明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月25日 16:48:02
Parents tending to an infant, well, not a human one. This is yotaro, baby robot. He giggles, sneezes, and even cries with a running nose, until you touch his warm silicon skin and calm him down.家长们喜欢的是孩子,而不是成年的机器人。这是Yotaro,机器人宝宝。它能咯咯笑,打喷嚏,还能像婴儿般涕泪横流,只有你触碰它温润的硅制皮肤,它才会安静下来。A robot can be human, says yotaro project leader Hiroki Kunimura. But its great if this robot triggers human emotion so humans want to have their own baby.Yotaro计划的领导人Hiroki Kunimura说,机器人可以像人类一样。如果Yotaro能激发人们对孩子的喜爱,他们的发明就是物尽其用了。Yotaros emotions are a computer program. The images projected, the warm body temperature just warm water, all of these to make him as human-like and baby-like as possible, and get womans biological clock ticking. The blast to you.Yotaro的表情是由电脑系统控制的。婴儿脸部投影的画面,如温水般的体温和其他一切使它更像人类,更像婴儿,而这些因素都呼唤着女人内在的母性,而这是无法抵挡的。Japan has a major population problem, one of the worlds lowest birth rates coupled with the fastest ageing population. Japans government desperate to boost more children is now paying families 150 dollars per month per child until he or she reaches high school. Have more children, make more money, say lawmakers. These university students believe robotic encouragement may work better than the governments stipend.日本有着严峻的人口问题,它是世界上新生儿出生率最低的国家,同时又是人口老龄化最快的国家。日本政府急切地鼓励夫妇们生育孩子,政府为每名新生儿每月付150美元,直到他或她上高中。立法者宣传说,生的越多,福利越多。大学学生们认为,这款机器人对夫妇们抚育孩子的鼓励可能比政府的奖励制度更加有效。Yotaro changes how I feel about babies, says Madoka Hirai. I am now paying more attention to babies on the street. Yotaro is not a complex robot, and after a few minutes, a tad redundant. But this robot aly succeeds at least getting people thinking about babies. The first step they hope, and helping to solve a serious human dilemma.Madoka Hirai说,Yotaro改变了我对孩子的看法。我现在会注意在街上玩耍的小孩子。Yotaro不是一个精密的机器,也不是累赘的小孩子,但无论如何它都成功的将人们的注意力吸引到了小孩子的身上。设计者首先的初衷就是改变日本人口的两难局面。Kyung Lah, CNN, Tsukuba, Japan.Kyung Lah筑波(日本城市名)报道,CNN新闻。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/190510When these great ice sheets retreated, they left pulverized rocks in their wake, the foundation for fertile soil and some of the richest natural grasslands in America.当这些大冰原消散,它们离开岩石,肥沃的土壤和一些最富饶的美国自然草原展现的一览无余。But in May this year, in the heart of Yellowstone, that grass is still beneath thick snow—something this ground squirrel was clearly not expecting.但今年5月,在黄石国家公园的中心,草仍在厚重的雪下—这显然不是地松鼠所希望的。But as the suns strength returns, spring bulbs start to push through the late snow—at last a sign that winter is losing its grip.而随着太阳强势回归,春天开始融化最后的雪—而最后一个迹象表明,冬天正失去其掌控。Bluebirds, too delicate to survive deep winter here, now return to take advantage of the fist hatch of stone flies from the thawing river.蓝知更鸟,太过精致以致于不能在这深冬里生存,现在回来利用其身体独特的优势从解冻的河流中觅食。注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201726

Business商业报道Bookselling售书业前景Spine chilling令人胆战心惊Mass-market retailing changed publishing before the e-bookE书时代近在眼前,纸书商改出版策略SNAZZY technology is a twist in a narrative aly several chapters long.先进科技已经在小说故事中纠结了好几个章回。Mass-market retailing has changed the publishing industry:图书市场零售业改变了自己的出版业策略:these days books are as likely to be found beside steaks and saucepans as they are to be bought in specialist stores.现如今,人们在牛排、炖锅旁找到售书点的概率就如在专门店买到书的概率一样小。The story turns on whether broader changes in bookselling will stifle literature.故事发展成售书业的变化日益扩大,它是否会扼杀文学这一问题。Dan Brown will survive. Would Dante?丹布朗能够幸免于难,但丁也会么?For most of the past century, governments across Europe protected book prices; many still do.在前一世纪大部分的时间里,欧洲的政府都在保护图书的价格,很多国家依然这么做。Even in America, apart from dime-store romances, few titles were sold outside bookshops.甚至在美国,除了小商品店里的言情小说,其他种类的图书在书店以外的地方几乎绝迹了。But in the 1970s stores like Borders and Barnes amp; Noble applied a supermarket maxim to print:但在20世纪70年代,诸如鲍德斯、巴诺这样的书店却都奉行着超市售书箴言:pile them high and watch them fly.只要把书摞高,人们就会抢光它。Waterstones did the same thing in Britain and top titles started selling in the hundreds of thousands, even millions.英国的华特史东书店也这样做,这使得畅销书开始了以成百上千甚至是百万册的数量销售的历史。Just as book superstores forced out many independents,就像超级书店独立出来很多自立门户的店铺一样。so supermarkets and other mass retailers have since crowded the book chains.超市还有其他的零售商业也开了很多图书连锁店。In Britain, when price regulation was disbanded in 1997, supermarkets rushed in and now sell a quarter of all books, according to the way that Nielsen, a market-research outfit, calculates it.根据市场调研机构Nielsen的统计,在英国,97年价格管制被撤消的时候,超市蜂拥而入并开始销售市场1/4的图书。Belgium and Finland mimicked this trend.比利时以及芬兰也纷纷效仿这一趋势。This has been good for ers:这对于读者来说是个好消息。in Britain the average price of a book has fallen by 15% since 2003, reckons BML Bowker, a book-marketing consultancy.图书市场顾问鲍克出版社的数据显示,03年英国图书的平均售价下降了15%。And demand has grown: consumers spend the same amount on books, so they must be buying more.而图书需求量也上升了:消费者在图书上花费同样多的钱,图书的价格降了,这样他们购买的书更多了。Those independent bookshops that survived the chain war in America and Britain have held sales and prices steady.那些在美国、英国连锁店之战中幸存的个体书店,久维持着图书的销量还有价格的稳定。Meanwhile, mass retailers find books such a draw that they lure in customers by selling some titles at a loss.同时,销售商发现一个赚钱的方法,他们以亏本地销售一些图书来吸引顾客购书。Higher turnover should also be positive for publishers.按理说出版商应该也得到更高的利润。But mass retailers demand discounts of up to 60% for bulk orders, shrinking margins.但大批订货的商家向出版商索要高达60%的数量折扣,这反而使得利润减少了。All sides prosper when books sell quickly.只要书卖得快,各家都会得利。But, unlike groceries, if books dont sell, retailers return them to the publisher—and do not pay.但是,与日常用品不同,如果书籍卖不出去的话,零售商就把书返回给出版商—并且不付返回的书费。So, when a book with a large print run flops, publishers end up with an expensive pile of recycling.这样,当一本大量印刷的书籍不好买,出版商就得最终以高价来回收它。That is why some publishers have stopped doing new deals with the likes of Costco, an American warehouse retailer, which likes to order very large print runs.这就是为什么一些出版商停止与类似于美国的科思科这样的连锁店做生意的原因。因为这些商店喜欢订购大宗的货物。Few people will mourn publishers;losses from increased price competition and new technology like e-ers.像e书读者一样,很少有人来吊唁出版商因日趋激烈的价格竞争以及日益发达的科技而导致的损失。The question is whether these trends undermine the quality of books which are being published, by breaking a business model that has let firms focus on variety and range.问题是,这些趋势会不会扰乱商业模式—使出版商不再专注于扩大图书规模增加图书种类,从而降低出版的书籍的质量。Publishers have good reason to shiver at the decline of traditional bookshops.在传统书店数量减少的情况下,出版商感到害怕是正常的。To fund the discovery and promotion of new authors, they have relied on books that sell steadily over a number of years.为了资助发掘和宣传新作家,出版商们依靠那些很多年来都销售平稳的书籍来维持运营。Yet mass retailers stock a few hundred new blockbusters.但是,零售书商们也储存着几百个新的畅销巨作。At first sight there is no reason for concern.乍一看,图书业没什么让人担心的问题New works are abundant—40% more titles came out in Britain in 2010 than in 2001.新作品很多—英国10年出版的新作品数量比01年高出了40%,But this obscures a starker trend: “mid-list” titles are selling in smaller numbers in America and Britain.但是它掩盖了一个严峻的趋势:“销售量居中”的图书,在美国和英国的销售量少了。This matters for cultural life, because most literary fiction and serious non-fiction falls into that bracket and much of it could become uneconomical to publish.这会影响到人们的文化生活,因为大部分的文学小说还有严肃类非小说作品都属于这一范畴,以至于很多这种书出版起来可能毫无利益可言。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/232421

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Chile;Man of the moment;文艺;书评;智利;谁主沉浮;The Southern Tiger: Chiles Fight for a Democratic and Prosperous Future. By Ricardo Lagos with Blake Hounshell and Elizabeth Dickinson.《南虎:智利为民主繁荣的未来而战》,Ricardo Lagos、Blake Hounshell 和 Elizabeth Dickinson 著。In 1988 General Augusto Pinochet organised a plebiscite that he was confident would grant him another eight years of absolute power. Ricardo Lagos, a hitherto little-known Socialist leader, used a live television programme—the first to feature opposition politicians since Pinochets military coup of 1973—to defy the climate of fear that was the dictators most powerful political weapon. Pointing his finger at the camera, he addressed him directly, saying that it was inadmissible that he sought to remain in power. Ignoring the presenters attempt to cut him off, Mr Lagos said “I am speaking for 15 years of silence.”1988年,奥古斯托·皮诺切特将军举行了一次全民公投,他自信这次公投会让他再独裁八年。社会党领袖里卡多·拉各斯当时还鲜为人知,他利用电视直播节目挑衅恐惧气氛,人们担心这次公投是独裁者最强大的政治武器。这是自1973年皮诺切特发动军事政变以来,反对派政治家首次在荧屏亮相。拉各斯用手指指着摄像机,直接对皮诺切特发表演说,表示不许他继续掌权。拉各斯无视主持人打断他的企图,说道:“我在为15年的沉寂代言。”It was a turning point. The opposition went on to win the plebiscite, ushering in Chiles transition to democracy. Mr Lagos would become a minister in the first two democratic governments, and was elected Chiles president in 2000. By far the most interesting and moving part of his memoir concerns his patient and difficult work to build opposition to the dictatorship.这是一个转折点。反对派接着赢得了全民公投,迎来智利向民主的过渡。拉各斯成为前两届民主政府的部长,2000年他当选为智利总统。迄今为止,他的回忆录中最有趣最感动人心的部分是他极具耐心又历尽艰难地建立了反对独裁的在野党。After Pinochet overthrew the elected far-left government of Salvador Allende, almost 3,000 people were murdered or disappeared, 29,000 were imprisoned (nearly all of them were tortured) and some 200,000 sought refuge abroad. Mr Lagos, an academic economist, was an adviser to the Allende government but not a member of it. After the coup, he taught in the ed States, before returning to Chile in 1978. He played a prominent role in coaxing into existence a broad centre-left front, called the Concertación. He disagreed with the far-left over its refusal to rule out violence against the regime. That didnt spare him from being detained for 18 days after a failed assassination attempt against Pinochet by communists.皮诺切特推翻了极左的民选萨尔瓦多·阿连德政府之后,有近3000人被杀害或失踪,29000人被监禁,几乎所有被监禁的人都受到了折磨,还有大约20万人到国外避难。理论经济学家拉各斯是阿连德政府的顾问,不是政府成员。政变后他在美国任教,直到1978年才回到智利。争取民主联盟是智利明显中间偏左的阵线,拉各斯在耐心成立它的过程中发挥了突出作用。他不赞成极左派采取暴力抵抗政权。共产党人企图暗杀皮诺切特失败后,这点并未让他免于十八天的拘留。In the first of its two decades in power the Concertación had to govern in Pinochets shadow. That was changed by the dictators arrest in London in October 1998 at the request of a Spanish magistrate; by the Chilean Supreme Courts decision to lift his immunity and by the revelation that he had stolen m. As president, Mr Lagos oversaw a national dialogue about the past that saw the army own up to its abuses and apologise for them. He is surely right that the process of reconciliation, of finding out the truth about what happened and punishing the abusers where possible, required both time and political determination.争取民主联盟执政二十年,起初不得不在皮诺切特的阴影下进行统治。1998年10月应一位西班牙法官的要求,独裁者皮诺切特在伦敦被捕,智利最高法院决定解除他的豁免权,他侵占3000万美元一事也被披露,这些改变了这种局面。过去军队承认滥用并为此道歉,作为总统,拉各斯监督有关这段过去的全国对话。他无疑是正确的,找出所发生事情的真相,并在可能的情况下惩罚滥用者,这样的和解进程既需要时间又需要政治决心。In office Mr Lagos tried to combine a free-market economy with public policies designed to create a less unequal society. He had some success: he signed free-trade agreements with the ed States and the European Union and created new anti-poverty, health and housing programmes. This modern and moderate social democracy is an implicit rebuke to Allende, whom he is reluctant to criticise directly.执政期间,拉各斯试图把自由市场经济与公共政策相结合,而这些公共政策旨在创建一个少些不平等的社会。他取得了一些成功,与美国和欧盟签署了自由贸易协定,并制订了新的反贫困、健康与住房计划。这种温和的现代社会民主是对阿连德含蓄的指责,他不愿直接批评阿连德。Despite its title, the book is infuriatingly perfunctory in its treatment of Chiles impressive socioeconomic progress under the Concertación. Mr Lagoss presidency merits just two chapters, one of which focuses on foreign policy. It was to the authors abiding credit that Chile, a member of the UN Security Council at the time, refused to back George Bushs rush to war against Iraq.智利在争取民主联盟执政时所取得的社会经济进步令人印象深刻,但本书不顾它的标题,对这点的处理敷衍塞责,让人气愤。拉各斯总统任期的功绩只有两章,其中一章还侧重于对外政策。智利当时是联合国安理会成员国,它拒绝持乔治·布什匆忙发动对伊战争,这点让拉各斯享有了持久声望。Mr Lagos broadly welcomes the student protests that broke out in Chile last year, after the Concertación left office. “These are the children of Chiles democracy, born after the fall of the dictator and raised in a country that has come to expect and demand responsive and responsible government,” he writes. But he doesnt say what he thinks of the student demand to abolish for-profit education. The er is left wondering whether he might have done more when president to reduce income inequality through tax reform.去年争取民主联盟下野后,智利爆发了学生抗议活动,拉各斯明白地表示欢迎。他写道,“这些学生是智利民主的儿童,出生在独裁者下台之后,成长在期待并要求政府敏感负责的国家。”。但他对学生要求废除以营利为目的的教育没有表示看法。当总统要通过税制改革来减少收入不平衡,拉各斯是否可以做得更多?他把这个问题留给了读者猜疑。“The Southern Tiger” is occasionally marred by the breezy Americanisms of Mr Lagoss co-writers, journalists at Foreign Policy magazine. But between them they have produced a able book about the consolidation of democracy in Latin America. The pity is that it could have been a much more profound one.拉各斯的合著者是《对外政策》杂志的记者,他们轻松活泼的美国风偶尔给《南虎》投下了败笔。不过他们与拉各斯通力合作,写出了一部有关拉丁美洲巩固民主的书,值得一读。可惜的是,本来该书可以写得更深刻些。 /201211/210789

  Science and Technology Fundamental physics Antimatter of fact科技 基础物理 反物质研究突飞猛进Researchers at CERN have held on to anti-atoms for a full quarter of an hour欧洲核子研究中心的科研人员让反原子颗粒存在时间长达15分钟READERS who were paying attention in their maths classes may recall that quadratic equations often have two solutions, one positive and one negative.数学课上认真听讲的读者朋友或许都能想起二次方程式通常有两个解:一个是正解,另一个是负解。So when, in 1928, a British physicist called Paul Dirac solved such an equation relating to the electron, the fact that one answer described the opposite of that particle might have been brushed aside as a curiosity.因此1928年,当英国物理学家保罗·狄拉克(Paul Dirac)在解一道有关微观电子的类似方程时,得到了一个描述电子颗粒负状态的结果,该结果按照异常情况本应该予以舍弃,但实际情况并非如此。But it wasnt. Instead, Dirac interpreted it as antimatter-and, four years later, it turned up in a real experiment.狄拉克(Dirac)把这种负粒子解释为反物质,四年后,反物质在真实的实验中出现。Since then antimatter-first, anti-electrons, known as positrons, and then antiversions of all other particles of matter-has become a staple of both real science and the fictional sort.从那以后,反物质研究—首先是反电子,俗称正电子,然后到其它所有物质颗粒的反续状态—成为真实科学和虚拟科学的重要组成部分。What has not been available for study until recently, however, is entire anti-atoms.迄今为止,只有反原子还没有得到全面的研究。A handful have been made in various laboratories, and even held on to for a few seconds.但少数反原子的研究已经在不同实验室展开,有些实验室甚至让反原子存在了几秒种。But none has hung around long enough to be examined in detail because, famously, antimatter and matter annihilate each other on contact.但他们都没有能够让反原子存在更长时间以提供细节观测,众所周知,这是由于反物质和物质在接触过程中会互相湮灭。But that has now changed, with the preservation of several hundred such atoms for several minutes by Jeffrey Hangst and his colleagues at CERN, the main European particle-physics laboratory near Geneva.但现在这种情况已经得到了改观,欧洲原子核研究组织(CERN)—日内瓦附近的欧洲粒子物理研究试验室—的Jeffrey Hangst及其同事已将数百颗这种原子的生命状态持续了几分钟。The reason this is important is that Diracs equation is misleading.反原子状态不能保留的重要原因在于我们受了狄拉克(Dirac)方程式的误导。Antimatter cannot be the perfect opposite of matter, otherwise neither would exist at all.反物质与物质不可能以完全对等的反状态形式存在,否则任何一方都不可能存留。If they truly were perfect opposites, equal amounts of the two would have been made in the Big Bang, and they would have annihilated each other long since, leaving only light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation to fill the universe.如果真是那样的话,那么在宇宙大爆炸时期,它们二者生成的数量也应该相同,历经漫长的时间演化,它们早就应该互相湮灭,只留下光线和各种形式的电磁辐射充斥宇宙。That galaxies, stars and planets-and physicists to ponder such things-exist therefore means there is a subtle asymmetry between matter and antimatter, and that nature somehow favours the former.因此物理学家认为星系,恒星和行星诸如此类的事物能够存在的原因在于物质与反物质一定存在着一种微妙的非对称性,而自然界偏偏钟爱于前者。Two such asymmetries have indeed been found. But neither is big enough to explain why so much matter has survived.实际上;物质;与;反物质;的非对称性已经在两项试验中被发现,但它们的非对称程度还不足以解释为什么会有大量的;物质;存续下来。Being able to look at entire anti-atoms might give some further clue.通过观察完整的反原子,科学家或许能得到进一步的线索。Last November the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, which Dr Hangst leads, managed to put positrons into orbit around 38 antiprotons-thus creating anti-hydrogen atoms-and then held on to them in a magnetic trap for a few tenths of a second.去年11月,欧洲原子核研究组织阿尔法合作项目负责人Hangst士设法将一些正电子分别放入38颗反质子的轨道—这样就产生了反氢原子—然后让它们在电磁阱中存留零点几秒的时间。Now, as they report in Nature Physics, the researchers have used their device to preserve anti-hydrogen for 16 minutes (aeons in atomic-physics terms).现在,研究人员在自然物理杂志上发表的报告称,他们已经利用设计的装置将反氢子存在时间延续到了16分钟。(在原子物理术语上相当于亿万年)。This gives the anti-atoms plenty of time to settle into their ground state, the most stable condition a particle or atom can attain.这给反原子充分的时间进入能量基态,这是粒子或原子所能获得的最稳定状态。As a result, Dr Hangst and his colleagues can look in a leisurely manner for novel ways that antimatter might differ from the common-or-garden variety.因此,Hangst士及其同事能够寻找新的途径从容地观测反物质可能与普通物质存在的差别。Their first experiment will involve nudging the trapped anti-atoms with microwaves.他们的首次实验将包含用微波对捕获的反原子进行微移。If the frequency of these microwaves is just right, they will flip an anti-atoms spin.如果这些微波的频率恰好正确,它们将会反转反原子的旋转方向。That reverses the polarity of the atoms magnetic field and ejects it from the trap.于是原子的磁场极性被改变并将原子抛出电磁阱。The frequency needed to do this can then be compared with that which flips the spin of an ordinary hydrogen atom. If the two turn out to be different, it will point towards the nature of the mysterious cosmic asymmetry.实验所需的频率随后将与反转普通氢原子旋转方向所用频率进行对比,如果两种频率数值不同,将为神秘宇宙的非对称性提供据。Besides being of huge interest (it would, after all, be a legitimate answer to the question ;why are we here?;), such a result would also have a pleasing symmetry of its own.这个研究结果除了非常有趣(它最终会为;人类为什么会存在?;这个问题提供合乎逻辑的),该结果的本身也有令人欣喜的对称性。The original discovery of antimatter was a nice example of theory predicting an undiscovered fact. This would be a fact that repaid the compliment by predicting an undiscovered theory.当初发现反物质是理论预测未知事实的一个范例,而现在根据反物质的研究发现不对称性的事实则是事实预测了未知理论。 /201212/212909。

  Obituary;Garret FitzGerald;讣告;加勒特·菲茨傑拉德;Garret FitzGerald, statesman, philosopher, journalist and lover of numbers, died on May 19th, aged 85;政治家,哲学家,记者,大众情人,于5月19日逝世,享年85岁; If you had the good fortune to sit next to Garret FitzGerald at dinner—wrapped round by his natural warmth and curiosity, as well as numbed by the sheer volume of Dublin-tinctured words that tumbled out of him—you might learn many dozens of mind-bogglingly arcane facts. The quickest way to fly from Reykjavik to Vilnius in 1960, a skill he had honed in his first proper job as an analyst for Aer Lingus; the route of the now-defunct railway from Farranfore to Reenard via Cahersiveen, the fruit of his love of all train timetables; the relative popularity over time of his own Fine Gael party and the rival Fianna Fail in county councils the length and bth of Ireland, derived from an obsession with opinion polls so immense that journalists were cautioned not to mention them; and the precise geographical pattern of the decline in the use of Irish between 1770 and 1870, compiled from old census volumes which he would prop on the car dashboard when being driven, on constituency visits, from place to place.如果你有幸在晚餐时坐在Garret FitzGerald旁边——置身于他天生的热情与好奇中,谈定地听着他都柏林味十足的口音在那里滔滔不绝——你也许能得知很多神秘的事实,开阔了眼界。60年代从Reykjavik飞到Vilnius最快的途径;他首次在一份体面的工作中(爱尔兰航空公司的一名分析员)习得的技能;那条已经不存在的铁路——通过Cahersiveen从Farranfore到Reenard;他最喜欢的列车时刻表;共和党对那段出风头的时光和统一党称霸爱尔兰各乡镇委的时候,民意调查里那些说不清道不明的事,有些就是记者也小心地不去提及;以及根据他拜访各选区时,从各地收集到的旧的人口普查宗卷中所得出的1770到1870间爱尔兰语的使用率,下降趋势,在地图板块上的精确表现。What modesty would restrain him from telling you—even in the 674 small-print pages of his autobiography—was the precise route by which Ireland, while he was cheerfully inhabiting the corridors of the Seanad and the Dail, moved away from sterile, irredentist sectarianism to become a more open and tolerant place; how the sombre dominance of the Catholic church began to recede from the countrys moral life; how Ireland opened itself alike to Europe and to foreign investment, eventually finding it could leap off like a tiger; and, most wonderful and difficult of all, how North and South began to accommodate and make peace with each other, to such a degree that as he lay dying Queen Elizabeth was in Dublin Castle, trying out a line of Gaelic.那些即使是他也不好意思说出来的——在他674页自传中也没提及——是爱尔兰各地的精确路线。那会儿他高高兴兴地游走于上议院和下议院,使统一党宗派主义远离枯燥,成为一个更开放、更有肚量的地方;阴沉的天主教配势力是如何开始退出这个国家的日常生活的;爱尔兰是如何融入欧洲,开展对外投资,最终如龙腾虎跃;以及,最重要的是,如何让南北地区的人民融洽相处。就好像在都柏林的城堡里放倒了衰老的伊丽莎白女王,开拓出了盖尔人的一片天地。His own contribution, because it was the start of these processes, often looked like failure. His referendum to amend slightly the law on abortion was shot down, his referendum to bring in divorce resoundingly defeated; but he had succeeded in broaching the subjects in a civil way. On Northern Ireland, the 1973 Sunningdale power-sharing agreement swiftly collapsed, and his New Ireland Forum, in which constitutional parties from both sides were to meet and talk together of the pluralist, inclusive Ireland he longed for, was ruthlessly scorned by Margaret Thatcher. (“Out, out, out,” she cried, demolishing all its proposals one by one; it wasnt what she said, he reflected later, but the tone in which she said it, so sharp and condescending.) Even the Anglo-Irish agreement of 1985, in which Britain acknowledged for the first time the Republics interest in the North, was pictured by unionists as betrayal and by terrorists as encouragement. In fact it was a small, determined step towards the Good Friday agreement 13 years later.他自身的那些贡献,作为这一系列的开端看起来总像是个失败。他提出的对流产法的小幅度修改,民意惨淡;他提出的关于离婚的法案遭到民众的强烈抵抗;但他成功地带起了民法方面的课题。在北爱尔兰,1973年的Sunningdale,权利分享协议在签署不久后就瓦解了,而他的新爱尔兰论坛又遭到玛格丽特?撒切尔的强烈鄙视(“滚,滚,滚”,她一边喊,一边一个接一个的否定那些题案;后来他补充道这不是她的原话,但就是这种犀利而又“客气”的语气)。该论坛实现了他渴望的一幕——双方的正式代表就教堂等问题沟通交流。即使是1985年的Anglo-Irish协议也被共和党看做背叛,被恐怖分子视为一种鼓励。英国在该条约中首次公认了共和国在北方的利益,不过事实上只是比13年前的Good Friday协议前进了一小步。A mislaid overcoat一件记不起放在哪的大衣He had the ideal background for conciliation, with a Catholic father from the South and a Protestant mother from the North (though it was she who taught him his catechism, forbearing only to instruct him how to sign himself at the gospel). Sectarianism was so foreign to him that when he met rank prejudice, he often burst out laughing. Politics was in his blood, his father having been in independent Irelands first government in 1922; though he himself wandered into it from academia, reluctant to give partisan speeches in the open air or at dance halls, and quite inept at the plotting and manipulation so dazzlingly displayed by his Fianna Fail nemesis, Charles Haughey. Though he was foreign minister from 1973-77 and taoiseach twice, in 1981-82 and 1982-87, he remained somehow an innocent, mislaying as he travelled overcoat, pyjamas, watch; and not realising, so carried away was he with his theories for redistributing wealth in Ireland, that to put value-added tax on childrens shoes might spell suicide at the polls.作为调和主义者,他有个理想的背景,出身天主教的南方父亲和出身新教徒的北方母亲(尽管是母亲教他教义,不过只教了他如何在福音书上签名)。宗派那些对他来说是如此不着边际,以至于当他接触到等级偏见的内容时经常会突然笑起来。政治早已融入他的血液,他的父亲在1922年曾为爱尔兰独立政府效力;尽管他本人犹豫着要不要从学术界转到政界,心不甘情不愿地在公共场所或舞厅里发表党派性演讲,就那相当笨拙地安排和操作,理所当然的败给了他统一党的对手,Charles Haughey。尽管他在1973-77年间任外长,1981-82及1982-87年间担任总理,但仍保持着纯真的心。就像放错了旅行要用的外套,睡衣和手表(而不自知),他就带着他的爱尔兰财富再分配理论各处奔走,宣称买童鞋要付增值税,此举可能在民调中引发自杀。Economics was a relatively late interest. He said he learned it at the Irish Times, where he wrote to the end of his life a Saturday column full of figures under the pen-name “Analyst”. Over 50 years, he reckoned, he produced 2,250,000 words for the Times (besides providing copy, briefly, for The Economist). History and French were his degree subjects, and his verbosity in French a source of pride. He embraced the European Economic Community not just because it let Ireland reach over Britain to the world, but also because it gave him the excuse, before meetings in Brussels, to discuss with Fran?ois Mitterrand some puzzling lacunae in the Catholic intellectual tradition of 19th-century France.《经济学人》是个相对较晚开始的兴趣。他说是在爱尔兰时报上读到里面的文章,他本人直到临终一直以“分析家”这个笔名投稿,周六专栏里那些数据就是他的作品。他估计在50多年里,为时报写了225万字(除了为《经济学人》写的,简短的摘要)。作为历史及法文科班出身,他为自己冗长的法语骄傲。他欢迎欧洲经济体不仅是因为经济体使爱尔兰跨过英国,走向世界,也因为这给了他一个借口——在布鲁塞尔会议前,与Francois Mitterrand讨论一些关于天主教在19世界法国传统教育里出现的那些令人困惑的空白。He was tender and naive, losing his life-savings on an unwise investment in 1992; yet he was also tough. Meeting the families of IRA hunger-strikers in the 1980s, he would be sympathetic as ever, but would never let himself be swayed by terrorists or “crawthumpers”. Though mocked as otherworldly, he stuck to his crusade for a “new Ireland”—reunified or not, as the majority in the North wanted it—in which Catholic and Protestant identities would be equally celebrated. For, when all was said and done, he was a statistician first; and when shown any air-traffic controllers chart he could tell, to a high degree of accuracy, that at such-and-such a time and place the different flightpaths, no matter how divergent, were bound to cross.此人温柔又天真,在1982年的一次不明智的投资中失去了其一生的积蓄。即使如此,他做事还是雷厉风行。80年代会见那些愤怒罢工者的家属时,他仍会抱有有同情心,但再也不会让自己受恐怖分子或“暴徒”的影响。尽管被嘲讽为“不现实”,他仍然卖力地推行他的“新爱尔兰”革命——无论统一与否,介于北方大多数希望如此——以天主教徒和新教徒的身份一样庆祝。因此,当一切尘埃落定时,起初他是个统计员,之后当有提及他所知的空中航线,他都能准确的说出,如什么时间、什么地点,不同的航线,无论怎么分散,都必定能越过。 /201210/205680

  Kids These Days!现在的孩子们!M: Kids these days! They have no respect; they dont know the value of dollar;they cant pay attention to anything for long.现在的小孩子们不懂得尊重(别人),不知道钱的价值,也不能把注意力长时间放在一件事上。F: Actually, that last one may be true. Well,the older generation always complains about kids. But researchers who study the effects of television actually have data to suggest that young people today dont pay attention in the way their parents do.事实上,最后一个或许是真的。上一代人老是抱怨孩子。但是研究电视(对人的)影响的研究人员真的有数据可以实现在的年轻人并不能像他们的父母一样集中注意力。M: Whats the connection to TV?跟电视有什么关系?F: Annie Lang and her colleagues at Indiana University have done a series of studies in which college-age people and middle-aged people were shown a string of t.v. and movie clips. In one trial, they showed images that changed at a fast rate—over eleven shots every thirty seconds. Other trials had images that changed at slower rates—five to six changes, or zero to three changes, every thirty seconds. People from all three groups were quizzed after watching the s to see how much they could remember.印第安纳大学的Annie Lang和他的同事们对做了一系列的研究。(研究人员给)大学年龄层的年轻人和中年人展示了一系列的电视节目和电影剪辑。他们一组用很每30秒超过11次的速度快速给他们展示了图像。另两组,他们又以更慢——每30秒5到6次或是0到3次的速度(展示)。看完录像后,三组人会被测试能记忆多少内容。M: The results?结果是?F: The results differed depending on a couple of factors, such as how arousing the images themselves were. But in general they found that young people have a much harder time than adults in paying attention to, and remembering, slower-moving material.结果受一些因素的影响而有所不同。比如说图像本身振奋人心的程度。但是总的来说,研究人员发现未成年人比成年人更难对慢速移动的东西集中注意力并且记忆住。M: I knew it, those lazy kids!我知道了,懒惰的孩子们!F: Its not quite laziness. They try, but slow material is hard for them. And adults fared worse at remembering fast-moving material.也不一定是懒惰。他们有尝试,但是(运动)慢的东西对他们来说很难(集中注意力并且记忆住)。而成年人在记忆快速移动的东西上更遭。 /201208/196135

  As the size of a small car and it has a nuclear power source so you dont have to worry about dust accumulating on solar eraser, anything like that.而对于小型车的规模,它搭载着核电源,所以你不必担心灰尘在太阳能上累积那样的东西。And most importantly, it has the capability to look for trace quantities of organic molecules.而最重要的是,它有能力寻找微量有机分子。So weve gone beyond now looking for evidence of habitability to actually looking for evidence of the building blocks of life.所以我们现在已经超越寻找可居住性的据,实际上是在寻找建造生命基石的据。Whether its alive or dead,无论是活还是死,a trip to this red planet has a lot to teach us about our lonely blue one and the universe beyond.一次这颗红色行星的旅程教给我们很多关于孤独的蓝色星球和宇宙之外的东西。Now if you have two planets that are next to each other in the same solar system that both had independent origins of life,现在,如果你有两颗行星,在同一太阳系中互相邻近,但都有独立的生命起源,you would have to conclude that the chance of having life all over the universe indeed,你将不得不得出结论,生命在全宇宙确实存在的机遇,even in other places in our solar system would be very high.即使在我们太阳系的其他地方也会非常高。I think, you know, you could basically go to the bank and bet on it.我想,你知道,你基本上可以去并打赌。We are not going to Mars just to search for life.我们去火星不是只搜寻生命。We are going to Mars to search for a second genesis of life.我们去火星是去寻找另一个生命的起源。We would like to find something thats different from us.我们想找与我们不同的东西。It doesnt have same genetic history and genetic code that we have.它不会有我们有的相同的遗传历史和遗传代码。And from my point of view, the more alien the better.而从我的观点来看,越陌生越好。Now that the second possibility is that we find life on Mars,现在,第二个可能性是,我们发现火星上的生命,but my goodness, it has a genetic code exactly like us, it uses DNA.但我的上帝,它有一个和我们完全一样的基因代码,它使用DNA。Its too coincidental.太巧合了。This is representing our cousins.这是代表我们的堂兄弟。Life either arose on earth and went to Mars or actually more likely that life originated on Mars and it was transported on a meteorolite coming to the earth early on and in fact, our home planet is Mars.源于地球的生命到火星去或更可能起源于火星而早期通过某种方式来到地球,实际上,我们的母星是火星。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182364

  A local news report about a prenup and marriage breakup would make a fine satiric tale. Like an entertaining satire, the plot and characters of that report offer useful material for contemplation.It seems that a certain ;sugar daddy; fell in love with a gorgeous woman who worked at a restaurant and proposed to her. The woman, however, suspected her Romeos ability to keep his wedding vows. Before marriage, she insisted that he sign a private contract.国内一则有关婚前协议和婚姻破裂的新闻报导,也许是很好的讽刺故事。像性讽刺一样,报道的情节和角色提供了很好的使人深思的材料。故事是说某位“甜蜜老爸”爱上了一位在餐厅工作的漂亮女士,并向她求了婚。而该女士很是怀疑她心上人能否遵守其结婚誓言,所以结婚前她坚持要求与他签一份私人协议。In the contract, Romeo promised to pay his beloved NT0 million if he broke his promise not ;to beat her, badmouth her, and/or date any [other] woman.;在协议中,“罗密欧”许诺如果他打破“不许打她,诋毁她,还有不许和其它女人约会”这个誓言,就要付她的爱人一亿新台币。Soon into the marriage, Romeo slipped up and had an affair. So Juliet took her Romeo to court, armed to the teeth with their private documents.结婚后不久,“罗密欧”就有了外遇。所以“朱丽叶”就将他的“罗密欧”告上法庭,为了他们的私人协议而唇舌剑。I find it sad that couples feel it is necessary to sign such documents. It is from deep and very special feelings of friendship that romance grows. And the essence of friendship ethics is trust and respect. Cases like this seem to show that trust and respect are absent from modern marriages.我为那些认为有必要签署这类文件的夫妻们感到悲哀,浪漫是在很深很特别的感觉中慢慢积累起来的一种友谊。而这种友情的本质就是信任和尊重。但这样的案例让人觉得现代婚姻完全缺失了这种信任和尊重。What happened to the case in the end? The judge ordered Romeo to pay his Juliet the amount she finally requested: 15 percent of the promised NT0 million.这样的案例有什么样的结局呢?法官裁定“罗密欧”必须付“茱丽叶”最后要求的金额:原先承诺的一亿元新台币的百分之十五。原文译文属!201208/195392

  Dear Don and Yale: For a long time now, decades probably, Ive been hearing about deforestation. But who, exactly, is cutting down all the trees?亲爱的唐和雅艾尔:长久以来,或许几十年以来,关于滥砍滥伐的事情我听得太多了。但到底是谁在砍伐这些树木呢?Yale: If I had to guess, Id say its farmers clearing land for planting crops. Am I right?雅艾尔:要我猜的话,我觉得是农民们在开荒垦植。我猜对了吗?Don: That would seem to make sense. Farmers do need to clear space to plant their fields. But actually, farmers around the world have just as much to do with planting trees as they do with chopping them down. A study using satellite pictures looked at around 2.5 billion acres of farmland around the world. It found that about ten-percent of it is covered by trees. Thats an area twice as large as the Amazon rain forest.唐:听起来似乎有道理。农民们确实需要开荒垦植。但事实上,世界各地的农民既砍树也植树。一项研究采用卫星照片观察了世界各地约25亿公顷的农田。研究发现大约有十分之一的农田周围种有树木。且其总面积是亚马逊热带雨林的两倍。Yale: Thats pretty surprising. I mean why would farmers want so many trees taking up space? Dont they want their fields to be as large as possible?雅艾尔:这实在令人惊奇。我的意思是为什么农民们会种植占用这么多土地的树木?难道他们不希望尽可能多地耕种土地吗?Don: Yes, generally. But other studies have found that trees are very useful for farmers. They help keep soil healthy. And they can be harvested to feed animals, provide timber and wood for burning, and produce fruit. Trees also help prevent soil erosion and improve groundwater quality.唐:一般来说,是的。但另一项研究显示树木对农民用处非常大。树木能保持土壤健康,能用来喂牲口,树干和树枝可用来烧柴,此外树还能结果。同时,树能防止水土流失,改善地下水水质。Yale: So farmers grow trees because theyre profitable.雅艾尔:所以农民们种树是因为树木用处大。Don: Basically farmers have to make a living, and if trees made it harder to make a profit then farmers wouldnt keep them around. Of course, deforestation is still a big problem. Many farmers, especially in the Brazilian rain forest, cut down thousands of trees to make way for fields. But in many other places, farms and forests work together.唐:从根本上来说,农民需要谋生。如果农民们很难依靠树木获利,他们是不会四处种植树木的。当然,滥砍滥伐仍是一个大问题。许多地区,尤其是在巴西雨林中,成千上万的树被砍伐,为耕地腾地方。但是在其它许多地方,农民和森林是相互依存的。原文译文属!201302/225447。


  Theres nothing like a cold beer on a hot, sunny day. And in our energy conscious world, that brew is even better if it were made using fuel recycled from brewery waste. Thats exactly what a team of German scientists is up to.再没有什么比在炎热,阳光高照的一天喝杯凉爽的啤酒更过瘾了。在有节能意识的世界里,如果利用回收的啤酒厂废弃物加工成燃料来酿酒会更好。那正是一组来自德国的科学家们正在做的事情。The brewing process results in piles of used grain. Beer makers have to get rid of the waste somehow—either by selling it to farmers as feed or fertilizer, or in some cases paying a waste management company to do the job.酿酒过程中会产生成堆的废弃粮食。啤酒生产商们不得不处理这些废物——要么当做饲料或化肥卖给农民,要么承包给废物管理站处理。And that can get expensive. So the German scientists thought of a third option—recycling the spent grain and wastewater as fuel. Using bacteria to break down the material, the scientists produced methane gas and an organic sludge. Gas and sludge are then burned to boil water and make steam, which spins a turbine to create electricity—electricity used to brew more beer.不过请人是昂贵的。因此德国科学家们想到了第三种选择——回收废弃谷物和废水加工成燃料。科学家们利用细菌分解废物,产生沼气和有机污泥。再用沼气和有机污泥污泥烧水,水变成蒸汽进而推动涡轮机转动发电,用产生的电来酿更多的酒。So would this recycling process work on a large industrial scale? The Sierra Nevada Brewing Company in Chico, California thinks so. Theyve been converting waste into energy on a commercial scale with great success. And if one brewer saves money by being more energy efficient, others may follow. Which means that, soon, the ice cold brew you enjoy after work wouldnt just taste great—it could also be helping reduce our collective carbon footprint.那么,这种回收过程能大规模地利用在工业上吗?加利福尼亚州奇科市的内华达山酿酒公司赞同这一说法。他们在将废物转化为能量的商业模式上取得了巨大的成功。如果一家公司能通过节能而节省资金,那么其它公司会纷纷效仿。这就意味着你下班后享用的冰爽啤酒不仅味道好,而且还有助于减少碳的排放。原文译文属!201302/227348

  Science and Technolgy科技Forensic science司法科学Ignorance is bliss无知即是福Forensic scientists know too much about the cases they investigate法医科学家对他们调查的案子知道得太多AS ALL fans of crime fiction know, DNA is the gold standard of forensic science. Or is it? Itiel Dror, a cognitive psychologist at University College, London, thinks this doctrine of infallibility needs to be questioned. His problem is not with the technology itself, but with the way it is deployed. For he has gathered evidence that DNA examiners interpretations of their results are, at least in complex cases, open to subjectivity and bias.所有的罪案小说迷都知道,DNA是司法科学的黄金标准。它到底是么?一位伦敦的大学认知心理学专家Itiel Dror认为这个说法的正确性有待考验。他的问题不是针对技术本身而是它进行的方式。因为他已经搜集了据明DNA鉴定者对他们结果的解释至少在复杂的案子里易受主观性和偏差的影响。When Americas National Academy of Sciences produced a report on the state of forensic science in , it criticised many of the methods then in use. Citing earlier research by Dr Dror, the reports authors stated, for example, that fingerprint examiners claims of zero error rates were scientifically implausible. DNA, however, was spared their criticism. Now Dr Dror and Greg Hampikian, a forensic biologist at Boise State University in Idaho, have published a study in Science amp; Justice that suggests all is not shipshape in the domain of the double helix either.当美国国家科学院在年发表了一片关于司法科学现状的报告时,它批判了很多当时正在应用的鉴定方式。引用这篇报道的作者Dror士早前做的研究,例如,指纹鉴定者宣称的零误差在科学上是不合理的。然而DNA省去了他们的批判。现在,Dror士和伊西的爱达荷州立大学的法医学生物学家Greg Hampikian在;科学与正义;上发表了一篇研究,表明所有的东西都不是井然有序的,在双螺旋线的领域里也不是。Dr Drors and Dr Hampikians experiment presented data from a real case to 17 DNA examiners working in an accredited government laboratory in North America. The case involved a gang rape in the state of Georgia, in which one of the rapists testified against three other suspects in exchange for a lighter sentence, as part of a plea bargain. All three denied involvement, but the two DNA examiners in the original case both found that they could not exclude one of the three from having been involved, based on an analysis of swabs taken from the victim.Dror士和Dr Hampikian士的实验提供一个真实案例的数据给17个在一家受认可的北美政府实验室里工作的DNA鉴定员。这起案件涉及到一宗乔治亚州的轮奸案,其中一名强奸犯为了让自己获得轻判做了不利于其它三名嫌疑者的言,作为认罪辩诉协议的一部分。其他三名嫌疑人全部否认参与强奸,但是根据从受害者处提取的药签分析,原案中有两位DNA鉴定师都发现他们无法排除三名中的其中一名参与了强奸。As is almost always true in forensic-science laboratories, these examiners knew what the case was about. And their findings were crucial to the outcome because in Georgia, as in many other states, a plea bargain cannot be accepted without corroborating evidence. However, of the 17 examiners Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian approached—who, unlike the original two, knew nothing about the context of the crime—only one thought that the same suspect could not be excluded. Twelve others excluded him, and four abstained.由于在司法科学实验室里总是什么都是对的,这些鉴定师们知道这个案子到底是怎么回事了。而且他们的手指对于出来的结果是至关重要的,因为在乔治亚,同时也在很多其它州,认罪辩诉如果没有确实的据是无法被接受的。然而,在Dror士和Hampikian接触的17个鉴定师中——他们不像开始两位鉴定师那样,对犯罪内容一无所知——只有一位认为一样的嫌疑不能被排除。另外十二位把他排除了,而四位弃权。Though they cannot prove it, Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian suspect the difference in contextual information given to the examiners was the cause of the different results. The original pair may have subliminally interpreted ambiguous information in a way helpful to the prosecution, even though they did not consciously realise what they were doing.尽管他们无法明,Dror士和Hampikian士怀疑鉴定师得到的上下文信息的区别是引起这些不同结果的原因。开始的两个人也许已经在下意识里以某种有益于控方的方式破译了模棱两可的信息,即使他们没有清楚地意识到当时他们在做什么。And DNA data are ambiguous more often than is generally realised. Dr Dror thinks that in about 25% of cases, tiny samples or the mixing of material from more than one person can lead to such ambiguity. Moreover, such is DNAs reputation that, when faced with claims that the molecule puts a defendant in a place where a crime has been committed, that defendant will often agree to a plea-bargain he might otherwise not have accepted.而且DNA数据往往比普遍了解的要模棱两可。Dror士认为在大约25%的案子里,小样本或者从不止一人身上取来的混合物质可能导致这样的二义性。此外,DNA的好名声就是这样,当面临宣称用DNA分子明被告所犯的罪的时候,被告通常会同意认罪辩诉,否则他也许不会接受。This one example does not prove the existence of a systematic problem. But it does point to a sloppy approach to science. According to Norah Rudin, a forensic-DNA consultant in Mountain View, California, forensic scientists are beginning to accept that cognitive bias exists, but there is still a lot of resistance to the idea, because examiners take the criticism personally and feel they are being accused of doing bad science. According to Dr Rudin, the attitude that cognitive bias can somehow be willed away, by education, training or good intentions, is still pervasive.这个例子没有明系统性问题的存在。但是它确实指出了一个科学上草率的方法。根据一位加利福尼亚州芒廷维尤的法庭DNA顾问Norah Rudin,法庭科学家正在开始接受那种认知性偏差的存在,但仍然有很多阻力,因为鉴定师个人会接受批评,觉得自己被谴责说自然科学学得差。根据Rudin士,认知偏差可以通过某种方式意识性去除的态度是普遍的,比如通过教育、训练或好意的方式。Medical researchers, by contrast, take great care to make drug trials ;blind;, so that neither the patient nor the administering doctor knows who is receiving the drug being tested, and who is getting a control drug or placebo. When someones freedom—and, in an American context, possibly his life, as well—is at stake, it surely behoves forensic-science laboratories to take precautions that are equally strong.相比之下,医学研究者非常注意使药物试验;不透明;,所以病人和用药的医生都不知道接受药物测试的是谁,和控制药物和安慰剂的是谁。在美国环境中,当某人的自由和他的生命也危在旦夕的时候,法医科学实验室应当采取相当的强预防措施。 /201210/202505

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