邻居等。The key thing that you probably will be asked is often about description, not always, but usually you have to describe something.关键是要求你口头描述,虽然也有例外,但一般都是要你描述某个事物。And then they usually have three questions, they can be: who, what, when, where, why?题目通常有三个小问,可能是:人物、事件、时间、地点、原因等。These are the types of questions that they ask.以上是题目类型。All right, so now lets look at some things you can do in order to do well on this part of the IELTS.接下来我们看看能为你的表现增色的一些小技巧,What are some of the ;Dos; for the IELTS, the speaking part?也就是在口语考试中哪些事情是应该做的?Number one -- very, very important -- take notes. Youre given one minute where you get to look at the question,第一点——非常非常重要的一点——记笔记。你有一分钟的时间读题,and youre given a pencil and you can take notes, do it. Take notes.考官还会给你纸笔,一定要记笔记。A lot of ESL students, they think, ;Ah, I dont really want to take notes, its a waste of time. I know what Im going to say in my head.;很多学英语的学生会想,“啊,我实在不想记笔记,太浪费时间了,我知道我要说什么。”What happens is while theyre speaking, they forget certain key points and they go off topic; they dont stay organized.然而当他们张口说的时候,会遗漏重点甚至跑题,也就是没有条理。Your notes are very important because they keep you on topic and they keep you organized which is one thing youre marked on.这就是问什么记笔记很重要,因为笔记能让你专注于问题本身,让你的有条理,这是一个评分点。Another thing that is very important -- actually this --, write keywords.第二个重点是——记下关键词。When youre making your notes, dont bother writing sentences of what youre going to say.记笔记的时候,不需要写下完整的句子。You only have one minute. Just write keywords, important words that will help you to remember what you want to say.你只有一分钟,只需要写下能提醒你的关键词或重要的词。Its very important to cover every point that is on the card.依次回答每一个小问题也很关键。In our previous example it said: ;Describe a museum that you have visited.; And it said: ;Where was the museum?;在之前的例子里,要求“描述你去过的一家物馆”,以及“物馆在哪里?”I think it said: ;What do you remember most about the museum? And why were you at the museum?;“物馆最令你难忘的是什么?”“你为什么去参观这家物馆?”If you get these three questions, make sure you answer each question.拿到这三个问题之后,一定要确保回答了每一个问题。And whats a good way to know youve answered each question? As you talk, point.有什么好办法呢?那就是边说边用手指。For example: this is to point as you talk, put your finger on the point youre talking about.比如,你接下来要回答这一问了,那就边说边用手指着这个问题。If this says: ;Why did you go to the museum?;比如问题是“你为什么去参观这家物馆?”Point at this while you talk about that point, and then move your finger to the next point as you talk about it.回答的同时,手指着这个问题;要回答下一个问题时,手指也挪到下一个问题。This will help you to remember what youve said, and to keep you on track.这样有助于你记住自己说了什么,也有效避免了跑题。Another very important thing to do is these often ask you about your own experiences. ;Describe your favorite teacher;, for example.另外需要提示大家的是,很多题目问的是你的体验。比如“说说你最喜欢的老师”。Its good if you can remember one of your teachers or whatever the question asks, its good if you use your own experience.如果不管题目问什么,你都有相关的真实经验,比如说你记得你的某位老师,当然非常好,能用自己的经历回答问题是最好的。But maybe, maybe youve never been to a concert, maybe youve never been to a sporting event and thats what the question asks.但有可能,题目所问的你没有经历过,比如你从来没听过演唱会,从来没有看过体育比赛。If this is the case: lie. Make it up. If your friend told you a story once about when they went to a concert, steal your friends story.这种情况该怎么办呢?那就编个。如果你的朋友曾跟你说他去看了一场演唱会,那就把你朋友的经历“偷”过来。Its okay to lie and to steal other peoples stories on the IELTS.在雅思考试中是可以编造或者借用他人经历的。The main thing is that you practice or not practice, that you speak English.关键是你用英语回答问题。Whether you tell your own story about a museum you visited or if youve never visited a museum, pretend you went to the Louvre in France.不论你讲述的是自己参观物馆的亲身经历,还是你假装自己去过法国卢浮宫,都可以。Talk about how you saw the Mona Lisa and how it was a beautiful painting. You can make stuff up, its okay.用英语描述你见到蒙娜丽莎的感受,说说那幅画有多美。这些是可以编造的,不用担心。The next point of ;Dos; is: expand your answers.“值得做”列表的下一点:扩充你的。If it says: ;Where was the museum located?; Instead of just saying for that point: ;The museum is in Toronto.; Thats too short. Expand on this point.如果题目问:“物馆坐落在哪儿?”不要只回答“物馆在多伦多”,太短了。在这一点上扩展一下。;The museum is located in the downtown core of Toronto. Its close to the university, some very important restaurants, and the CN Tower.;“物馆坐落在多伦多市中心,距离多伦多大学很近,也毗邻很加拿大国家电视塔和很多著名餐馆。”Okay, not true, but just...You can expand your answer. Make it long, give examples.虽然并不是真的……但你可以像这样扩充你的,让长一些,举一些例子。Another thing that is a good idea: because these questions are often about describing, its good to use your senses,还有一个很好的建议:这些问题通常是要你描述什么,所以说说你的观感是很不错的。meaning when you have to describe something, imagine it in your mind and if you run out of things to say, think about your senses.也就是说当你描述一个事物时,在脑海里充分构思和想象,当你不知道该说什么的时候,就谈谈你的观感。What did it look like? What did it smell like? What did it sound like?它看起来什么样?闻起来怎么样?听起来怎么样?For some of these, maybe you didnt taste them, like a building, but you get the idea.有一些东西,比如建筑物,虽然你没法品尝,但也可以套用同样的理念。You can use your senses to help you imagine the area better, or the object, or the person.用观感帮助你更好地想象你需要描述的地点、物品或者人物。The next point: organize your speech. This is a must.下一点:组织你的语言,这是必须的。Some students, when they do this part of the IELTS, they talk, and they talk, and they talk, but theres no organization.有些同学在这个部分,一直滔滔不绝,但所说的内容毫无条理。What you need to do is...its very good to have an introduction, its very good to have a body, and its good to have a conclusion.因此你需要做到:有一个好的开头,一个好的主体,一个好的结尾。Its almost like youre doing an essay, but youre saying it.就像写作文一样,只不过我们是口头作文。You want to introduce the topic, then you want to address all of the points, the three points, and then you want some sort of conclusion.简要地介绍一下话题,点明要回答的所有要点,最后你需要一个结尾。You can say: ;So this is why this was a very memorable experience;, ;To sum up, my trip to Holland was a fantastic experience Ill never forget.;你可以说;“这就是我觉得很难忘的原因”,“总的来说,我的荷兰之行很棒,令人铭记终身。”You want a conclusion as well. Okay, like I said earlier, its good to imagine in your head the object, person, or place.一个好的结尾是必要的,我们之前讲,可以边说边想象你要描述的物品、人物或者地点。This is a very good thing to do. It will help you to be less nervous as well. Use introductory phrases.这样做大有好处。还能让你不那么紧张。记得使用介绍性短语。When you introduce your topic, first thing you should say: ;I want to talk about blank.;, ;Id like to talk about blank.;, ;Im going to talk about blank.;当你介绍你的话题时,你首先要说:“我要说一说(空白)”,“我想谈一谈(空白)”,“接下来我要说的是(空白)”。You can use any of these.But its good... This can be your introduction: ;Im going to talk about my trip to Spain.;,任何一种表述都可以。你可以这样组织你的开场白:“我要说一说我的西班牙之行。”;Im going to talk about my teacher, Mrs. Fitzgerald.;, ;Im going to talk about the most precious object in my life which is my pocket watch.;“我要介绍我的老师菲茨杰拉尔德夫人。”“我要聊一聊我最最珍惜的东西——我的怀表。”You can say whatever youd like, but use an introductory phrase.不管你说什么话题,记得使用介绍性短语。This is a very important point: use transitions. What do I mean by that? Well, transitions help to organize what youre going to say.下一个要点:使用顺序连接词,因为顺序连接词有助于你更好地组织内容。;First of all;, ;Secondly;, ;Thirdly;, ;Finally;, these are all examples of transitions.“首先”、“第二”、“第三”、“最后”,这些都是顺序连接词。Um...And if youre...In this case, you may be talking about what happened somewhere, you might be describing an event.当你描述一件事,比如在哪里发生了什么时,;First, we went to the soccer stadium. Then we watched the game. After that, we went for ice cream.;可以说“首先我们前往球场;接着我们看完了比赛;之后我们去吃了冰激凌。”You can use these types of transitions: ;First;, ;Then;, ;Next;, ;After that;, ;Finally;.你就可以用到“首先”、“接着”、“之后”、“最后”等等连接词。These will help you in your cohesion marks, so in your fluency and cohesion mark.这些有助于提高你的连贯得分,也就是流利和连贯方面的分数。Finally, very important: speak loudly.最后一点,也是很重要的一点:大声说。You dont want to mumble, you dont want to be shy. You want to be confident.你肯定不希望自己口齿不清,也不希望自己羞涩怯场,而是自信大方。Be confident, make eye contact when you talk, speak loudly. These are all important tips.那就自信一点,说话的时候和考官保持眼神交流,大声说。这些都很重要。Another thing: practice. Practice talking for two minutes. You might have to build up to this.还有一点:多练。练习说到两分钟,这方面你可能需要多花点力气。For some people, talking for long periods of time is very difficult.对有的人来说,就一个话题说较长时间是很大的挑战。Maybe speaking English for one minute is really difficult for you.如果对你来说连续说一分钟很难,Start with 30 seconds, then move that to one minute, then a minute and a half, then two minutes.那就先说30秒,慢慢加到一分钟,一分半,最后两分钟。But you must practice speaking for two minutes.不论如何,一定要练习两分钟口头表达。One thing that a lot of people do is they think: ;Oh, okay. I need to speak for one to two minutes in this part of the IELTS.;不少同学觉得:“这部分说一到两分钟就可以了。”Thats true, but the closer you get to two minutes the better.没错,但越接近两分钟越好。If youre at one minute, thats a little bit of a short answer. Ideally, you want to be able to talk for two minutes.如果你只说到一分钟,其实是有点短的。理想情况下还是要说满两分钟。And also, dont rush with what youre going to say. Speak nice and at a good rate, so not too fast, not too slow.此外,不要像倒豆子一样说得太快。口齿清晰,语速适中,不要太快也别太慢。One other thing I wanted to say about ;Do;, its not on this list but, often times you will be using the past tense.最后一点“值得做”,虽然没写在列表里,但通常你的表述都应当是过去时。For this part of the IELTS, the past tense is very important. Get used to talking about past experiences using the past tense.在这一部分,过去时态很重要,要习惯用过去时态谈论过去的事情。Now lets look at ;Donts;. Now I have a list of things you should not do. These are the ;Donts;, so dont do this.现在我们来看看在考试中“应该避免的事”,同样有一个列表,这些事在考试中应当避免。The first one: a lot of ESL students want to do this, they want to memorize answers in advance.第一点:很多英语学生想提前把背下来。They look up a whole bunch of different questions and then they write down what theyre going to say,他们整理了很多话题,把要说的写在纸上,and they spend so much time memorizing for each question.然后用大量的时间记住每个问题和。This is not a good idea because first of all, its easy to tell when youve memorized something; it doesnt sound natural.我们并不提倡这样做,首先因为考官一眼就能看出你是在背,背出来的听上去不自然。Youre going to lose marks if it sounds like youve memorized something. And there are just too many different questions they can ask.如果发现你在背诵,考官会扣分。而且可能考到的话题太多了,不可能全部都准备好。Dont memorize answers. Thats not a good way to prepare.因此,不要背,这不是好的备考方式。Instead, focus on expanding your vocabulary.相反,要着力扩大你的词汇量。Practice talking about museums. What words do you need to know where you can talk about museums?如果你要练习物馆的话题,想一想你需要知道哪些词汇呢?Same with objects, teachers - how can you describe someone?谈论物品或老师时也是一样——你应该怎样描述一个人?Try to come up with descriptive words, expand your vocabulary. That would be a better way to prepare for this.因此试着有意识地学习一些描述性语言,扩大你的词汇量。这是备考的更好方式。Dont write too much. I told you for the first part of this section, you get to write for one minute.不要一直写。第一部分我们说过,你只有一分钟时间记笔记。Dont write full sentences. Its good to write about one to two words per point. Theres about three points, one to two words is good.不要写完整句子。每个小问题写一两个词即可。三个小问题,每个问题一两个关键词足够。Dont panic. A lot of students, as soon as they get to this part of the exam, they get really nervous and they panic, and their English just goes down.不要怕。很多学生到口语第二部分会非常紧张,害怕,因此发挥也不好。Dont panic. Use stress management techniques. Breathe, thats a good thing to do when youre nervous.不要怕,学习一些压力管理技巧。深呼吸有助于缓解紧张。Imagine youre in a nice green forest or on a nice beach. You can do these things, it will help you not to panic.想象你正在一片翠绿的森林里,或正在松软的沙滩上。这样也能让你不那么害怕。Its also good before the IELTS, I find, before the speaking part if you can go on a walk.另外我发现在考前去散散步很不错。Walking actually calms your heart, it calms you down; its a good thing to do. Dont focus too much on one point.散步有好处,能让你的心绪平静。不要太关注某一个小问题,There are three things you have to address at least.因为你要三个问题都答到。Dont spend your whole time talking about the first thing.不要把所有时间都花在第一小问上。For example: if you have to describe your favorite teacher, and the first question is: when did you have her as a teacher?比如要你讲最喜欢的老师,第一小问是:你什么时候遇到这位老师的?Dont spend your whole time covering this point. Make sure you cover each point they ask you to.千万不要把所有时间花在这一个问题上。记住每个问题都要谈及。Dont use boring words. Remember: youre getting marked on vocabulary.不要用太普通的词汇。要知道你还有词汇分。You want to use interesting vocabulary. For example: ;good;, thats a boring word, ;bad;, again a boring word.用一些有意思的表达。“好”或者“不好”,都太普通太无趣了。Use something interesting like: ;My favorite teacher was really exciting. She was very enthusiastic.;换个说法,“我最喜欢的老师很有感染力,满腔热情。”Thats so much better than just saying: ;My favorite teacher was good.;这样比说“我最喜欢的老师很好”高级多了。Or my, you know, ;The museum I went to was bad.; No, use something better.不要说“我参观的那家物馆不好”。说点更有亮点的。Dont give short answers meaning you have to talk for at least a minute, make sure you do this.回答不要太简短。记住你要说够至少一分钟。Its better to even talk for close to two minutes. Make sure your answers arent too short.能说得越接近两分钟越好,一定不能太短。For example: ;I once went to the ROM [a museum in Canada], it was a good experience.比如,“我一次我去了 ROM(一家加拿大物馆),很好玩。The end.; Too short. You need to expand your answer.没了。”太短了,扩充你的。Dont go off topic. What do I mean by this? Well, if you have to describe the most precious item you have, dont start talking about education or technology.不要跑题。如果你谈论的是你最珍惜的东西,那就不要一开始就说起教育或者科技。Unless its relevant to what youre talking about, dont go off topic. Just talk about what they want you to talk about.除非这跟你的话题密切相关,不要跑题。只谈论题目要求谈论的内容。This is actually a very important point: a lot of students tell me they really worry about their accents.还有一点极其重要:很多学生过于担心口音问题。They think: ;Oh, I cant pronounce things very well. You know, I might mispronounce a word.他们认为“天哪我的发音不好。我可能会念错词,I have problems pronouncing r; -- for example, or certain letters, ;ch;. Its okay if your pronunciation is not perfect.我的‘r’音或者‘ch’音总发不对”,诸如此类。其实不用太担心发音不完美。The main thing...And if you have an accent, its okay if you have an accent. Most people have accents.有口音没问题,大多数人都有口音。You dont have to worry about your accent. Its also...Well actually everybody has an accent. I have a Canadian accent for example.不用担心这个,比如说我就有加拿大口音。Now, does my Canadian accent mean my American friends cannot understand me? No. So its okay if you have an accent.那么我的美国朋友难道就听不懂我的加拿大口音了吗?并不是。有口音没有关系。The main thing is that people understand what youre saying. Dont worry about your accent.关键是你传达了什么,而不是你的口音如何。Worry more about enunciating things, about saying things clearly. Thats what you want to do.把注意力放在如何清楚地阐述上,这才是应该做的。And again, grammar is one thing youre marked on. Your grammar does not have to be perfect.还有,语法也是一个评分项。你的语法也不需要苛求完美。If you make a mistake, thats okay, move on. You can mistakes, its okay if you make mistakes.犯了错误没关系,说下去。考试中是可以犯错的。Id like to recommend a website where you can get more tips on part two of the IELTS and also practice questions.好了,推荐大家一个网站,有更多关于口语第二部分的备考建议和样题。Again, very important to practice. Practice with a timer. Make sure youre speaking for two minutes.再说一遍,练习很重要。用计时器练习,确保你说到两分钟。201706/513762Im thinking of an animal. Its small, and furry.我正在想一种动物。它很小,而且毛茸茸的。It can be pretty cute. And it flies around at night.它非常可爱,在夜间飞行。Can you guess what animal it is?你猜到是什么动物了吗?Thats right! Im thinking about bats!没错,我想的就是蝙蝠。Some people think bats are scary.一些人认为蝙蝠很可怕。Maybe because they only come out at night.可能是因为它们只在夜间出来。Or maybe because sometimes they live in dark places.或者是因为有时它们生活在黑暗的地方。Or maybe its because some species of bats, called vampire bats, survive by drinking blood.或者是因为有一些叫吸血蝙蝠,它们靠喝血生存。But you probably wont ever run into a vampire bat.但是你可能从未遇到过吸血蝙蝠。Only three species of bat are blood drinkers.只有三种蝙蝠是吸血的。The rest of them, over 1,200 species, eat fruit, nectar, bugs, other small animals.其他的1200多种蝙蝠吃水果、花蜜、小虫子和其他小动物。If you ask us, bats are totally awesome!我们的意思是,蝙蝠总的来说还是极好的!Here are just three of our favorite things about them!对于蝙蝠,有三件事是我们最喜欢的。To start, some bats can hear their way in the dark!首先,一些蝙蝠能够在黑暗中辨路!Thats because they dont rely on their eyes, like we do.因为它们不像我们一样依靠眼睛,Instead, bats use sound to find their way around.而是通过声音来辨别周围的情况。Have you ever yelled into a big empty room, or a canyon, and heard your own voice shout back at you?你曾经对着一个空的大房间或者峡谷叫喊,并且听到自己的声音回响吗?Thats called an echo.那叫做回声。The sound of your voice moves across the room, to the walls, and then bounces back to your ears.你的声音穿过房间,到达墙上,然后反射到你的耳朵里。And as a bat flies through the night, it does something really similar.这和蝙蝠在夜间飞行非常相似。It makes a sound, and then carefully listens for the echo.它制造出声响,然后仔细辨别回声。And the way the echo comes back can tell the bat a lot about whats around it.回声返回的方式告诉它很多周围的情况。This special skill is called echolocation.这个特别的技能叫做回声定位。If the echo comes back quickly, that means there must be something pretty close to it,如果回声返回的快,意味着东西距离它非常近。because the sound only traveled a short way before bouncing back.因为在回声反射前,声音只经过了非常短的距离。But if the echo takes a long time for the sound to bounce back,但是如果这个声音反射的回声经过了很长时间才返回,then the bat knows that the object is further away.那么蝙蝠就会知道物体的距离比较远。Bats can tell not only how far away something is, but also how big it is, and how fast its moving,蝙蝠不仅能辨别物体的距离,也能辨别它的大小和速度。all from using echolocation!所有这些都通过回声定位来判断。And since bats are constantly using echolocation to figure out the world around them,蝙蝠经常通过回声定位来判断它们周围的世界,youll often see them flying around with their mouths open, to keep making sounds to bounce back.你也会经常看到它们张着嘴巴飞行,来保持声音的反射。Another thing we like about bats? They really like to hang out!我们喜欢蝙蝠做的另一件事是什么?它们非常喜欢倒挂!Bats hang upside down in quiet, dark, hidden places like the roof of a cave or the underside of a bridge.蝙蝠们在安静、黑暗、隐蔽的地方如山洞的顶部或者桥的下面倒挂。But how? When I hang upside down from the monkey bars,但它们是怎么做到的呢?我倒挂在单杠上,after a while I start to feel like my heads going to explode!不久就开始感觉我的头要爆炸了一样。Bats can hang for a long time, because their bodies are built for life upside down!蝙蝠能倒挂很长时间,是因为它们的身体生来就是能倒挂的!The little pathways in their bodies that blood moves through, called arteries,其血液流经身体的小通路,叫做动脉,have special valves in them that only let blood through one way.动脉有一个特殊的瓣膜能使血液单向流动。As the bats heart beats, the blood has to keep moving through its body in just one direction.随着蝙蝠心脏的跳动,血液不得不在身体里单向流动。That keeps the blood from getting stuck in the bats head when its hanging upside down.因此,当蝙蝠倒挂时,血液不会阻塞在头部。Thats a pretty neat trick.这是相当灵巧的技能。But you know another thing thats easy to like about bats?但是你知道另外一个蝙蝠吸引人的故事吗?They make really great moms.它们绝对是伟大的母亲。Bats usually have one baby, called a pup, in a year.一年里,蝙蝠通常只生一个宝宝,At the beginning of a pups life, it clings to its mothers belly all the time,宝宝刚生下来时,它会一直贴着母亲的腹部,While the mom wraps her wings around it.母亲会用翅膀裹着它。Maybe we should stop calling good snuggles ;bear hugs; and start calling them ;bat hugs;!或许我们应该停止称呼这种依偎叫做“熊抱”,而叫做“蝙蝠抱”!And thousands of moms and their pups can live together in a huge group, called a nursery.成千上万的妈妈和它们的宝宝们共同生活在一个叫温床的大团体里面。Even when its cold outside, the nursery stays warm, because of all those bats hanging close together.外面寒冷时,所有的蝙蝠都紧密的悬挂在一起,所以温床是暖的。Plus, when mom needs to go out to find food,另外,当妈妈需要外出觅食时,she can just drop her baby off at the nursery with the other moms and pups.它可以将它的孩子留在温床里,和其他的妈妈宝宝们待在一起。When she comes back, you might think itd be hard to find her baby again.当它回来时,你可能会认为它很难找到它的宝宝了。I mean, there are thousands of pups that look just like hers!我意思是,成千上万的宝宝看起来都像它的宝宝。But bats and their pups can recognize each other by their smells and their voices.但是蝙蝠母亲和它们的宝宝可以通过彼此的气味和声音来辨识出对方。So when a pup calls out, the mom can fly right to it所以当宝宝叫喊时,母亲能准确的飞向它。It would be like trying to find your family in the middle of a crowded amusement park,这就像是你在一个拥挤的公园里找你的家人,except all of the other kids at the park are calling out for their parents, too!除非公园里所有其他的孩子们也叫喊着寻找他们的父母,否则你很容易找到家人!So what do you think? Arent bats scary-cool?所以你怎么看?蝙蝠可怕冷酷吗?They have super sensing abilities, they can hang out upside down, and theyre marvelous moms.它们拥有超级感知能力,能倒挂,又是非凡的母亲。Do you have a question about animals, or anything else, that youd like to learn more about?你想知道更多的动物们或者其他东西吗?Get help from a parent, and leave a comment below or email us at kids@thescishow.com,请求父母的帮助,在下面区留言或者发邮件到Kids@thescishow.com,and well see you next time!让我们下期再见!201706/515707So, theres an actor called Dustin Hoffman.有一个叫达斯汀·霍夫曼的演员And years ago, he made this movie which some of you may have heard of, called ;The Graduate.;十几年前 他拍摄了一部叫《毕业生》的电影 你们某些人可能听说过And theres two key scenes in that movie.在那个电影里有两个主要的场景The first one is the seduction scene.一个是勾引的画面。Im not going to talk about that tonight.但是我今天不是来讨论那个的The second scene is where hes taken out by the old guy to the pool,在第二个场景中,他被一位长者带到游泳场边and as a young college graduate, the old guy basically says one word, just one word.作为一位毕业生,长者只对他说了一个词,仅仅一个词。And of course, all of you know what that word is. Its ;plastics.;当然 你们都知道那个词 就是“塑料”。And the only problem with that is, it was completely the wrong advice.但现在问题是,他给出的建议完全错了。Let me tell you why it was so wrong. The word should have been ;silicon.;让我来给你们讲讲为什么错了。因为这个词应该是“硅”。And the reason it should have been silicon is because the basic patents for semiconductors had aly been made, had aly been filed, and they were aly building them.为什么说应该是硅呢?因为那时半导体的专利已经得以注册,人们已经建立了半导体产业城。So Silicon Valley was just being built in 1967, when this movie was released.所以硅谷就是在1967年建立的 正好是这部电影发行的那一年。And the year after the movie was released, Intel was founded.在电影发行的第二年 因特尔公司成立了。So had the graduate heard the right one word, maybe he would have ended up onstage oh, I dont know maybe with these two.所以说如果这位毕业生听到了正确的,或许他就会和这两位一样出现在台上。So as youre thinking of that, lets see what bit of advice we might want to give那么,想想看我们现在会给出什么建议,so that your next graduate doesnt become a Tupperware salesman.不要让我们的毕业生最后沦落为特百惠的销售员。So in 2015, what word of advice would you give people, when you took a college graduate out by the pool在2015年,当你把一位毕业生带到游泳池边你会说什么词呢,只说一个词,and you said one word, just one word?你给人们的建议会是什么词呢?I think the answer would be ;lifecode.;我想这个应该是“生命密码”。So what is ;lifecode?;到底什么是“生命密码”呢?Lifecode is the various ways we have of programming life.生命密码是我们为生命编程的各种各样的方式。So instead of programming computers, were using things to program viruses or retroviruses or proteins or DNA or RNA or plants or animals, or a whole series of creatures.也就说我们并非在电脑上编程,而是运用工具来编译病毒逆转录病毒、蛋白质DNA、RNA 动植物以及一系列的生物。And as youre thinking about this incredible ability to make life do what you want it to do,如各位所想,这项惊人的能力可以让生命按照程序编写的一样what its programmed to do, what you end up doing is taking what weve been doing for thousands of years,做你想让它做的事得到你想得到的结果。那些已经进行了上千年的事情:which is breeding, changing, mixing, matching all kinds of life-forms, and we accelerate it.各种生命形式的繁殖、改变杂交、匹配 我们加速了这一过程。And this is not something new.这并不是一件新鲜事This humble mustard weed has been modified so that if you change it in one way, you get broccoli.这株芥菜经过了基因修饰,如果你以某种方式进行改变,它就变成了西兰花。And if you change it in a second way, you get kale.如果你换一种方式,它就变成了甘蓝。And if you change it in a third way, you get cauliflower.如果用第三种方式,得到的就是花椰菜。So when you go to these all-natural, organic markets, youre really going to a place所以当你去纯天然的有机菜场时,你所看到的蔬菜where people have been changing the lifecode of plants for a long time.的生命密码在很久以前就被改变了。The difference today, to pick a completely politically neutral term如今所不同的只是挑一个政治立场上完全中性的词来形容它。Were beginning to practice intelligent design.我们正在进行智能设计的实践That means that instead of doing this at random and seeing what happens over generations,这意味着我们不能随意地进行试验然后看看几代后会发生什么。were inserting specific genes, were inserting specific proteins,我们需要插入特定的基因和特定的蛋白质,and were changing lifecode for very deliberate purposes.然后根据我们的目的修改生命密码,And that allows us to accelerate how this stuff happens.从而加速试验的结果。Let me just give you one example.让我举个例子。Some of you occasionally might think about sex.你们当中可能有人会偶尔产生性欲。And we kind of take it for granted how weve changed sex.我们已经对性爱的改变习以为常。So we think its perfectly normal and natural to change it.所以我们认为这种改变非常正常和自然。Whats happened with sex over time is normally, sex equals baby, eventually.过去,性爱的发生通常来讲,最后就意味着孩子。But in todays world, sex plus pill equals no baby.但是,在今天的社会,性加药等于没有孩子And again, we think thats perfectly normal and natural,再次强调我们认为这是很自然很正常的but that has not been the case for most of human history.但在人类历史中几乎没有这样的例子发生,And its not the case for animals.动物身上也没有。What it is does is it gives us control, so sex becomes separate from conception.这样的改变让我们摆脱了束缚因此性和怀不再有必然联系。And as youre thinking of the consequences of that, then weve been playing with stuff thats a little bit more advanced, like art.你可以想象到这样的结果接着我们开始使用一些技术一些先进的技术,比如“艺术”。Not in the sense of painting and sculpture, but in the sense of assisted reproductive technologies.不是在绘画和雕塑意义上的艺术,是指辅助生殖技术。So what are assisted reproductive technologies?什么是辅助生殖技术呢?Assisted reproductive technologies are things like in vitro fertilization.这是一种类似体外受精的技术。And when you do in vitro fertilization, theres very good reasons to do it.有时可能有人无法怀Sometimes you just cant conceive otherwise.那么选择体外受精无疑是一个好选择。But when you do that, what you’re doing is separating sex, conception, baby.但是通过体外受精性、怀和孩子就完全分离开来。So you havent just taken control of when you have a baby,所以你不仅可以决定生孩子的时间,youve separated when the baby and where the baby is fertilized.还可以将受精的时间和地点分离开来。So youve separated the baby from the body from the act.所以你可以把孩子和身体和性爱都分开。And as youre thinking of other things weve been doing, think about twins.再举个例子 比如双胞胎。So you can freeze sperm, you can freeze eggs, you can freeze fertilized eggs.你可以冻结精子,可以冻结卵子你也可以冻结受精卵。And what does that mean?这意味着什么呢?Well, thats a good thing if youre a cancer patient.如果你是一位癌症患者,这绝对是一件好事。Youre about to go under chemotherapy or under radiation, so you save these things.你即将要接受化疗和放疗 所以你需要保存生殖细胞或受精卵You dont irradiate them.这样它们就可以免遭辐射。But if you can save them and you can freeze them,但是,如果你可以保存它们,冻结它们,and you can have a surrogate mother, it means that youve decoupled sex from time.甚至可以找一位母亲,这就意味着你可以使性脱离时间的束缚。It means you can have twins born -- oh, in 50 years?也就是说你可以生下一对相差50岁的双胞胎?In a hundred years? Two hundred years?或许相差100年?200年?And these are three really profound changes that are not, like, future stuff.这些影响深远的改变这并不是将来的东西,This is stuff we take for granted today.这是我们今天认为理所当然的事情。So this lifecode stuff turns out to be a superpower.因此生命密码蕴含强大的力量。It turns out to be this incredibly powerful way of changing viruses, of changing plants, of changing animals, perhaps even of evolving ourselves.它以一种难以置信地方式改变病毒,改变植物,改变动物 甚至可以让我们自己进化。Its something that Steve Gullans and I have been thinking about for a while.史蒂夫·加兰和我对于生命密码有过一些思考。Lets have some risks.我们先说一些危险的情况。Like every powerful technology, like electricity, like an automobile, like computers, this stuff potentially can be misused.就像所有有力的科技一样,比如电力、汽车还有电脑,And that scares a lot of people.这吓坏了很多人。And as you apply these technologies, you can even turn human beings into chimeras.当你在使用这些科技时你甚至可以把人变成怪物。Remember the Greek myth where you mix animals?大家记得希腊神话中动物互相交配么?Well, some of these treatments actually end up changing your blood type.有一些治疗的结果甚至会让你改变血型Or theyll put male cells in a female body or vice versa, which sounds absolutely horrible或者他们会把男性细胞和女性细胞放入对方体内,听起来无比可怕。until you realize, the reason youre doing that is youre substituting bone marrow during cancer treatments.其实你发现这就是你在癌症治疗过程中替换骨髓的过程。So by taking somebody elses bone marrow,从别人身体上得到的骨髓you may be changing some fundamental aspects of yourself, but youre also saving your life.也许会改变你自己的基本情况,但同时也救了你的命。And as youre thinking about this stuff, heres something that happened 20 years ago.如果你仔细想想,这个技术已经存在20年了。This is Emma Ott. Shes a recent college admittee. Shes studying accounting.这是艾玛·奥特 她是个在校大学生。她主修会计。She played two varsity sports. She graduated as a valedictorian.她是两种体育的校队成员还作为学生代表进行了毕业演讲。And thats not particularly extraordinary, except that shes the first human being born to three parents.这都没有什么特别的,但是她是第一个三亲家庭的孩子。Why? Because she had a deadly mitochondrial disease that she might have inherited.为什么 因为她很可能通过遗传得了一种线粒体疾病。So when you swap out a third persons DNA and you put it in there, you save the lives of people.当你把第三个人的DNA植入这些人的体内,他们就可以活下来。But you also are doing germline engineering, which means her kids, if she has kids, will be saved and wont go through this.同时使用生殖工程学的技术,如果她有孩子,她的孩子也将永远免于这种疾病的侵害。And kids will be saved, and their grandchildren will be saved, and this passes on. That makes people nervous.她的后代,和她的后代的后代都会被挽救。这让人们紧张。So 20 years ago, the various authorities said, why dont we study this for a while?所以20年前,很多专家表示为什么我们不先研究一下There are risks to doing stuff, and there are risks to not doing stuff,使用这些技术是有风险的但是不用这些技术问题就会继续,because there were a couple dozen people saved by this technology,我们已经使用这些救了很多人。and then weve been thinking about it for the next 20 years.我们已经思考了20年。So as we think about it, as we take the time to say, ;Hey, maybe we should have longer studies,这期间我们不停地说:“也许我们需要更长时间的研究”,maybe we should do this, maybe we should do that,;“也许我们要做这个也许要做那个”,there are consequences to acting, and there are consequences to not acting.凡事都是有两面性的。用科技治愈致命的疾病也不例外。Like curing deadly diseases which, by the way, is completely unnatural.治愈致命的疾病其实是非常反常的。It is normal and natural for humans to be felled by massive epidemics of polio, of smallpox, of tuberculosis.如果人类死于大量的传染病比如脊髓灰质炎,天花,肺结核,那是非常正常的。When we put vaccines into people, we are putting unnatural things into their body在人体体内疫苗就是一件很不正常的事,because we think the benefit outweighs the risk.但是我们认为利大于弊。Because weve built unnatural plants, unnatural animals, we can feed about seven billion people.因为我们培养了特殊的植株特殊的动物,我们才可以养育这70亿人。We can do things like create new life-forms.我们可以创造新的生物And as you create new life-forms, again, that sounds terribly scary and terribly bothersome,乍一听创造新生物实在太恐怖太可怕,until you realize that those life-forms live on your dining room table.其实你在餐厅的桌子上就可以看到那些新生物。Those flowers youve got on your dining room table餐厅桌子上买回来的鲜花theres not a lot thats natural about them,和自然完全沾不上边,because people have been breeding the flowers to make this color, to be this size, to last for a week.因为人类一直在选育固定的颜色固定的尺寸,以及强大的生存能力。You dont usually give your loved one wildflowers because they dont last a whole lot of time.你通常不会放野花在这因为它们活不了多久。What all this does is it flips Darwin completely on his head.这一切的一切都完全颠覆了达尔文的理论。See, for four billion years, what lived and died on this planet depended on two principles: on natural selection and random mutation.40亿年前,地球上生物能否生存取决于两个原则:自然选择和基因突变。And so what lived and died, what was structured, has now been flipped on its head.而这两个原则现在已经被完全颠覆了。And what weve done is created this completely parallel evolutionary system我们正在创造一个完全并行的进化系统where we are practicing unnatural selection and non-random mutation.这个系统里我们尝试着非自然选择和定向变异。So let me explain these things. This is natural selection. This is unnatural selection.让我来解释一下:这是自然选择。这是非自然选择。So what happens with this stuff is,we started breeding wolves thousands of years ago in central Asia to turn them into dogs.这个物种实际上是几千年前的中亚人通过驯养狼得到的物种。And then we started turning them into big dogs and into little dogs.然后我们开始把培育成大或者小。But if you take one of the chihuahuas you see in the Hermès bags on Fifth Avenue但是如果你带着一只第五大街上的某个爱马仕包里的吉娃娃and you let it loose on the African plain, you can watch natural selection happen.去非洲平原放生 你就可以看到自然选择的发生。Few things on Earth are less natural than a cornfield.地球上没有比玉米地更不自然的了。You will never, under any scenario, walk through a virgin forest and see the same plant growing in orderly rows at the same time, nothing else living there.如果你进入原始森林你永远不可能看到同一种植株When you do a cornfield, youre selecting what lives and what dies.你在种植玉米的时候,你决定了什么生什么死。And youre doing that through unnatural selection.你在进行非自然选择。Its the same with a wheat field, its the same with a rice field.麦田也一样,稻田也一样,Its the same with a city, its the same with a suburb.城市也一样,郊区也一样。In fact, half the surface of Earth has been unnaturally engineered事实地球上一半的地区都是人工控制的结果so that what lives and what dies there is what we want,这些地区我们决定物种的生死。which is the reason why you dont have grizzly bears walking through downtown Manhattan.所以你不可能在曼哈顿的街区看到灰熊走来走去。How about this random mutation stuff? Well, this is random mutation.基因突变是什么呢?这就是基因突变。This is Antonio Alfonseca. Hes otherwise known as the Octopus, his nickname.这是安东尼奥·艾方塞卡,他还有一个外号叫做章鱼He was the Relief Pitcher of the Year in 2000.他是2000年的最佳替补投手。And he had a random mutation that gave him six fingers on each hand, which turns out to be really useful if youre a pitcher.他的基因发生了随机突变使得他的每个手掌都长出了六个手指 结果明六个手指的手掌对于一个投手来说是很有利的条件How about non-random mutation? A non-random mutation is beer. Its wine. Its yogurt.非随机突变是怎样的呢 啤酒 葡萄酒 酸奶 都属于非随机突变。How many times have you walked through the forest and found all-natural cheese?你在森林里走的时候看见一块纯天然的奶酪的几率有多大呢Or all-natural yogurt? So weve been engineering this stuff.纯天然酸奶呢?这些都是非随机突变的结果。Now, the interesting thing is, we get to know the stuff better.有趣的是,现在我们对于突变了解的更多了。We found one of the single most powerful gene-editing instruments, CRISPR, inside yogurt.我们在酸奶中发现了基因编辑的有力武器CRISPR。And as we start engineering cells,我们开始控制细胞were producing eight out of the top 10 pharmaceutical products,利用这个工具制造十种最常用药物中的八种including the stuff that you use to treat arthritis, which is the number one best-selling drug, Humira.包括治疗关节炎的特效药,修美乐。So this lifecode stuff. It really is a superpower.生命密码就是这些东西。它真的超级强大。It really is a way of programming stuff, and theres nothing thats going to change us more than this lifecode.真的就像在编码生物一样,再也不会有比生命密码对于人类的改变更大的改变了。So as youre thinking of lifecode, lets think of five principles as to how we start guiding, and Id love you to give me more.所以在思考生命密码的时候 在开始准备使用它的时候 我们要遵守五个原则。我希望各位可以给我更多启发。So, principle number one: we have to take responsibility for this stuff.原则一:我们要承担对生命密码的责任。The reason we have to take responsibility is because were in charge.之所以我们要肩负起责任是因为我们是使用者。These arent random mutations.这不是随机的突变。This is what we are doing, what we are choosing.这是我们的选择,我们的工作Its not, ;Stuff happened.; It didnt happen at random.这不是“事情就这样发生了” 这既不是随机发生的。It didnt come down by a verdict of somebody else.也不会随着别人的决定而消失。We engineer this stuff, and its the Pottery Barn rule: you break it, you own it.我们制造了它,根据珀特里·巴恩的原则:你破坏了规则,你就要对它负责。Principle number two: we have to recognize and celebrate diversity in this stuff.原则二:我们必须明白并且鼓励物种的多样性。There have been at least 33 versions of hominids that have walked around this Earth.曾经至少有33种原始人存在于这个世界上。Most all of them went extinct except us.除了我们之外绝大多数已经灭绝。But the normal and natural state of this Earth is we have various versions of humans walking around at the same time,但是正常情况下的地球应该有不同种的人类同时存在which is why most of us have some Neanderthal in us.这也是为什么很多人有尼安德特人Some of us have some Denisova in us.和丹尼索瓦人的特征。And some in Washington have a lot more of it.一些华盛顿的政客好像有更多类似的特征。Principle number three: we have to respect other peoples choices.原则三:尊重他人的选择。Some people will choose to never alter.有人选择不改变,Some people will choose to alter all.有人选择改变,Some people will choose to alter plants but not animals.有人选择改变植物但是不改变动物,Some people will choose to alter themselves.有人选择改变自己。Some people will choose to evolve themselves.有人选择进化自己。Diversity is not a bad thing, because even though we think of humans as very diverse,多样性是好的 尽管我们认为人类多样性已经很丰富了,we came so close to extinction that all of us descend from a single African mother但是因为我们来自同一位非洲母亲的基因 我们也有灭绝的危险。and the consequence of that is theres more genetic diversity in 55 African chimpanzees than there are in seven billion humans.而且它的后果是 55只非洲黑猩猩的基因的多样性都比70亿人类丰富得多。Principle number four: we should take about a quarter of the Earth and only let Darwin run the show there.原则四:我们应该让四分之一的世界遵循达尔文的原则。It doesnt have to be contiguous, doesnt have to all be tied together.这四分之一的世界不用连在一起,也不用被绑定在一起看待。It should be part in the oceans, part on land.但是要有部分的海洋和部分的陆地。But we should not run every evolutionary decision on this planet.我们不应该决定地球上每一个物种的进化。We want to have our evolutionary system running.我们需要我们的进化系统的运行。We want to have Darwins evolutionary system running.我们也需要达尔文进化系统的运行。And its just really important to have these two things running in parallel and not overwhelm evolution.我们需要两个系统并行而不是压倒性的人工进化。Last thing Ill say. This is the single most exciting adventure human beings have been on.最后我想提的是 这是人类经历过的最刺激的一次冒险This is the single greatest superpower humans have ever had.这是人类拥有过的最大的超能力It would be a crime for you not to participate in this stuff because youre scared of it, because youre hiding from it.由于你的恐惧和逃避 而没有参与进来 你会有很大的愧疚感You can participate in the ethics. You can participate in the politics.你可以从伦理的角度参与进来你可以从政治的角度参与进来You can participate in the business.你可以从商业的角度参与进来You can participate in just thinking about where medicine is going,你可以仅仅通过思考制药业和工业的未来where industry is going, where were going to take the world.通过思考我们和世界如何共处而参与进来。It would be a crime for all of us not to be aware when somebody shows up at a swimming pool如果有人出现在游泳池告诉我们了一个词,仅仅一个词如果那个词是“生命密码”and says one word, just one word, if you dont listen if that word is ;lifecode.; Thank you very much.如果我们没有听,没有注意那么这将是全人类的遗憾。非常感谢。201706/515349

No one understood whats going on. People were running everywhere.没人知道发生了什么事。民众四处逃窜。The uncertainty of Brexit--we dont know whats gonna happen.英国脱欧的不确定性--我们不知道接下来会发生什么事。Were a more divided nation than weve ever been. Hands up! Dont shoot!我们的国家从未如此分裂。手举高!不要开!And the officer that was next to us, he ran toward the shots.在我们旁边的警官,他跑向响位置。People start screaming. Everybody gets on the floor.人们开始放声尖叫。所有人都趴到地上。Its completely tragedy and misery in Syria.叙利亚的情况是全然的悲惨和痛苦。Love does not despair. Love gives us hope that change is possible.爱不会让人绝望。爱给我们改变成真的希望。If you take away the labels, you realize that were far more alike than we are different.如果你将标签撕下,你会发现我们的共同处远大过差异。And the Cubs have finally won it all! Obama out.小熊队终于大获全胜!奥巴马退场。We are the music makers, and we are the dreamers of the dreamers.我们是音乐制作人,我们是梦想家中的梦想家。And love is love is love is love is love is love is love is love--cannot be killed or swept aside.而爱就是爱就是爱就是爱就是爱就是爱就是爱就是爱--不会被抹煞或推到一旁。Now fill the world with music, love, and pride.现在用音乐、爱与骄傲充满这世界吧。201702/493444

I went through your facebook pages, and--to find pictures of yours that i could show the world.我去过你们的facebook 为了找到一些可以向全世界展示的照片Yall take some crazy stuff. Lets take a look.你们都照了一些疯狂的东西 让我们来看看Where is valentina clarice? Is that right? Where is valentina cl...瓦伦蒂娜·克拉丽斯在哪 名字对么? 瓦伦蒂娜在哪What? what? Hey. Is it clarice? Stand on up. Dont be shy. Oh, okay. Yes, clarice.什么?什么?嘿 是克拉丽斯么?站起来 不要害羞 噢 好的 克拉丽斯 你好You asked for it; you put these pictures out there.你要求这么做的 是你把这些照片贴出来的Im--im only doing my job. You wanted to share.我 我只是在做我的工作 你想要分享给大家的You put them up there for people to see. Im helping it reach more people.你把照片贴出来给大家看的 我只是帮你让更多人看到All right, do you know which one im gonna show? I am so terrified right now.好的 你知道我将要展示哪张照片么? 我现在很惶恐Oh, maybe I-- maybe theres more I should have looked through.哦 可能 可能 我还看过更多You were on vacation recent-- a lot of people go on vacation,你最近去度假了 许多人都去度假And they take pictures when theyre on vacation. And they go to, like, landmarks.他们度假的时候会拍照片 他们会去参观 嗯 地标Lets take a look. Oh, wow. Yeah. So... Thats--thats new york.让我们来看看 噢 哇 嗯嗯 那么 那是 那是纽约A lot of people will go to the empire state building or... - those are actually my cousins.很多人会去帝国大厦 或者 那些其实是我堂兄Uh-huh. They live in uruguay, by the way,啊 哈 顺便说一下 他们生活在乌拉圭And theyre watching this right now, and theyre going to freak out.他们现在在看这个节目 他们看到这个照片会疯掉的They live on the other side of the world.他们生活在世界的另一边- oh, really? In uruguay? Is that where they are? Yah, thats where they live.哦 真的么?在乌拉圭?那是他们现在呆的地方? 嗯 那是他们生活的地方Oh, wow. Well, no wonder theyre-- theyve never seen...噢 哇 那么 难怪他们 难怪他们没有见过I wanted to show them america, so i was like... Yure in america. Right, exactly.我想向他们展示纽约 所以我似乎 你在美国 对的 没错Usa. totally. Thank god we talked it out. Yeah. Okay. thank you.美国 当然 幸亏我们说出来了 是啊 好的 谢谢你See, its good to keep talking. Now it all makes sense, and its all...看 说出来很好 现在这一切都是有意义的 都是Its all good now. Ethel Malone, where are you? oh, my god. hi, ethel. - hi.现在一切都好 埃塞尔·马龙 你在哪 噢 我的天 你好 埃塞尔 你好How are you doing? Very good. Thank you. And yourself?你好么?非常好 谢谢 你呢Im very good. Thank you for asking me, ethel. You like to travel? Yes, I do. Okay.我很好 谢谢你问候我 埃塞尔 你喜欢旅行么?是 我喜欢 好的I dont know where this was taken. It was some type of an excursion.我不知道这个是在哪照的 这个像是短途旅行Lets take a look. Oh, god, which one? oh. What? How did you get that?让我们来看看 噢 我的天 哪个 噢!什么?你是怎么拿到这个的?How--how did I get it? You ended up on the internet, is what happened.我怎么 怎么拿到的?你把它放在在互联网上 它就是这么发生的Yeah, I cant see. Is my underwear-- are my pants up or down?好吧 我看不到 那是我的内衣 我的裤子是船上的还是脱下的啊?Yeah. I cant see. Where was that? I think that was in jasper.是啊 我看不见 那是在哪 我想那是碧绿色Its beautiful. Its... Thank you. Thank you. All right.很漂亮 它 谢 谢 谢谢 好吧It... Thank you. Where is juan-- this is my favorite. Juan mantilla, where are you?它 谢谢你 胡安 在哪里 这是我最喜欢的 胡安·曼提利亚 你在哪里Hi. Its so funny-- - hello, ellen. hi, Juan.你好 很有趣 你好 艾伦 你好 胡安Its so funny, cause I was watching you dance with a couple of women out here before the show started,很有趣 因为我看过你的舞蹈 在节目开始之前 和两位女士的舞蹈And I--I dont know how I recognized you, but I said to friends in the dressing room,我不知道我为什么认得你 但是我在更衣室里对朋友们说I said, ;I bet thats juan.; And...look, this is why you cant believe I recognized juan. Whoa.我说 我敢打赌这是胡安 看 这就是为什么你不敢相信我认识胡安 哇!Yeah, thats me. Thats fantastic. I love you too. I love your cd.是的 那是我 太棒了 我也喜欢你 我喜欢你cdYou were listening to my new cd, which--thanks for the promotion. Thats great.你在听我的新专辑 谢谢你的推广 太好了Were you just, like, dressed up like that to get attention of my new cd?你这么打扮么 只是为了关注我的新专辑么?No, actually, I went to work, and I showed everybody that I went to your show.事实上不是 我去工作 我向大家展示我去看了你的表演And then I put my name in there, and I took pictures, and I post it on facebook.然后我在那里写上我的名字 照了照片 然后我就在facebook上贴了出来And thats why youre here, because I love that you did that. So...这也是你为什么在这里 因为我喜欢你这么做 那么Boy, thats--thats amazing. I cant believe i recognized you; i really did.孩子 这 这令人惊奇 我不敢相信我能认出你 真的I said, ;I bet that guys name is juan.; - the smile. - yeah, beautiful smile.我说 我敢打赌那个人的名字叫胡安 笑容 是啊 美丽的笑容And then heres a picture of you with some gentleman. well... - whos that? Whats his name?这还有一张你和一些先生们的照片 那么…他是谁 他的名字是什么Thats ricky. Ricky? Have you kept it touch with ricky? - oh, he-- i like to share the love.那是里基 里基?你还和里基保持联系么?恩 他 我喜欢分享爱Oh, well, good. No need to settle down. Yeah.噢 好吧 很好 不需要安定下来 是啊All right, thanks for posting those pictures. If I showed your picture today...好的 谢谢上传这些照片 如果我今天展示了你们的照片If i showed your picture today, youre each getting a 0 american express gift card.如果我今天展示了你们的照片 你们每个人将会获得0的美国运通礼品卡Well be back after this.稍候回来201706/513937

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201605/441505

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