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2020年02月24日 12:43:25来源:千龙在线

  • The tide of global democratic change, which at the start of the new millennium looked like an unstoppable force of nature, has been turned back over the last decade. How serious and prolonged this reversal turns out to be is open to question. What cannot be doubted is the direction of travel. In its most recent annual survey, the respected think tank Freedom House recorded a net decline in world freedom for the eighth year in a row. While political rights and civil liberties improved in 40 countries, they deteriorated in 54.在新世纪的开端,全球民主化变革大潮似乎是一股势不可挡的自然力量,而在过去10年,这股浪潮却发生了逆转。逆转的严重程度和持续时间还未可知。但其行进方向却无可置疑。颇受尊敬的智库自由之家(Freedom House)最近发表的一份年度调查显示,世界的自由程度连续第8年净下降。尽管40个国家的政治权利和公民自由得到了改善,54个国家的情况却恶化了。Perhaps the most vivid and significant example of this trend is the sight of a young, imperfect democracy – Ukraine – being brutalised by its large, authoritarian neighbour as the democratic world stands frozen on the sidelines. It isn’t a coincidence that Freedom House began to note the drift away from democracy a year after it downgraded Russia’s ranking from ‘partly free’ to ‘not free’. China aly provided an attractive model of authoritarian modernisation for the power elites of developing nations, but Vladimir Putin went further by showing the world that democratisation is reversible.这股逆流最鲜明和显著的例子或许是,年轻、尚不完美的民主国家乌克兰被庞大的威权主义邻国欺凌,民主世界却置身局外止步不前。自由之家在将俄罗斯的评级从“部分自由”调低到“不自由”一年后,开始注意背离民主的动向,这并非巧合。中国已经为发展中国家的权力精英提供了一个威权主义现代化的诱人模式,而俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)更进一步,向这个世界展现了民主化也是可以逆转的。What he also provided is a more vocal and assertive expression of the new authoritarianism. Whereas policy-makers in Beijing have been careful to emphasise China’s peaceful rise and commercial priorities, their counterparts in Moscow are happy to present their approach as an open challenge to western norms and the prevailing world order. They have even given it a name – ‘sovereign democracy’. By associating sovereignty with the right to reject democratic standards, and inviting other countries to join them, Russia’s leaders have emboldened politicians across the world to impose their own forms of autocratic rule with the self-serving pretext that democracy needs to be ‘adapted’ to local conditions.他还提供了一种描述新威权主义的更直白、更强硬的表达。北京的政策制定者谨慎地强调中国是和平崛起国家,商业是中国的优先事务,他们在莫斯科的同行则乐于将俄罗斯的策略描述成对西方准则和世界现行秩序的公开挑战。他们甚至将这种路线命名为“主权民主”(sovereign democracy)。俄罗斯的领导人们把主权和拒绝民主标准的权利联系在一起,并邀请其他国家加入俄罗斯的行列,这给世界各地的政客壮了胆,让他们敢在民主需要“适应”当地条件的自利借口下施行各自的威权统治。The end of the presumption in favour of democracy that held sway in the decade following the dismantling of the Berlin Wall is at least one of the reasons why the Arab Spring failed to deliver the changes many hoped for. Unlike those who took power in central and eastern Europe after 1989, the leaders who replaced the old Arab despots haven’t look west for their inspiration. Egypt’s President Mohamed Morsi was criticised for ruling by decree and trying to impose his own constitution. The response when it came was not a popular democratic revolution, but a military takeover and a sharp deterioration in human rights. The coup leader turned President in a rigged ballot this year.曾在柏林墙(Berlin Wall)倒塌后的10年中占主导地位、持民主的假设终结了,这至少是“阿拉伯之春”(Arab Spring)没有实现很多人期待的改变的原因之一。与1989年中欧和东欧上台的领导人不同,取代了阿拉伯过去那些暴君的新领导人并没有从西方寻求启发。埃及前总统穆罕默德#8226;穆尔西(Mohamed Morsi)被批靠法令来统治国家,并且试图强施他自己制定的宪法。其引发的结果不是一场大众民主革命,而是军方接管权力和人权状况严重恶化。这场军方政变的领袖在今年通过一场纵的投票选举当上总统。In Asia, negative trends away from political pluralism are evident in Malaysia and Indonesia. The biggest setback this year, however, has been in Thailand where the military seized power in another coup. As with the overthrow of Thaksin Shinawatra’s government eight years ago, the military-backed elite acted to defend its privileges with force. Thaksin’s supporters wanted to continue policies that trebled growth, halved poverty and increased welfare. They won two electoral mandates before the tanks returned to the streets. Unable to stop Thaksin and his allies at the ballot box, the military is unlikely to take any more risks. The restoration of civilian rule, if it comes, will probably take the form of a Putin-style ‘managed democracy’.在亚洲,马来西亚和印度尼西亚表现出明显的背离政治多元主义的消极趋势。但今年最严重的倒退发生在泰国,军方也在一场政变中夺取了权力。就和8年前他信#8226;西那瓦(Thaksin Shinawatra)政府被推翻时一样,得到军方持的精英群体通过武力来维护自己的特权。他信的持者希望继续实行曾将经济增长率提高2倍、将贫困水平减半、提高了福利的政策。在军方的坦克再次出现在泰国街头之前,他们赢得了两次选举委任。军方无法在选举投票中阻止他信和他的盟友,因此不太可能再冒任何风险。如果泰国能再次恢复文官掌权,很可能会采取普京的“有控制的民主”模式。A decade ago Africa was being hailed as democracy’s emerging success story. The sp of political freedom appeared to be steady and sustained with the practices of electoral democracy gradually taking root in a number of countries. Africa has continued to suffer coups and political violence, yet it is the erosion of democratic standards in some of the countries that seemed to be making progress that is perhaps most troubling. Kenya introduced repressive media restrictions last year, Uganda has been criticised for suppressing the opposition and Tanzania has seen a rise in extra-judicial violence by the security forces. Zambia won praise for the transfer of power that followed its 2011 presidential election. But the new government of President Michael Sata has responded to rising dissent by arresting opposition leaders, restricting NGOs and intimidating journalists. It is increasingly difficult to envisage a peaceful transfer of power next time.10年前,非洲被誉为新近出现的民主化成功案例。政治自由的传播似乎稳定而持久,选举民主的做法逐渐在几个国家中生根。非洲依然遭受政变和政治暴力的困扰,但一些国家日益加重的民主标准遭侵蚀或许是最令人担忧的。肯尼亚去年出台了压制媒体的限制措施,乌干达因为镇压反对派被批评,坦桑尼亚的安保力量使用司法外暴力的情况增多。赞比亚曾因2011年总统大选后的权力和平移交而受到赞誉。但总统麦克尔#8226;萨塔(Michael Sata)领导的新政府通过逮捕反对派领袖、限制非政府组织(NGO)和恐吓记者来应对增多的异议。越来越难以想象下一次的权力移交还能够和平进行。Even in Europe democracy is under pressure. Turkey has continued to move further away from European standards with the use of force against street protests, increased internet censorship and a rise in the number of journalists behind bars. In a number of the new EU member states problems to do with judicial independence, media freedom and the rule of law remain unaddressed and may even be getting worse. In western Europe there has been a sharp rise in support for parties of the hard right that openly identify with Putin’s autocratic methods. As one former European foreign minister said to me recently, EU enlargement was meant to export democracy from west to east. Instead we seem to be in danger of importing populism and authoritarianism in the opposite direction.即使在欧洲,民主也承受着压力。土耳其暴力镇压街头抗议、加强网络审查、关押更多记者,继续远离欧洲的标准。欧盟的几个新成员国在司法独立、媒体自由和法治方面的问题仍没有解决,甚至可能正在恶化。在西欧,持强硬右派政党的人大幅增加,这些政党公开对普京的威权手段表示认同。一位欧洲的前外长最近告诉我,欧盟的扩大旨在将西方的民主出口到东方。事实正好相反,我们似乎有把东方的民粹主义和威权主义引入西方的危险。Some welcome the newfound ability of countries to resist pressure to democratise as a sign that the era of western domination has come to an end. But the self-determination it brings is for those at the top, not the bottom. The only real beneficiaries are the predatory elites who are free to enrich themselves and monopolise power in the absence of popular constraint. Promoting democracy has become harder, yet the moral imperative to act remains. Accountable government is the best guarantee of healthy social and economic development as well as a fundamental right in and of itself. So the west has to regroup and find better instruments to turn the tide against the new authoritarianism.一些人对这些国家抵住民主化压力的新能力表示欢迎,认为这是西方主导的时代走到尽头的标志。但是这种抵制带来的自决是那些处于顶端的人享受的,并不延及底层的人们。唯一的真正受益者是那些压榨人民的精英,他们能够在没有大众约束的情况下自由地中饱私囊,垄断权力。推行民主变得更为困难,然而推行民主依然有道德必要性。对人民负责的政府是社会和经济良性发展的最好保,本身也是一项基本权利。因此西方应该思考并找到一个更好的手段扭转态势,对抗新威权主义。The framework principle for thinking about a strategic response should be democratic internationalism. Liberal democracies should see each other as their most important partners, privileging inter-democracy relations and seeking new and deeper forms of institutional co-operation. Membership of the group should bring economic and political benefits, including preferential trade access, economic support, diplomatic solidarity and collective security guarantees. The goal should be to create within the international community a democratic block strong and successful enough to act as a pole of attraction for emerging nations.思考应对策略的框架性原则应该是民主国际主义。自由主义的民主国家应该视彼此为最重要的伙伴,对民主国家间关系予以特别重视,寻找更深层次的机构合作新方式。成为民主集团的一员应该能带来经济和政治上的好处,包括贸易准入的优待、经济持、外交上的团结和集体安保。目标应该是在国际社会中创建一个足够强大和成功的民主联盟以吸引新兴国家。What Larry Diamond has called the democratic recession has its origins in the loss of confidence and political cohesion that followed the war on terror and the global financial crisis. It will continue until the west and like-minded nations around the globe are once again able to prove by example that democracy holds the key to success in the modern world. It is a task of renewal that has barely started.拉里#8226;戴蒙德(Larry Diamond)所称的“民主衰退”的根源是反恐战争和全球金融危机后发生的信心丧失和政治聚合。“民主衰退”将继续下去,直到西方和全球范围内持相似观点的国家能再一次用实例明,民主掌握着在现代世界中成 /201410/332588。
  • China’s stock market sell-off abated on Thursday morning, as Beijing rolled out further measures to boost liquidity and calm investor nerves following days of sharp share price falls.在股价连日来的急剧下跌之后,中国政府进一步采取了多项举措,以提升股市流动性并平复投资者情绪。随着这些举措的推出,周四早上中国股市的抛售狂潮有所缓解。Early trading on the Shanghai Composite was choppy but the index was up 0.6 per cent by 11am local time. Shenzhen had gained 2.4 per cent, while the small cap ChiNext board had added 1.9 per cent.上综指(Shanghai Composite)早盘虽遭遇剧烈震荡,收盘时却得以收涨1.3%。深综指(Shenzhen Composite)收涨2.93%,而以小盘股为主的创业板(ChiNext)则收涨2.76%。In Hong Kong, the Hang Seng rose 2.9 per cent, while the China Enterprises index was 3 per cent higher.在香港,恒生指数(Hang Seng)收涨3.43%。其中恒生中国企业指数(Hang Seng China Enterprises Index)收涨3.58%。The break from the sell-off followed another raft of measures from Chinese authorities aimed at halting a share rout that has wiped trillions of dollars off the value of the country’s equity markets.在股票这次止住跌势之前,中国当局还曾推出一系列其他旨在终结股市暴跌的举措。这轮暴跌行情已导致中国股市数万亿美元的市值蒸发。On Thursday morning, China’s banking regulator said it would allow lenders to ease margin requirements for some wealth management clients, and encouraged banks to offer financing to companies seeking to buy their own shares.周四早上,中国监管机构银监会表示,将允许放宽对部分理财客户的保金要求,并鼓励为增持自身股票的企业提供融资。That came on the heels of a new rule imposed late on Wednesday by the securities regulator banning investors with shareholdings of more than 5 per cent in a company from selling shares. The restriction also applies to senior executives and board members of listed companies.就在银监会这一举措之前,周三晚上中国券监管机构监会(CSRC)还曾出台新规定,禁止持股比例在5%以上的投资者减持股票。这一规定也适用于上市公司的高管和董事会成员。The China Securities Regulatory Commission said separately that China Securities Finance Corporation, a government-backed fund, would provide “abundant liquidity” to help steady the market.此外,监会还曾表示,由政府出资的中国券金融公司(China Securities Finance Corporation)将提供“充足流动性”,帮助稳定市场。State-owned enterprises have also been directed towards share buy-backs. So far, 292 companies have pledged to buy their own stock, according to state media.此外,多家国有企业也被指示回购股票。根据中国国家媒体的报道,迄今已有292家企业承诺要增持自身股票。With Beijing’s efforts to underpin the market having limited effect in the face of panicked retail investor selling, many analysts think further steps will be taken if downward pressure returns.在恐慌散户的抛售行为面前,中国政府的托市努力效果十分有限。出于这个原因,许多分析师认为,如果股市再次面临下行压力,中国政府将会采取进一步措施。Thursday also saw dozens more companies request their shares be halted from trading, adding to the list of more than 1,400 companies that have has suspended their stock. More than half the companies listed on China’s two stock exchanges are currently not trading as a result.周四又有数十家企业要求停牌。此前,中国股市已有逾1400家企业停牌,这令中国两市的停牌企业数目超过了一半。China’s stock market rout began in mid-June following a clampdown on margin finance — the use of borrowed money to buy shares. That has led to a rapid unwind of leveraged trades, a process many believe is still far from reaching its end.中国这次股灾始于6月中旬,此前中国政府曾试图限制融资融券业务——即借钱炒股业务。这轮暴跌导致股市迅速去杠杆化,不过许多人相信这一去杠杆过程还远远没有结束。“The deleveraging process is likely to continue in the near term and therefore the [domestic] share market will likely remain volatile,” said analysts at UBS.瑞银(UBS)分析师表示:“近期内这一去杠杆过程可能会继续开展下去。因此(国内)股市可能会保持很高的波动性。” /201507/385245。
  • The house that breaks up when you do分手的时候房子也能拆分了As the old song has it, breaking up is hard to do.正如一首老歌唱的一样,分手太难。Not only is there the emotional angst, but in many cases one partner has to pack up and move out.这困难之处不仅在于情感上的忧虑,在许多情况下情侣中的一方在分手后还需要打包自己的物品搬出共同居住的房子。How much easier would it be if you could just break up your home into two separate units, and move them away from each other?如果在分手之后可以把你们的家分成两个独立的部分并且移走,这问题是不是就好办多了?This is just one of the possibilities offered by ;micro housing,; an architectural concept that is gaining momentum around the world.这就是微型住宅提供的一种可能性,这个建筑概念正在全球范围迅猛传播。;Urban density and housing cost are both rising rapidly,; says Jinhee Park, principal architect at the Single Speed Design (SsD) design firm.;城市密度和房价都在攀升,;单速设计公司首席建筑师朴真熙(音译)说。  ;The idea is to take a small area and make it into a comfortable living environment that can be adapted according to changing needs.;;这个创意是将小空间改造成舒适的居住环境,而且这个空间可以随着不断变化的需求进行改装。;Park has recently put this into practice in Seoul, South Korea, where a complex of 14 units can be combined and rearranged to match changes in lifestyle.朴真熙最近在韩国首尔将这个概念变成了现实。她设计了由14个单元组成的房屋,这些小单元可以合并或者重新组合以适应生活方式的变化。Residents can either claim a single space or recombine the blocks for larger configurations to suit couples, families or groups of friends.住在这里的人可以要一个单间,也可以把几个独立小空间重新合并成空间比较大的房屋让情侣、一家人或者一帮朋友住在一起。;It means that people will live there for longer, and in a more environmentally-friendly way,; says Park, ;since they aren#39;t forced to move out when their circumstances change.;朴真熙说,;这就意味着人们可以住得更久,更环保。因为他们不会因为境况的变化而被迫搬出去。;At the heart of the concept is the notion that you don#39;t need as much personal space as you think.这个概念的核心就是你需要的个人空间并没有你想的那么多。The private units are small, but they are complemented by various shared living areas, semi-public balconies, an exhibition space and a cafe.这些私人单元都很小,但是有各种共享空间做补充,包括半公共阳台、展区和咖啡厅。All of this releases the pressure on the private units, making for a surprising degree of comfort in a confined space.这些都在给私人空间解压,使有限的空间也能有超乎想象的舒适。;I believe that you don#39;t need lots of space to create spaciousness,; says Park. ;We designed the units to feel big even though they are small.朴真熙说,;我认为并不需要太多的空间来制造宽敞的感觉,我们设计的单元房间虽然小但是会让你感觉很大。;The windows match up so that you always have a view of the outside world, and deep skylights allow lots of natural light whatever level you live on.单元房的窗户也有帮助,这样你就能看到外面的景色。我们还给房间安上了内凹式天窗,无论你住在哪一层,自然光都会照射进房间。;The thickness of the housing shell is reduced as much as possible, maximizing the available space.;同时,房子外壳的厚度需要尽可能的薄,使可用空间最大化。;But it is the notion of expanding and adapting your living space that is the real key to success.;The idea is that people don#39;t identify their living boundaries with the walls of their personal units,; she says.她说,;这个创意是让人们不以墙来划分私人居住区域。;They can go outside and extend their boundaries by using the intersection between public and private, as well as interior and exterior spaces.;他们可以走到外面,用公共空间和私人空间交汇的地方来扩展他们的区域,室内和室外的空间也是如此。;The complex was built last fall, and the reaction has been positive. But, Park acknowledges, none of the residents have yet altered the configuration of the units.去年秋天这种组合式的住宅已经完工,并且得到了积极的反馈。但朴真熙坦承,现在还没有居民改变他们的居住结构。;I don#39;t know if any of them have broken up yet,; she says.;我不知道是否有人分手,;她说。;Hopefully they haven#39;t. But when that time comes, it will be very interesting to see what happens.;;希望没有人分手。但是如果真有人分手,那么就有好看的了。 /201506/379923。
  • Chinese property prices in July deflated for an 11th straight month in July, but the pace of decline was its slowest of 2015.今年7月,中国房价连续第11个月下跌,不过跌幅是今年以来最小的。New home prices in 70 cities fell by an average 3.7 per cent year-on-year last month, based on calculations by Reuters from official data published by China#39;s National Bureau of Statistics. The results examine prices in 70 Chinese cities: in June they had fallen 4.9 per cent, in May they were down 5.7 per cent and in April they were down a record 6.1 per cent. July#39;s deflation is the slowest since December.路透社(Reuters)用中国国家统计局发布的官方数据计算得出的结果显示,上个月,中国70个城市的新房价格同比平均下跌3.7%。6月份,新房价格同比下跌4.9%,5月份同比下跌5.7%。4月份同比下跌6.1%,跌幅创了纪录。相比之下,7月份的跌幅是自去年12月以来最小的。However prices have deflated for 11 straight months now, indicating signs of strain in the economy.不过,目前中国房价已连续下跌11个月,显示出中国经济正承受着多么大的压力。But there was some good news from the country#39;s two biggest cities. In Beijing prices rose 1 per cent year-on-year, arresting a nine month streak of deflation, while in Shanghai prices rose 3.1 per cent year-on-year, a second month of increase.但是,中国两个最大的城市也有好消息传出。北京的房价同比上涨1%,终止了持续9个月的下跌势头。上海的房价同比上涨3.1%,是连续第二个月上涨。 /201508/393768。
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