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2019年11月19日 14:33:15来源:放心爱问

Science and Technolgy科技infantile anaemia婴儿贫血Blood simple简单的输血A small change in how babies are delivered might abolish infantile anaemia分娩方式的简单改变可能帮助消灭婴儿贫血CHILDHOOD anaemia is a problem. Around the world, almost a quarter of under-fives suffer from it. And anaemia is not a trivial thing. A childs development, both physical and mental, is stifled by a lack of iron. The reason is that, besides its well-known role in haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood, iron is also involved in many aspects of brain development.儿童贫血症是一个全球性的问题,将近四分之一的五岁以下儿童忍受着该病的折磨,使得我们无法忽视它。儿童身体和智力的发育,都会受到铁元素匮乏的影响,因为除了在血液中的氧气运输分子——血红蛋白中发挥着众所周知的作用外,铁元素还在许多方面参与了大脑的发育。A study just published in the British Medical Journal by Ola Andersson, an obstetrician at the Hospital of Halland in Halmstad, Sweden, suggests that a simple change of medical procedure when a child is born may bring a big reduction in anaemia. That change is not to cut the umbilical cord linking the child with the placenta straight after birth—as is standard practice—but, rather, to give it time to transfer more of the placentas contents (particularly its blood) to the child it has been nurturing.来自瑞典哈尔姆斯塔德市哈兰医院的产科医生Ola Andersson刚刚在不列颠医学杂志上发表的一项研究表明,简单改变婴儿分娩的流程,也许就能显著降低贫血症的发生。这个改变是,不要像惯常操作那样,在胎儿出生后马上剪断连接胎儿与胎盘的脐带,而是等一等,让更多胎盘中的物质(特别是血液)流向胎儿。The argument in favour of rapid clamping is that too much blood may flow from the detached placenta to the newly born child, and that this can cause problems of its own. But that is unproven, and would be a strike against evolution because, in nature, the umbilicus of a mammal usually does remain attached to the infant for some time after birth. Only the modern technology of clamps and sharp scissors permits the slithery tube to be dealt with at speed.坚持快速钳住脐带(速钳法)的观点认为,让太多的血液从胎盘流向新生儿会带来其自身的问题,但这种观点其实从未被实,而且显然与进化论相抵触,因为在自然界中,哺乳动物的胎儿通常在出生后一段时间内仍然通过脐带与母体相连,只有钳子和剪子这种现代工具,才能迅速地处理光滑的脐带。To test her idea that extended post partum connection to the placenta is good for a childs health, Dr Andersson and her colleagues recruited 334 pregnant, non-smoking women whose fetuses appeared to be healthy. When these women came to term, their midwives followed one of two sets of instructions, chosen at random and given to them just before each birth. In 166 cases the newborns had their umbilical cords clamped within ten seconds of delivery. The other 168 had them clamped after at least three minutes had passed.为了实延长产后胎儿与胎盘的连接时间确实有益于儿童的健康,Andersson士和她的同事们招募了334个没有吸烟习惯的妇志愿者,她们肚中的胎儿看起来都很健康。在妇们临产时,助产士为她们从两种生产方式中随机选择一种。在166例中,脐带在新生儿出生后的十秒内被钳住,而在另一组168例中,这个时间至少超过三分钟。When the children were four months old, Dr Andersson re-examined them and took a blood sample. Those babies whose umbilical clamps had been applied after three minutes had, on average, iron levels 45% higher than those whose cords had been clamped immediately. Put another way, only 0.6% of them were anaemic, compared with 5.7% of the rapidly clamped.在这些儿童四个月时,Andersson士重新对他们进行检查并抽取血样。那些脐带在三分钟后才被钳住的儿童,体内的铁元素平均水平要比采用速钳法的儿童高出45%。从另一个角度看,相较于采用速钳法的儿童中5.7%的贫血症发生率,他们的这个比例只有0.6%。Rapid clamping of the umbilicus, then, seems to cause one child in 20 to become anaemic, at least in the early months of its life. Any experiment of this sort needs to be repeated, of course, to check it is correct. But if it is, then the burden of proof in the matter of when to cut the cord will have shifted from those who would cut late to those who would cut early. The cost of doing so would seem negligible; the benefit, great.看起来速钳法在每20个儿童中便导致一例在其出生后的最初几个月内发生贫血。当然,这类研究结果都需要通过重复实验来验可靠性。但如果这个结论确实正确,那么采用速钳法的人将更有义务来明为什么要迅速的剪断脐带,毕竟延长几分钟时间没有什么麻烦,而益处却是显而易见的。 /201210/204096。

  • Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My sister-in-law, ;Daisy,; has discovered the world of blogging. While I enjoy seeing photos and ing news about my brother, his wife and their children, Daisy has recently been posting unkind remarks about myparents.我的嫂嫂黛西喜欢上了客。虽然我很喜欢看一些关于我哥哥、我嫂嫂还有他们孩子的照片,也喜欢读一读他们的文章,但黛西最近却发布了对我父母不友好的言论。My parents have been generous and supportive of Daisy for over 10 years, and it hurts me to these comments. I understand some of her frustrations, but I dont understand her publicly slamming my parents withcruel comments.我的父母慷慨地持了黛西十多年。黛西的这些言论伤害了我。我知道她受到了一些挫折,但我不明白她为什么公开抨击我的父母。When I was first married, I learned to thank my mother-in-law for her advice and then do as I thought best. I have suggested this to Daisy, but she seems hostile to the idea. Should I confront her about her statements? Should I ask her to stop? Thankfully, my parents do not have a computer so they will never know about this. Is there anything I can do? - Blogging Blues在我的第一次婚姻里,我学会了感谢我的婆婆给我的建议,然后努力做我认为最好的。我也曾如此建议黛西,但她似乎对此抱有敌意。我应该怎样面对她的言论?我应该要求她停止这样做吗?值得庆幸的是,我的父母没有电脑,所以他们永远不会知道这些。我该怎么做呢? ——忧郁的主Dear Blogging:亲爱的主:Try talking to your brother. Tell him you enjoy the news and pictures of the family, but you think the nasty comments about the folks are unnecessary. Other family members are apparently ing this blog, whichreflects poorly on Daisy, and she ought to reconsider broadcasting her negative opinions. Other than that, all you can do is remove yourself from her mailing list, or enjoy the photographs and stop ing thecommentary.试着和你哥哥说说这件事。告诉他,你很享受关于这个家庭的文章和图片,但对亲人们不利的消息就不必再传扬了。显然,这个家庭的其他成员都可以看到这个客,这对黛西的形象不利,她应该再三斟酌是否应该宣扬她的这些负面意见。除此之外,你能做的就是把自己从她的邮箱发送名单中删除,或者只是欣赏一下照片,还有,不要再阅读那些了。201204/177420。
  • Books and Arts; Book Review;Racism in sport;文艺;书评;运动场上的种族歧视;The black white hope;黑白的希望;The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxings First African-American Champion. By William Gildea.《最漫长的比赛:与首位美裔黑人拳击冠军——乔甘斯同行》威廉姆吉尔迪亚著。“THE whitest black man that ever entered the ring,” said a famous American sports writer a century ago in praise of Joe Gans. Given the place and the time, the comment was unexceptional. It is Ganss reaction to the insulting words that still astounds. Far from being offended, the first American-born black boxer to win a world title regarded it instead as a compliment. So, less remarkably, did his numerous white fans.一百年前,某位著名的美国体育记者曾这样赞赏乔甘斯:“他是拳击场里最受白人拥戴的黑人。”彼时彼地,这绝不是一条普普通通的评价。甘斯对别人的侮辱有着惊人的忍耐力。对于首位赢得世界第一的美国本土黑人拳击手来说,这样的评价绝不是冒犯,而是褒扬。就连他不计其数的白人粉丝听后也感到甘之如饴。Against enormous odds, as William Gildea recalls in his episodic biography, Gans had by 1906 achieved the seemingly impossible. He actually left the ring a popular winner in successfully defending his title against Battling Nelson, a Danish-American, in Goldfield, Nevada. Even grizzled prospectors whooped when, after two hours and 48 minutes, the longest championship fight of the 20th century, Nelson was disqualified for a deliberate low blow.威廉吉尔迪亚在传记里回忆到,虽然困难重重,但是甘斯在1906年做到了似乎不可能做到的事情。他挫败了来自内华达州金矿市的美裔丹麦选手贝特林纳尔逊,成功地捍卫了自己世界第一的称号,以最受拥戴的胜者姿态告别了拳击场。这场耗时两小时四十八分钟的比赛是20世纪最漫长的拳击赛,当纳尔森因蓄意打在甘斯的腰下部位而被判出局时,就连头发花白的老矿工也大声呐喊起来。Extraordinary stoicism earned Gans his lasting popularity in America. Born and brought up in Maryland, a state bordering on the old Confederacy, he had to put up with the everyday humiliations suffered by all African-Americans there. And, on top of these, he had also to tolerate the particular horrors suffered by Americas black sportsmen.超凡的忍耐力为甘斯赢得了美国人民经久不衰的爱戴。乔甘斯生在马里兰,长在马里兰,这个州紧挨着老联盟,他每天都要忍受当地所有美裔黑人都会遭受的羞辱。除此之外,他还要忍受美国黑人运动员都会遭受的恐吓。Gans, a naturally polite and cheerful man, was tutored always to show restraint by Bob Fitzsimmons, a world champion at three weights, who argued that you should do as you would be done by. In consequence, Gans learnt to remain impassive in the face of the most egregious provocations: even, for instance, when one opponent called him “133 pounds of black meat” and when another spat in his face as they squared up in the centre of the ring.乔甘斯天性谦和开朗,世界冠军鲍勃费茨西蒙斯教会了他忍耐,因为鲍勃主张“己所不欲,勿施于人”。后来,甘斯学会了对于种种恶意挑衅漠然视之,就算有对手戏谑他是“133磅的黑肥肉”,就算在拳击场角斗时对手向他脸上啐唾沫,他也绝不动怒。Like other black boxers, Gans was exploited by the low-life types that inhabited professional boxing. Promoters paid him less than his white rivals, even when he was the main draw. His sleazy manager, Al Herford, bet heavily against Gans in two fights and then ordered him to lose. Gans eventually sacked his manager, confessed to the fixed fights, won international recognition as a fine champion and was mourned by thousands, white and black, at his funeral in Baltimore, when he died from tuberculosis at the then typically early age of 35.和其他黑人拳击手一样,甘斯也要遭到职业拳击行业里手段卑鄙的剥削。虽然双方打平,赞助商付给甘斯的酬劳却比付给他白人对手的要少。他下作的经纪人阿尔赫福德下了大注赌乔甘斯输,于是他便命令乔甘斯必须输。甘斯最后解雇了他的经纪人,并向公众坦承自己操纵了比赛,甘斯因此赢得了全世界的肯定,成了人们心目中最受尊敬的冠军。但是甘斯却在35岁是因罹患肺结核而英年早逝,在他巴尔迪的丧礼上,成千上万的粉丝,无论白人黑人全部为其默哀。Mr Gildea, a talented sports journalist with a y following among American ers, is nostalgic for the days when crowds of 125,000 jammed into wooden stadiums to watch prizefights although not, of course, for the racism that then infected this and other sports. He is also nostalgic for the days when Goldfield was a rip-roaring, hard-drinking, sinful boom town. Those times, too, have gone. On a day trip to Goldfield, he saw several empty shops and houses, only four other people and a petrol station with a sign ing: “OPEN EXCEPT WHEN CLOSED”. This is a memorable book about a time that should not be forgotten.才华横溢的体育记者吉尔迪亚将和众多拭目以待的美国读者一起缅怀那段熙熙攘攘的125000人涌进木质体育场里观看职业拳击赛的光辉岁月,当然他们的缅怀的绝不包括当时影响了拳击和其他体育比赛的种族歧视。吉尔迪亚怀念的还有当年热闹喧嚣,酒鬼遍地,罪恶却繁荣的金矿市。那些日早已一去不返。吉尔迪亚花了一天时间故地重游,商铺和住宅已经人去楼空,只看见聊聊四人和一个加油站,上面写着:“关门大吉”。这是一本关于一段值得铭记的岁月的回忆录。201207/190936。
  • The Lowest Note in the Universe宇宙中的最低音Its coming from a black hole in the Perseus Cluster, about two hundred fifty million light years away.宇宙中的最低音是由距地球约两亿五千万光年的A black hole? And outer space? That makes sound?英仙座星期群中的一个黑洞发出的。Whats happening out there is that intergalactic gas has concentrated around a cluster of galaxies, forming a cloud.那里的星际气体已集中在星系群周围形成了云层。A massive black hole is sending out jets of particles that crash into the cloud, causing pressure waves to ripple outward.一个巨大的黑洞正在释放粒子喷流,这些粒子喷流又撞向云层,然后就产生了压力波向外界发出潺潺声的情况。Some astronomers interpret these as sound waves.有些天文学家把这种波解释成声波。Of course, even if you call it sound, its too low for anyone to hear.当然,即使你称之为声音,但它也太低了以致没有人能听得到。What note is it? They estimate the note to be a ;B flat;, about fifty-seven octaves lower than middle C.他们估计这种声音属于降B调。比中央C低57个八度音阶。Researchers now think that many black holes may produce such waves, which can affect the way galaxies, and even galaxy clusters, behave.研究者们现在认为很多黑洞都会发出这种可以影响星系甚至是星系群的表现方式。 /201212/212649。
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