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(CNN)A new London exhibition is looking back on the history of the humble swimsuit.(CNN)一个伦敦新开的展会回溯了泳衣的历史。Riviera Style: Resort amp; Swimwear since 1900, now on at the Fashion and Textile Museum in London, charts the journey from the knee-length swimming dresses of yesteryear to the ubiquitous string bikinis of today through archival garments and images.里维埃拉风格:1900年代的度假胜地和泳衣款式,现在在伦敦的时装和纺织品物馆,一系列图表通过装档案和影像资料揭示了从不久前长及膝盖的泳裙发展到今天遍地都是比基尼泳装的过程。The rise of the resort沙滩度假的增多;The story really starts with the shift from bathing in Victorian times to swimming,; says FTM curator D ennis Nothdruft. ;There was this great movement toward activity, and particularly women being more acth这个故事确实是从维多利亚时代的沐浴向游泳转变而开始的,;FTM馆长丹尼斯说,“这是向活力的重大转变,尤其是妇 女变得更有活力时。”Stripping down for the beach still meant donning long skirts, stockings, and shoes until the 1920s, when fashion designer Coco Chanel#39;s Cote d#39;Azure escapades convinced fashionable women to stop shunning the sun.直到1920年,人们因沙滩度假而脱去衣时,还是会穿着长裙,长筒袜,和鞋子,到1920年,时装设计师可可·香奈儿在蓝色海岸的出格行为说了时尚女性,不再让自己的身体躲避阳光。But while the Roaring Twenties have the more scandalous reputation, it wasn#39;t until the 1930#39;s that swimsuits started to look (somewhat) conventionally skimpy, and the two piece made its debut.但是,在喧嚣的20年代,这还是有些羞涩,直到1930年代,泳衣才开始变得更加紧身,分体式泳衣首次出现。;You start to see more and more of what we consider contemporary swimsuits,; Nothdruft says. ;You sta to see cutaway swimsuits — they cut away the sides at the top — and they start adding various revealing elements.#8226;#8226;“你开始看到越来越多的现代意义上的泳装。”丹尼斯说,;你开始看到圆角泳衣了;他们剪掉了泳衣的上部;他们开始加入各种各祥的暴露元素。;By the 1950s, two piece suits were commonplace. Essentially glorified lingerie, they created the same co veted hourglass figure as the decade#39;s restricting shape wear.到了1950年代,分体式泳衣已经司空见惯。基本上变成了美化的内衣,他们塑造了与之后几十年的塑形紧身衣一祥的沙漏型身材。;You start to get the sense that swimsuits aren#39;t just for swimming,; he says. ;All of a sudden it#39;s about shaping the body and creating a silhouette.;;我们开始创造一种观念——泳衣不只是为了游泳而穿,;他说,;我指的是塑造形体和轮廓。;The bikini as we know it now made its first appearance in the 1960s, as fashion trends became more youth-oriented, and a more natural silhouette was championed by designers.1960年代,我们所熟知的比基尼首次出现,并作为时尚潮流越来越年轻化,一个更自然的轮廓也被设计者青睐。;In the 1950s, teenagers looked like their mothers. By the 1960s, mothers wanted to look like their daughters,; Nothdruft says.丹尼斯说,;在1950年代,青少年的穿着很像她们的母亲。到了1960年代,母亲们则开始学习她们女儿的穿着。;Textile innovation纺织品的创新While the modesty of the post-Victorian swimming outfits is perhaps the most conspicuous difference between then and now, the change in materials is just as stark.在庄重的维多利亚时代,泳装与现在显著不同,材质的改变非常明显。;It#39;s the story of innovation,; Nothdruft says. ;It really relates to finding materials that respond to the requirements: fitting and getting wet.;;这是一个创新的故事,;丹尼斯说,;指的是寻找能够适应需求的材料:合身与湿身。;Predating modern elastic, early swimsuits were made from knitted cotton and wools that grew heavy and hung uncomfortably when wet.比现代的弹性布料更早,早期泳衣由针织棉和针织毛制成,在湿身时会变得非常沉重和不舒适。This would continue on through the 1930s, when elastic yarns -- cottons and wools wrapped with elastic ths -- would take over, only to be usurped by stretch fabrics in the 1950s. (Lycra wouldn#39;t become ubiquitous until the 1980s.)这种情况从1930年代开始,当时的弹性丝——棉花和羊毛被弹性线包裹——占统治地位,但最终被松紧织物取代。(莱卡弹性布料直到1980年代才普遍使用。)Modern swimwear landmarks, like the Speedo LZR Racer Suit that was originally banned from the Olympics for giving athletes and unfair advantage, suggest a recent shift from the merely practical to the performance-enhancing.现代泳衣品牌,比如鲨鱼皮,最初在奥运会上是被禁止的,因为它们会让选手获得不公平的优势,这表明这些改变不仅仅让它更舒适,也让它更有实际效用。;What we#39;re showing are some really fantastic developments in swimwear,; says Nothdruft. ;There are all sorts of innovations in tech and fabric and cut and manipulation.;;我们展示的是有关泳衣的一些真正了不起的发展,;丹尼斯说,;这些都是在技术上,材质上,减少布料上,和制造工艺上的创新。;Does this mean that, from a fashion standpoint, the swimsuit has been taken as far as it can go? It#39;s a possibility.这意味着,从时尚的角度,泳衣已经达到了它能达到的顶峰了吗?这是可能的。;It#39;s hard to say what we#39;ll be doing in the future ... I think we#39;ve covered everything,; he says. ;We#39;ll have to start wearing full dresses when we#39;re swimming again. Stockings and shoes...;;很难说我们未来还会做些什么。我认为我们已经做了所有能做的事情,;他说,;我们将不得不再次穿着盛装去游泳。再加上长筒袜和鞋子。; /201505/377649

TORONTO — YOU can’t even really see the shoes.多伦多——你其实很少能看到这些鞋子。In many of the photos of women on the red carpet at the Cannes Film Festival, the elegant gowns fall all the way to the ground, obscuring a view of their special-occasion footwear.在戛纳电影节(Cannes Film Festival)女星走红毯的照片中,有很多优雅的及地长裙,遮挡了她们专为这个特殊场合穿着的鞋子。So why on earth would it matter if women entering the prestigious celebration of cinema chose not to confine themselves in difficult-to-walk-in heels, opting for something more manageable — or even fashion-forward, in a flat?那么,如果一名女性决定不穿着难以走路的高跟鞋,而是选择更加方便——甚至是时尚前沿的——平底鞋,步入这个知名的电影盛会,又有什么大不了的呢?It did seem to matter to someone, though. It was reported last week that some women were turned away from the festival for the sartorial sin of wearing flats. High heels, it turns out, appeared to be part of the unwritten red-carpet dress code. Wearing heels changes how you stand, how you walk and how you are perceived. Even if they are visible only in small flashes, when a hem moves to one side, they are, in essence, a foundation garment: shoes that keep women in their place.但是对于有些人,这似乎真的很重要。上周有报道称,一些女性穿着平底鞋前往这个电影节,却因违反着装规范而被拒之门外。实际上,高跟鞋似乎是不成文的红地毯着装规范之一。穿着高跟鞋,会改变你站立、走路的姿势,改变人们对你的感觉。即使鞋子被看到的时候很少,但当裙装的下摆摆到一边时,它们本质上就相当于紧身胸衣:鞋子让女性摆正自己的位置。The heel has come to be the icon of feminine allure and even female power. But what, exactly, is this power and why do only women have the privilege of using heels to convey it?高跟鞋已经变成女性魅力的标志,甚至是女性力量的标志。但是,这种力量究竟是什么,为什么只有女性才拥有用高跟鞋来表达它的特权呢?Heeled footwear that gave the wearer a bit of a lift, or an advantage while on horseback, were not the original domain of women. They were first introduced into Western fashion around the turn of the 17th century from Western Asia. Privileged men, followed by women, eagerly wore them for more than 130 years as expressions of power and prestige.高跟鞋会对穿着者产生一种“提升”效果,类似于骑在马上的优势,它最初并不是女性饰。在17世纪之交,高跟鞋被首次从西亚引入西方时装领域。在130多年的时间里,它是权力和威望的表达,特权阶层的男性热衷于穿着高跟鞋,该阶层女性也随之效仿。This changed, however, in the 18th century when the distinctions between male and female dress began to reflect larger cultural shifts. Regardless of class, men were deemed uniquely endowed with rational thought and thus worthy of political enfranchisement. Heels were not required on this new equal playing field. Men began to wear the nascent three-piece suit in somber hues and were discouraged from standing out from one another. Alexander Pope, writing early in the century, composed a satirical list of men’s club rules that included the warning that if a member “shall wear the Heels of his shoes exceeding one inch and half... the Criminal shall instantly be expell’d... Go from among us, and be tall if you can!”然而在18世纪时,情况发生了转变,男女饰之间的差异开始反映更广泛层面上的文化转变。无论属于哪个阶级,男性都被视为唯一具有理性思维的性别,因而应当拥有政治选举权。在这种新的平等中,男性不再需要高跟鞋。他们开始穿着新兴的三件套,色调暗沉,别具一格是不受提倡的。在那个世纪之初,亚历山大·蒲柏(Alexander Pope)列出了男性俱乐部的规则,其中警告说,如果一个成员“鞋跟超过一英寸半……此人应被立即驱逐……从我们这里离开,自己去变高!”Women, in contrast, were represented as being naturally deficient in reason and unfit for either education or citizenship. Fashion was redefined as frivolous and feminine, and the high heel became a potent accessory of ditsy desirability. The “lively” character Harriot “tottering on her French heels and with her head as unsteady as her feet” in a 1781 story “The Delineator,” represented the typical 18th-century feminine ideal. The high heel was then suspect for other reasons, too; it had supposed connections to female vanity and deceitfulness. Added to this was the increasing fear that women would use heels and other sexualized modes of dress to seduce men and usurp power. Marie Antoinette was the poster child for this, and this idea is the cornerstone of the contemporary conceit that high heels are accessories of female power.相反,女性则被视为天生缺乏理性,不适合接受教育和拥有公民身份。时尚被重新定义为轻浮和女人味,高跟鞋成为“傻白甜”形象的有力辅助。在1781年的短篇小说《描画者》(The Delineator)中,“活泼”的人物哈里奥特(Harriot)“穿着法式高跟鞋摇摇晃晃的,脑袋就像她的脚一样不稳定”,这代表了18世纪女性的理想典型。接着高跟鞋又有了其他一些让人不放心的理由;它与女性的虚荣心和不诚实联系到了一起。此外人们还越来越担心,女性会用高跟鞋等性感饰来迷惑男人并篡夺权力,玛丽·安托瓦内特(Marie Antoinette)就是一个典型例子。而这种观念也奠定了基础,让高跟鞋成为了一种代表女性权力的配饰。By the 19th century, the invention of photography, and its immediate adoption by pornographers, established the curious convention of depicting women stripped of their clothing with the exception of their shoes.到19世纪,摄影术的发明及其在色情作品中的迅速普及,催生了一种古怪的惯例:描绘除了鞋子之外不着其他衣物的女性。The heel also retained its associations with female irrationality. As one anti-suffrage agitator wrote in The New York Times in 1871, “Suffrage! Right to hold office! Show us first the woman who has ... sense and taste enough to dress attractively and yet to walk down Fifth-avenue wearing ... a shoe which does not destroy both her comfort and her gait.”高鞋鞋仍然保持着与女性非理性形象之间的联系。一个反对女性参政的煽动者,在1871年的《纽约时报》上写道:“选举权!担任公职的权利!先让我们看看,哪个女人有足够的理性和品味,穿着让她舒适,又不破坏步态的鞋子,风姿绰约地走过第五大道。”With all this baggage weighing down high heels, it’s no wonder they couldn’t gain a foothold in men’s fashion — even when men’s stature became a cultural focus in the early decades of the 20th century. Pseudoscientific ideas promoted Darwinian concepts of survival of the fittest and linked male height directly to sexual attractiveness. Heels could have been pressed back into service in men’s fashion, yet they were rejected. Heels on men detracted from their masculinity by highlighting a natural lack of height, rather than conferring any advantage gained from artificially increased stature.高跟鞋被这种种包袱所拖累,难怪无法在男士时装中拥有一席之地——即使在20世纪最初几十年,男人的身高成为一个文化焦点的时候。一些伪科学观念引入达尔文优胜劣汰概念,把男性身高和性吸引力直接联系起来。高跟鞋本有可能回到男士时装界,但遭到了他们的拒绝。男人穿着高跟减损了他们的阳刚之气,突出了天生的身高不足,人为增加的身高不会赋予他们任何优势。High heels on women, however, remained the cultural norm. Even when heels temporarily went out of fashion, they retained a prominent place in erotica. At the conclusion of World War II, this association led to the invention of the stiletto. The exceptionally thin heels depicted in wartime pinup art were made reality in the early 1950s and real-life women were encouraged to emulate those pinup ideals. Marilyn Monroe — alluring, playful and invariably stiletto shod — became one of the principal feminine archetypes of the period.然而,女性穿着高跟鞋仍然是一种文化规范。即使在时装领域,高跟鞋会暂时过气,在情色领域,它也始终屹立不倒。第二次世界大战结束后,这种联系催生了细高跟鞋的发明。战时美女招贴中细到极致的高跟鞋,在50年代初成了现实,社会鼓励现实生活中的女性去模仿那些画报女郎。诱人、顽皮,总是穿细高跟鞋的玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe),成为了这一时期女性的典型形象。By the 1960s, the high heel fell somewhat from favor; too “mature” for the Youthquake style revolution and too problematic for emerging feminists. It returned to fashion in the 1970s, perfectly in tune with the disco era (when some men did allow heels back into their wardrobe, too).到了20世纪60年代,高鞋跟变得不那么受青睐了;对于“青年风暴”(Youthquake)的风格革命而言,它太“成熟”;而对新锐女权主义者来说,它又太容易惹麻烦。到70年代,高跟鞋重新流行起来,与那个迪斯科时代完美契合(高跟鞋当时也确实出现在了一些男性的衣柜中)。In the 1980s, as unprecedented numbers of women entered the white-collar workplace, climbing the corporate ladder was perceived as socially risky — it could strip a woman of her desirability. High fashion offered an antidote: Toweringly high “killer heels” that insinuated that business acumen alone was not the reason for women’s success. By the early 2000s, designer heels were perceived as “power tools” — as one Times story called them — to be used, like lingerie, by professional women to manipulate people through the “power” of sex appeal, an idea that continues to resonate to this day.上世纪80年代,前所未有的大批女性进入职场,事业心太强开始被认为是社交生活的不利因素——它可能会让女性不招人喜欢。高端时尚提供了一个对策:高耸入云的“致命高跟”。它可以旁敲侧击地告诉对方,女性的成功并非只是因为她的商业头脑。本世纪初,设计师版的高跟鞋被认为是“影响力工具”——时报的一篇报道也曾使用这种说法——职业女性利用高跟鞋,通过性感的“力量”来操纵他人,这个想法在今天仍然会得到认同。Linking sex appeal to power also clearly suggests that women have a very short window of opportunity for when they can be seen as powerful. The common comment about the Cannes debacle — that a handful of middle-aged women in flats were turned away — illustrates this issue. In an apologist manner, this observation seemed to suggest that perhaps if these women hadn’t been so aged they wouldn’t have worn sensible shoes. Never mind what accomplishments or connections brought them to the festival.性魅力与影响力之间的关联还可以清晰地表明,女性一生中只有很短暂的一段时间可以显得富有权力。对于今年戛纳电影节上的事故——少数穿着平底鞋的中年女性被拒绝入场——的普遍看法就突显了这个问题。虽然带有道歉的姿态,但这种观点似乎在暗示,或许如果这些女性不这么老,就根本不会去穿舒的平底鞋,无论她们是凭借什么成绩或关系来参加庆典的。This is the ultimate problem with sexual allure as a purported means to power: The power lies in the eye of the beholder, not the beheld.这就是把性诱惑力视作影响力工具要面对的终极问题:你是否有影响力取决于观察者的主观看法。If the argument for heels is that they are part of traditional attire for women, that is not wrong. The body-revealing gowns and barely there footwear worn by women on the red carpet have direct links to 18th-century ideas on gender, 19th-century pornographic images and midcentury concepts of a woman’s place in society.如果倡导穿高跟鞋的人声称它属于女性的传统饰,这也一点没错。暴露的礼和藏在裙子下的鞋子与18世纪的性别观、19世纪的色情图片,以及上世纪中叶的女性社会地位有着直接的关系。Perhaps it is a tradition we can upend in the 21st century, when it should be clear that a woman’s power has nothing to do with the height of her heel.或许我们可以在21世纪颠覆这个传统,因为我们现在都清楚,女性的影响力与鞋跟的高度无关。 /201505/377178

We have lost the art of the unsent angry letter, says a recent New York Times column.“写一封不会寄出的‘愤怒信’已经成为了一项失传的艺术。”《纽约时报》最近的专栏文章如是写到。The writer, Maria Konnikova, says many famous people had the habit of writing letters expressing their frustrations toward their receivers and then destroying the missives. Whenever former US President Abraham Lincoln felt the urge to tell someone off, he would compose what he called a “hot letter”. He would vent all of his anger into a note, put it aside until his emotions cooled down, and then he would write on the letter: “Never sent. Never signed.”该文章的作者玛丽亚#8226;科尼科娃写到:很多名人在愤怒时都会给惹怒他的人写信表达愤怒,然后再撕掉这封信。曾经的美国总统亚伯拉罕#8226;林肯就是其中之一,他每次想要责骂别人时就会写一封他所谓的 “怒火之信”,把所有的愤怒都写进信中,然后将其放在一边直到自己平静下来,再在信上写上“永不署名、永不寄出”。Konnikova says the unsent angry letter used to be a tradition among public figures who needed to think twice about their choice of words. Former US president Harry S. Truman, former UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American author Mark Twain all wrote unsent angry letters.科尼科娃说,作为名人间的一项传统,永不寄出的愤怒信曾让他们三思自己的遣词造句。同样出任过美国总统的哈里#8226;杜鲁门、曾经的英国首相温斯顿#8226;丘吉尔以及美国作家马克#8226;吐温都曾写过这样的愤怒信。There are two benefits of unsent letter, says Konnikova: “It serves as a type of emotional catharsis, a way to let it all out without the repercussions of true engagement. And it acts as a strategic catharsis, an exercise in saying what you really think.”科尼科娃认为这种做法有两方面好处,一是“作为感性宣泄感情的方式,在不会产生实际影响的情况下把感情全部发泄出来。”二是“作为感情宣泄的训练,让你能表达出自己的真实想法。”Place to vent宣泄之道In the social media age, we have more channels to express immediate displeasure than ever before. Venting our negative feelings is easy. But it also means we forego our chance to think twice and act differently.在这个社交媒体流行的年代,我们有了更多即刻发泄不满的途径。宣泄负面情绪变得更容易。但是,这也意味着我们正在放弃三思而后行的选项。When Lincoln wanted to write his “hot letter”, he had to find a pen and a piece of paper. That process alone provided an opportunity to curb impulse, and time to determine if his anger should be voiced or be kept quiet. Now we need only click a button to send our complaints and hurtful words on their way. In the heat of the moment, says Konnikova: “We find the line between an appropriate response and one that needs a cooling-off period blurring.” We have lost a buffer zone to determine what needs to be said and what needs to only to be felt. It’s especially true when we see similarly angry commentary coming from others, says Konnikova. Our own anger begins to feel more socially appropriate and justified.林肯想要写“怒火之信”时,寻找纸笔的过程能让他冷静下来,让他有时间决定到底是要为自己的愤怒发声,还是要将愤怒留在心底。而现在,我们只需点一下鼠标,自己的牢骚之语、伤人之言就能迅速发送出去。科尼科娃说,现在的人在怒发冲冠时,“不再需要冷静期就能做出所谓恰当的回应”。(现代社交媒体让)我们失去了缓冲,没有时间三思哪些话应该说,哪些情绪需要宣泄。这一点也尤其适用于我们看到别人同样怒气冲冲的之时。科尼科娃认为,我们因此更会觉得我们的愤怒符合社会规范的天经地义的。Perhaps that’s why we see so much anger and hatred online, so many anonymous, bitter comments, so many imprudent tweets and messy posts, says Konnikova. Because creating them is so easy, you feel it less a satisfying experience to vent out your feelings, so you feel the need to do it more often. When your emotions never quite cool, they keep coming out in other ways.在科尼科娃看来,这也许就是为什么现在网上出现了如此多愤恨之言、匿名的尖酸之语、粗鲁的推特状态、以及满是脏话的回复。因为发布这一切太过容易,甚至让你觉得发一条已经不能满足自己宣泄的欲望,需要发更多来才能痛快。只要你的情绪尚未平静,你就会另寻他法将其宣泄。 /201412/351200


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