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Obituary;Wynne Godley;讣告;韦恩·戈德利;Wynne Godley, British economist, died on May 13th, aged 83;英国经济学家韦恩·戈德利于五月十三日辞世,终年83岁;A certain ambiguity marked Wynne Godley. Was he at heart an aesthete, happiest making music in beautiful buildings among works of art? Or was he more naturally one of the sophisters, economists and calculators whose rise marked, for Edmund Burke, the passing of the age of chivalry? Was he by temperament a dissenter? Or just a typical scion of the British upper classes, an establishment man who played at being a rebel? Was he a determined pessimist, who took some pleasure in his reputation as the Cassandra of the Fens? Or a convivial, witty friend, who entertained with style and had a taste for gambling? Was he a shy violet, trembling before an audience? Or a controversialist who was hardly publicity-averse?韦恩·戈利这个人的特点带有几分模棱两可。从本质上讲他是不是一个唯美主义者,置身于华美的厅堂上,徜徉于艺术珍品之中,摆弄音乐,陶醉无比?还是说,以天生秉性而言,他更应当被看成是一个辩论大师、经济学家又兼计算高手,当初此等人物的出现曾被埃德蒙·伯克认为标志了骑士时代的终结?他是不是一个从性格上就爱拂逆众见的异议者呢?还是说,他仍未脱英国上流阶级子弟之典型,以体制中人的身份,玩几把反叛的游戏?他真是一个坚定不移的悲观论者并且能从“芬斯地区的悲观预言师”这样的名头上得几分快乐吗?还是说,这位朋友爱交游喜风趣,招待客人讲究排场,还有的雅兴?他是个在听众面前会紧张到发抖的“羞答答的紫罗兰”呢?还是一个好辩的主儿,动起嘴来几不忌惮抛头露面?If the answer to each of these questions is at least partly yes, that may mean no more than that Mr Godley was a man of several talents, many interests and an intelligence to make good use of them. His first love was certainly music, for when he left Oxford, where he politics, philosophy and economics, he went to the Paris Conservatoire and became a professional oboist. Performing in public, though, filled him with terror, which led him to give up his job as principal oboe in the B Welsh Orchestra. He turned to economics instead.如果对上述每一个问题的回答至少有一部分是“是”,则也许只是意味着——戈德利是一位有几份天资、多种爱好的男人,是一位有智慧对种种爱好善加利用的男人。他第一爱好无疑是音乐,因为当他离开他攻读政治、哲学和经济学的牛津大学后,他去了巴黎音乐学院,并成为一个专业的双簧管吹奏者。可是,由于他在公众场所表演充满紧张,致使他放弃了在英国B广播公司威尔士乐团首席双簧管演奏员的工作。他转向了经济学领域。That, anyway, became his profession. But his love of music never left him, and art remained a part of his life to the end, not least through his marriage to Kitty, the daughter of Sir Jacob Epstein. And though Mr Godleys good looks and elongated figure might seem to have been tailor-made for El Greco, El Greco being unavailable, it was Epstein who took him as the model for a huge bronze statue of St Michael that hangs on the outside of Coventry Cathedral, with the devil vanquished at his feet.反正经济学成了戈德利的职业。但他对音乐的热爱始终不离不弃,及至人生终点,艺术仍然是他生活的一部分,尤其贯穿于他与爱泼斯坦(1880-1959, 生于美国的英国雕刻家——译者注)爵士之女基蒂的婚姻生活中。此外,尽管戈德利英俊的外貌和高高的身材似乎是为埃尔·格雷考(十七世纪西班牙画家、雕塑家——译者注)量身定做的模特儿,但格雷考无福消受。把戈德利作为圣迈克尔巨型青铜塑像模特儿的是爱泼斯坦,这尊塑像立于考文垂大教堂外面,其脚下是被征的魔鬼。In Keyness footsteps, up to a point在某种程度上,戈德利是追随凯恩斯的足迹The devilish intricacies of economics Mr Godley seemed to overwhelm just as effortlessly. After a spell in business and a few years at the Treasury, he was enticed to Kings College, Cambridge, which 61 years earlier another economist-aesthete, John Maynard Keynes, had joined as a lecturer, writing (with his mothers help) a letter of resignation from the civil service to his boss, a Sir Arthur Godley. This man was to become the first Lord Kilbracken and eventually grandfather of Wynne.戈德利先生对于如魔幻般错综复杂的经济学,应对起来似乎毫不费力。在商界和财政部干了一些年头后,他神往起61年前另一个审美学家、经济学家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯(注1)曾经就读的剑桥国王学院来,他在向其老板老板阿瑟·戈德利男爵写(在其母亲的帮助下)了一封文员辞职信后,成为了该学院的一名讲师。那位男爵就是基尔布拉肯勋爵一世并最终成为韦恩·戈德利的祖父。Mr Godley became best known for his outspoken criticisms of Conservative economic policies. In the 1970s he took the view, which he recognised as dissenting, that international trade should be, as he put it, “in some sense, managed” through import controls, adding unpersuasively that this was not really protectionism, since he did not want to reduce imports, merely the propensity to import; and protection should be “as minimally selective as possible”. More creditably, he correctly predicted that the boom generated by the Conservative government under Ted Heath in the 1970s would end in tears. He was also proved largely right in foreseeing the severity of the recession that came later under Margaret Thatcher.戈德利因直言不讳地批评保守党的经济政策而变得愈加有名。在上世纪70年代,他发表观点(他意识到此观点不受欢迎):国际贸易应该像他所指出的那样是通过进口管制实现的“某种意义上的管理”,他还缺乏说力地补充这确实不是贸易保护主义,因为他并不主张减少进口,只是减少进口倾向;应当“尽可能最少地选择”贸易保护措施。更值得称道的是,他正确地预言到了上世纪七十年代希思治下的保守党政府激发的繁荣,将以泪雨告终。对后来撒切尔夫人时期严重经济衰退的预计,也被明是大体上正确的。These doleful prophecies, coupled with his very public loathing of monetarism, earned him no friends in government and the grant for his forecasting group at Cambridge was abruptly stopped in 1982. But he was hardly an outcast. Though not properly trained as an economist, he had proved himself as a macroeconomic modeller, and had been made a university professor of applied economics. He had also become a director of the Royal Opera House. By 1992 he was back in favour at the Treasury, joining the panel of independent forecasters known as the “six wise men”.上述令人沮丧的预测,连同他对货币主义的公开反感,使得戈德利在政府没有朋友,其剑桥预判小组的政府拨款也于1982年突然停止了。不过,戈德利不大可能成为被抛弃的人。尽管他没有像经济学家那样接受正规高等教育,但他却明自己是一位宏观经济学缔造者,而且还是一位大学应用经济学教授。他也是皇家歌剧院的懂事。1992年,戈德利在一片赞赏中回到财政部,参加被称作“六智囊”的独立预测员小组。On the face of it, this was not a turbulent life. Mr Godley said he had a lonely childhood, involving a violent maiden aunt and the “chamber of horrors of a British prep school”. Later, in his 30s, he lived life “through an artificial self” in “a state of dissociation”, which drove him into the clutches of a fiendish psychoanalyst. This in turn blighted his middle years.单从表面上看,上述这一切算不上是混沌难驭的人生经历。戈德利说过,他有一个陷于粗暴未婚姑妈和“英国预科学校恐怖屋”之难的孤独童年。后来,在他30多岁期间,他过着“分裂状态”下“自我十足虚假”的生活,这种生活驱使他成为刁钻心理分析学家的掌中物。这种生活也相应地折磨着他的中年。His background, though it might misleadingly be called privileged, was mixed up. The first Lord Kilbracken had been a protégé of a Liberal prime minister, Gladstone, but was a Conservative; and the second, Wynnes father Hugh, also a Tory, had been madly in love with Violet Asquith, the daughter of another Liberal prime minister. Hugh separated from Wynnes mother about the time he was born, and was impotent, anti-Semitic and alcoholic. Wynnes mother paraded naked in front of him and would tell him, as a child, of the intense pleasure she got from sexual intercourse. But he reached the age of 17 not knowing that women had vaginas.虽然戈德利·韦恩的出生背景会让人误以为是特权阶层,但其实是模糊不清的。他的祖父基尔布拉肯一世虽曾是自由党首相格莱斯顿的门生,却是个保守派;而他的父亲基尔布拉肯二世休·戈德利也是一名保守党成员,疯狂爱上了另一位自由党首相的女儿维尔莉特·阿斯奎思。休·戈德利大约在韦恩出生后就与韦恩的母亲分居,是一个性欲低下者、反犹太者、嗜酒者。当韦恩还是一个孩子的时候,他妈妈在他面前展示她的裸体,并会告诉他她从性爱中获得的强烈快感。可是,成长至17岁的戈德利·韦恩先生尚不知女性是有阴道的。He was supremely happy at Oxford, where his tutor was Isaiah Berlin, to whom he said he owed all his higher education. But, he wrote, “Nora [his stepmother] shot herself in the head with a shotgun; my father, his entire fortune squandered, died alone in a hospital where the nurses were unkind to him; my half-sister was committed to a high-security mental institution at Epsom; my mother had a bad stroke and lived out her last six years hemiplegic and helpless, her mind altered. She told her nurses that they were ‘lower-class scum and complained that I was ‘marrying the daughter of a New York yid.”在牛津大学,韦恩快乐无比,他的牛津大学导师是赛亚·伯林,他曾说过他所受的全部的高等教育都是从柏林那儿得来的。不过,他著述称:“继母诺拉用猎结束了自己的生命;我父亲花光家财,在一家受尽护士冷眼的医院里孤独离世;我同父异母的被送进埃普索姆一家管理严格的精神病院;我母亲严重中风,在偏瘫无助中度过生命的最后六年,并改变了观点。她告诉护士:‘他们是低等的贱人,还抱怨我‘娶了犹太裔纽约人的女儿”。Against a background like this, a little waywardness in the world of macroeconomics seems entirely forgivable.在这样的家庭背景下,在宏观经济学界中,戈德利·韦恩的些许任性似乎是完全可以得到宽恕的。 /201209/200413Don: You know, Yael, no matter how much we talk about the need to stop global warming, sometimes it seems impossible. I mean, what are we actually doing about it?唐:知道吗,雅艾尔,无论我们口头上多么需要遏制全球气候变暖,但有时似乎是不可能的。我的意思是,我们实际都做了些什么?Yael: Well Don, I suppose theres no one solution, but things like hybrid cars can make a difference. And scientists are busy developing biofuels that could reduce our use of gasoline derived from oil. And then there are crops...雅艾尔:好吧,唐,我觉得没有万能的解决办法,但混合动力汽车能让事情有所不同。而且科学家们正忙于开发生物燃料,以减少使用从石油提炼出来的汽油。还有农作物...Don: You mean crops and plants that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?唐:你是说农作物和植物能吸收大气中的二氧化碳?Yael: That, but also crops like corn and wheat with leaves that reflect sunlight back into space. Scientists have used computer models to show that in major croplands in the ed States and in Europe, planting crops with waxier leaves reflects more sunlight. In fact, switching to these crops could lower temperatures by about a degree during the summer.雅艾尔:是,但像玉米和小麦这种有叶农作物能够将阳光反射回大气。科学家就曾利用电脑模拟了美国和欧洲的大型农田,演示了叶子更光亮的作物会反射更多的光线。事实上,改种这种作物会使夏季气温下降一度。Don: So are farmers switching to these plants?唐:那么农民们会改种这类植物吗?Yael: Not yet, because right now they exist only as experiments. But with selective breeding and maybe genetic engineering it would be pretty simple to end up with seeds that produce plants with waxier and more reflective leaves.雅艾尔:还不会,因为目前处于试验阶段。但通过选择性繁殖和基因工程能培育叶子更光亮、反射性更强的种子,这就使事情变得很简单。Don: Cool. But theres only so much cropland on the planet? How would more reflective crops help stop global warming?唐:极妙。但地球上农田是有限的?反射性更强的作物如何帮助减缓全球气候变暖呢?Yael: It wouldnt, at least not globally. But in places where theres lots of wheat, corn and other crops, waxier leaves could make a regional difference.雅艾尔:不会减缓,至少从全球范围来说。但是那些大量种植小麦,玉米还有其他农作物的地带会因光亮的叶子变得有所不同。Don: I guess thats something.唐:我想是这样的。原文译文属!201210/202871

You Gotta Have Hearts你必须得有的心脏When it comes to weird sea-creatures, octopuses are hard to beat. Theres the well-known ink-squirting defense system, the bird-like beak, and the eight tentacles with their double rows of suckers.说到怪异的海洋生物,那就的非章鱼莫属了。因为他们有闻名的喷墨防御系统,有像鸟儿一样的嘴巴,以及八条带着两行吸盘的触角。Whats less well known is that octopuses have more than one heart. They have three, to be exact, each one crucial to maintaining the robust blood pressure that allows octopuses to be active hunters and powerful swimmers.没那个为人所知晓的是,章鱼不只有一个心脏。确切的说,它们有三个!每一个对于章鱼拥有强健的血压都至关重要,因为它们能让章鱼成为敏捷的猎手,成为游泳健将。Human hearts have two main jobs. One is to pump blood to the lungs, where it dumps carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. The second is to distribute freshly oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.人类的心脏有两大功能。一是将血泵到肺中(肺是排除二氧化碳,吸收氧气的地方);二则是将新鲜的含有氧气的血液传输到身体的其它部位。Making sure enough blood gets to the lungs is so important, in fact, that two of the human hearts four chambers are reserved solely for that task.事实上,确保有足够的血进入肺部是很重要的,而这个任务是由人类心脏的4个腔中有两个来单独完成的。Octopus hearts solve the circulation problem a bit differently. They have one main heart, called the systemic heart, and two smaller hearts located near their gills. The two smaller hearts perform the same task as the right side of the human heart.章鱼的心脏解决这个(血液)循环问题就有点不一样了。它们有一个主心脏叫系统心脏,还有两个心脏要小点且位于腮附近。这两个小点的心脏(的功能)就跟人心脏的右边部分功能是一样的。They pump blood to the gills where it dumps waste and loads up on oxygen, then pump the oxygen-rich blood back to the main heart. The main heart then pumps the refreshed blood through the octopuss body.它们将血泵到排除废物收集二氧化碳的腮里,在将含有丰富氧气的血液泵回到主心脏。主心脏接着就会将焕然一新的血液泵到章鱼的身体。Besides having three hearts, the octopus circulatory system differs from the human system in one other way. Human blood contains the protein hemoglobin, which helps it absorb oxygen and causes its red color. The blood coursing through the three hearts of the octopus is blue, thanks to a different protein called hemocyanin.除了有三个心脏外,章鱼的循环系统在另一方面也和人类的不一样。人类的血液含有含蛋白质的血红蛋白,它会帮助吸收氧气,并使血液呈红色。血液流经章鱼的三个心脏就成了蓝色,这多亏了一种叫血蓝蛋白的蛋白质。Octopuses are rather shy, so despite their blue blood they are not exactly kings of the sea. But theres no denying that theyve got a lot of heart.章鱼是很害羞的,所以尽管它们有蓝色血液,却并不能使之成为真正的海洋之王。但毫无疑问它们是“太有心”了! /201211/209466

If a little honey drizzled on a piece of homemade toast or into a cup of tea is how you like to start the day, youre not alone. One drawback to honey, though, is that after sitting too long on the shelf, it crystallizes and that soft, amber liquid turns to a hard, gooey mass.如果这是你一天生活的开始:将一点蜂蜜细腻地涂在自制的烤面包上,或融入一杯咖啡中,那你并非特殊的一位。然而,蜂蜜有一个缺点,如果长期不食用就会变成晶体,那些柔软的琥珀色液体就会变成坚硬而胶粘的一团。 Actually, though, only part of the honey is crystallizing. Honey is made mostly of two kinds of sugar: glucose and fructose. What crystallizes is the glucose, so the more glucose there is in comparison to fructose, the more likely it is to crystallize. But before honey can crystallize, it needs whats called a “seed” for the crystals to grow on. The seed might be a grain of pollen, a speck of dust, or even a scratch on the inside of the jar.然而事实上,蜂蜜中只有一部分会结晶化。蜂蜜主要由两种糖组成:葡萄糖和果糖。葡萄糖是晶体,因此葡萄糖对果糖的比例越大,那么蜂蜜结晶化的可能性越大。但在蜂蜜变成晶体之前,需要有所谓的“种子”催化晶体生长。“种子”可能是一粒花粉粒,一粒灰尘,甚至是罐子内壁的刮痕。But the best seed of all is a bit of honey that has aly crystallized. Most of the honey in a supermarket has been heated and filtered to remove virtually all the possible seeds. That slows the crystallization, but the heating process also drives off some of the honeys distinctive flavor.但最好的种子是少许已经晶体化的蜂蜜。超市里卖的大多数蜂蜜都已经加热过,几乎过滤掉了所有可能的种子。这样会减慢结晶化过程,且加热过后也驱散了蜂蜜某些独有的风味。When honey does crystallize, you can soften it again in a microwave or a pan of warm water, but as it cools the crystallization will begin again-faster even than before. Honey crystallizes faster the second time because heat alone cant remove all the seeds. Dust, crumbs, and other tiny particles that have accumulated since you first opened the jar will remain as seeds to start the process all over again.蜂蜜晶体化了,你可以用微波炉或者一锅温水将它软化,但当温度冷却时,蜂蜜会以更快的速度再次晶体化。蜂蜜之所以第二次结晶速度更快,是因为即使加热也无法清除所有的种子。自第一次打开罐子时,灰尘,碎屑或者其他微小颗粒会在罐内积累,它们作为种子会重新开启这一过程。原文译文属!201302/224214Business E-ers Turning the page商业 电纸书 微软和Bamp;N相逢一笑泯恩仇Microsoft and Barnes amp; Noble write their own love story微软和Barnes amp; Noble共写爱情故事。LAST July Barnes amp; Noble gave a presentation to the antitrust division of Americas Department of Justice. In slide after slide, the bookseller laid into Microsoft. The software giant, it thundered, was guilty of ;anti-competitive behaviour; in demanding royalties from makers of mobile devices (such as the Nook, Barnes amp; Nobles e-er) that used Android, Googles open-source mobile operating system. The bookseller sniffed that Microsoft owned only ;trivial; patents and reminded the department of the software companys past trespasses against competition.去年七月Barnes amp; Noble向美国司法部反托拉斯部门做了一个演示。Barnes amp; Noble的每张幻灯片都在攻击微软。它怒斥微软这家软件巨头违法,因为微软向生产使用安卓(谷歌的手机开源操作系统)移动设备的厂商收取专利使用费是;反竞争行为;(例如Barnes amp; Noble的电子书阅读器Nook)。Barnes amp; Noble讥讽微软只拥有一些不重要的专利并向提醒司法部微软以往的反竞争行为。Nine months later, the bookworms and the geeks are the best of friends. On April 30th Barnes amp; Noble said it was creating a subsidiary, called NewCo for now, into which it would put Nook and its ;college; business, which has 641 bookshops on American campuses. Microsoft is putting up 0m for 17.6% of NewCo. People will be able to buy and e-books through a Nook application for Windows 8, a new incarnation of Microsofts operating system that is due to appear in a few months. Microsoft will pay NewCo an advance of 0m over three years for such purchases, plus 5m over five years to buy content and develop technology. The squabbles over patents have been settled: Microsoft is giving Barnes amp; Noble a licence for the Nook and will get royalties in return. For now at least, the Nook will remain an Android, not Windows, device.九个月后,书虫和极客成为了最好的朋友。4月30日,Barnes amp; Noble宣布成立名为NewCo的分公司,该公司主营Nook和在美国校园拥有641家书店的;高校;业务部。微软注资3亿美元,拥有17.6的股份。人们将能通过WIN8版Nook应用购买和阅读电子书。WIN8是微软的新版操作系统,将在数月后问世。微软将会提前付1.8亿美元的三年使用费,并付额外的1.25亿美元用于之后五年的内容购买和技术开发。专利之争已经平息:微软给予Barnes amp; Noble的Nook许可并获得专利使用费。最起码就目前而言,Nook将仍然是安卓阵营成员而非windows成员。The agreement values NewCo at .7 billion, more than twice Barnes amp; Nobles market capitalisation before it was announced. The booksellers share price rose by 50% on the day of the deal—which tells you what investors think of the dead-tree end of the trade. The alliance should bring Barnes amp; Noble not only cash but also new ers of digital books and magazines, especially outside the ed States. In the fourth quarter of 2011, according to Tom Mainelli of IDC, a research firm, Barnes amp; Noble accounted for one-fifth of the 7m e-ers shipped in America—against a mighty three-quarters for Amazon, maker of the Kindle (see chart). But Barnes amp; Noble shipped no Nooks elsewhere, which helps explain why it had only 14% of the global market. Via the Nook app, non-Americans will also be able to leaf through Barnes amp; Nobles digital catalogue.协议中将NewCo估价为17亿美元,超过协议公布前Barnes amp; Noble市值的两倍。协议达成当天Barnes amp; Noble股价上涨50%,这表明投资者对这个实体书过时行业的看法。两公司联合不仅仅给Barnes amp; Noble带来资金还要带来新的电子书刊读者,尤其是美国外的读者。调查机构IDC的Tom Mainelli表示,2011年第四季度美国市场新推出的七百万的电子书阅读器中,Barnes amp; Noble占有五分之一,而Kindle的生产商亚马逊囊括了四分之三(见图)。但是Barnes amp; Noble只在美国销售Nook,这也解释了为什么它只拥有14%全球市场。通过Nook应用,其他国家的居民也可以浏览Barnes amp; Noble的电子产品目录。Microsoft is in effect buying a second bash at a market where it made an early but unsuccessful start. It launched its own e-er software all of 12 years ago. The deal with Barnes amp; Noble, bringing lots of content with it, may give people an extra reason to buy Windows 8 tablets (a likelier choice for e-ing than smartphones, laptops or desktops) when they appear.实际上这是微软在早期打入电纸书市场失败后的第二次尝试。12年前,微软就曾发布过自己的电纸书软件。这次与 Barnes amp; Noble的协议又加入了诸多内容,这使得上市后购买WIN 8平板电脑的人们多了一个理由(就电子阅读来说平板电脑是比智能手机,笔记本或台式机更好的选择)。The bundling of Barnes amp; Nobles college business into NewCo indicates a hope that a fair few of these customers will be students. Allen Weiner of Gartner , another research firm, suggests that through campus bookshops Barnes amp; Noble could sell Windows devices pre-loaded with course material. Of course, others are after students dollars too. Apple recently started selling interactive digital textbooks for the iPad, far and away the biggest-selling tablet (among its publishing partners is Pearson, part-owner of The Economist). But Mr Weiner points out that Microsoft and Barnes amp; Noble have some advantages. Lots of students write notes and essays with Microsofts Office software, which is not available on the iPad. And although Amazon sells and rents a lot of paper textbooks, it has not done much with digital ones.Barnes amp; Noble的大量高校业务融入NewCo,这意味着多数客户有望是学生。调查机构高德纳公司的Allen Weiner暗示通过校园书店,Barnes amp; Noble可以销售预先装有课程材料的Windous设备。当然其他公司也对大学生市场虎视眈眈。苹果公司最近开始为其卖得最好的平板电脑ipad销售互动电子书(合作出版社之一是Pearson,也是经济学人的股东之一)。但是Weiner指出微软和Barnes amp; Noble有优势,许多学生使用微软的office软件做笔记,写文章,而ipad上却没有这一软件。而且尽管亚马逊销售出租大量纸质教材,却并没有过多涉及电子版教材。The tie-up with Barnes amp; Noble makes three of a kind for Microsoft: cheap deals with struggling but established partners in markets where it is weak and sees a chance to do much better. In it struck an agreement with Yahoo! in online search. Last year Nokia became the prime conduit for Windows in smartphones. With Barnes amp; Noble it is having another stab at e-ing. Unlike the books on the Nook, this tale is still being written.与Barnes amp; Noble公司的合作关系是微软完成了第三项同类合作:在表现不佳有大量上升空间市场里以廉价的合同和经营不佳但在业内已树起口碑的公司签约合作。年,微软与雅虎就网上搜索达成协议。去年,诺基亚成为windows智能手机的最佳渠道。而与Barnes amp; Noble合作,则可以打入电子阅读市场。不像Nook上的电子书那样,这个故事依旧在继续。 /201301/220218Before MP3s and other forms of digitized music there were CDs. Before CDs came vinyl records. And before vinyl?在MP3和其它形式的数字音乐盛行之前,CD已经出现。在CD出现之前有黑胶唱片,那么在黑胶唱片之前有什么呢?Most of us are not nearly old enough to remember, but in the early years of the twentieth century popular songs such as ;By the Light of the Silvery Moon; were recorded on shellac discs and wax cylinders. Many of these early recordings still exist, but with each passing year they grow more fragile and likely to fall apart while being played. Consequently, music archivists are faced with a delicate problem: how to preserve old-time recordings without silencing them forever?少数的老一辈人可能还记得,在20世纪早期有首流行歌曲“在银色的夜光下”被录制在虫胶唱片和蜡筒里。许多早期的唱片仍然存在,但是年复一年,在播放的时候,这些唱片越来越脆弱,极易破碎。所以唱片保管者们面临着一个微妙的难题:怎样保护好这些古老的唱片,又能让他们播出美妙的音乐?Enter Carl Haber and Vitaly Fadayev, particle physicists at the University of California, Berkeley who happened to hear a radio piece on the preservationists dilemma. These music-loving physicists suspected that the techniques they use to make sensors that track subatomic particles might help the troubled archivists. With the aid of a powerful microscope they mapped out the grooves of an old 78 RPM shellac disk and the grooves on a wax cylinder recorded in 1909.加州大学伯克利分校的粒子物理学家卡尔·哈伯和维塔利偶然在电台听到这些唱片保护者的困境。这些酷爱音乐的物理学家认为他们用于制作跟踪离子的传感器工艺可能对正处困境中的档案保护者有帮助。在两架高倍望远镜的协助下,他们绘制出了一张78转虫胶唱片,以及一张1909年录制的蜡筒上的纹道。After digitally reproducing the mapped grooves on a computer, Haber and Fadayev then created software to mimic the effect of a needle moving in the mapped grooves in order to re-create the sounds. Incredibly, the digitized version sounded even better than the original recordings. And as the mapping technique improves, the physicists hope to enable the digital preservation of large amounts of endangered music. So even if you dont remember the dark ages before CDs, you may soon be able to enjoy down-loadable old-time music, courtesy of the digital revolution.在电脑上将这些纹道处理成数字音乐后,哈伯和维塔利接着发明了一种软件来模仿唱针在纹道内旋转而重现音乐。令人难以置信的是数字版本的音效比老版更好。并且随着映射技术的不断改进,物理学家们希望能用数字储存大量频临消失的音乐。因此即使你不记得CD出现之前的黑暗时代,但很快你就能享受到可下载的旧时音乐,这是数字改革的恩惠。原文译文属!201208/195084

Science and Technology Human spaceflight科技 人类宇宙飞行Fifty years have elapsed since a Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, lit the blue touchpaper on the era of manned spaceflight.自从苏联宇航员尤里加加林点燃了载人航天时代开始的蓝色火绒线,五十年已经过去了。Progress was rapid-only eight years separated Gagarins flight from the infinitely more complicated mission that put Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon.进步是飞快的,加加林飞行仅八年后,人类完成了更复杂的行动,将宇航员尼尔·阿姆斯特朗和巴兹奥尔德林送达月球表面。Although the moon landings handed a temporary victory to America,尽管登陆月球对美国来说只是一时的胜利,the Soviet Union dominated manned spaceflight for the next decade,苏联在接下来的十年之内控制了载人航天,including some pioneering missions to the Salyut space stations to test the effects of long periods aloft and several extended missions to Salyuts successor Mir, in the late 1980s.包括在礼炮号空间站上进行一些开拓性对于长时间悬浮的测试,还包括在八十年代后期在礼炮号接任者米尔号空间站上的任务。Only with the rise of the Space Shuttle programme, beginning in 1981, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union a decade later, did America retake the crown.只有在1981年开始的空间航天飞机项目,以及十年之后的苏联解体,才让美国取得了空间技术领域的桂冠。Manned spaceflight is no longer a two-horse race.载人航天领域不再是两匹马的比赛。China entered it in 2003.中国在2003年也加入了竞争。A year later three privately financed suborbital missions were made in Mojave Aerospaces craft, SpaceShipOne.2004年,三艘私人融资任务在的在莫哈韦航天飞船“太空船一号”上进行。Rocketeering, though, has always been dangerous.尽管火箭技术一直以来都是危险的。Four missions have killed 18 astronauts between them.四次任务已经导致18名宇航员身亡。Two were Soviet (Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11) and two American (the shuttles Challenger and Columbia).两次是苏联的火箭(联盟一号和联盟二号),两次是美国的火箭(挑战者号和哥伦比亚号)。Other astronauts have died in accidents on Earth.其余的宇航员是在地面事故中丧生的。After the losses of Challenger and Columbia,挑战者号和哥伦比亚号的事故之后,Americas shuttle fleet was grounded, which explains the big drop in missions following both accidents.美国的飞船舰队也着陆了,这就解释了两次事故之后空间任务的大量减少。 /201212/215029

Business商业IT in Myanmar缅甸IT业Yangons digital spring仰光的数字之春An isolated country gradually goes online一个封闭的国家逐渐地走上了网络前线WHERE did BarCamp, a get-together of tech geeks (pictured), recently hold its biggest event since its founding in Silicon Valley seven years ago?七年前Barcamp(即国际研讨会网络)在硅谷成立,这个科技业怪才的聚会(见图),最近在哪里举行其最重大的活动呢?Not San Jose, nor Bangalore, nor even Singapore.不在圣何塞(哥斯达黎加首都),不在班加罗尔(印度南部城市),甚至也不在新加坡。On February 11th more than 5,000 developers and bloggers gathered in Yangon, the main city of Myanmar, one of the worlds most tech-starved places.2月11日,超过5000家开发商和客达人汇聚缅甸的大城市——仰光,一个世界上最乏科技的地方。The star speaker was the countrys opposition leader, Aung San Suu Kyi.本次集会的著名发言者是缅甸反对党领袖Aung San Suu Kyi(昂山素姬)。Myanmars government continues to surprise the world with its new-found tolerance for change.缅甸政府一再以其对新出炉的改革采取容忍态度而震惊世界。Its apparent willingness to nurture a fledgling IT sector is no exception.毫不例外,当局明显愿意培养一个刚刚起步的IT信息部门。Myanmar has lowered its firewalls, opening access to social-media sites such as Facebook and Twitter.缅甸已经放低了其防火墙,对外开放了如脸谱网facebook和推特twitter等社会媒体网站。People can international newspapers online or chat with family abroad via Skype.人们能够阅读国际在线新闻,或者通过skype和国外亲戚聊天。Sponsors of BarCamp included the telecommunications ministry.Barcamp的赞助方包括了政府通信部门。Though the government now acknowledges the importance of an IT industry for economic development, much work remains.尽管政府当局现在承认IT业对经济发展的重要性,但仍有很多的工作要做。Few people in Myanmar own computers and only a handful can afford the sort of connectivity that is commonplace elsewhere.少数人缅甸拥有自己的电脑,且其中仅仅一小撮人能付得起那种沟通无处不在的联通方式。Setting up an internet connection costs 0, and monthly packages range between and 0.设置一个互联网连接得花费850美金,每月租金40美金至150美金不等。A SIM card for a mobile phone will set you back 0.一张移动手机SIM卡将花掉你700美金。Yet demand for IT is soaring.然而,缅甸IT业的需求是猛烈剧增的。Firms from Asia and the West are paying unofficial visits, and local companies are scrambling to become their partners.来自西方和亚洲通信企业的非正式造访,缅甸仰光当地的公司正争先恐后地成为他们的合作商。The government faces a barrage of proposals on how to lower the cost of mobile phones and how to build data centres to compete with those in India and the Philippines.政府部门接到了一大堆关于如何降低手机成本和如何组建数据中心用以抗衡印度和菲律宾的建议书。A call centre was recently established, and there are even online-shopping sites in the works.最近建立了一个寻呼中心,甚至有一些在线购物网站正在筹划当中。Transactions online are widely expected to start this year: the infrastructure is y and a payment union has been formed.在线交易在大众期待下有望在今年运行:基础设施已经准备好,一个付联盟也已经形成。Yet despite these encouraging signs of liberalisation, no one expects Myanmars cyber-awakening to progress at broadband speed.虽然有这些鼓舞人心的自由开放化迹象,还没有人指望缅甸的网络发展会达到宽带速度。 /201211/207383

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