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2019年08月19日 12:56:57来源:京东咨询

万圣节是西方传统节日。万圣节前夜,当夜幕降临,孩子们穿上五颜六色的化妆,戴上千奇百怪的面具。有的披上漆黑长衫,骑着“魔帚”,扮作女巫;有的裹上白床单装鬼;有的戴上画有骷髅旗的帽子扮成海盗…… Next to Christmas, Halloween is the most commercialized celebration in the ed States and Canada. This ancient festival originated far from North America however, and centuries before the first European set foot on the continent. The ancient Druids 督伊德教(古代高卢人与不列颠人的一种宗教)的教徒 who inhabited what we now call Great Britain placed great importance on the passing of one season to the next, holding "Fire Festivals" which were celebrated for three days (two days on either side of the day itself). One of these festivals was called Samhain (pronounced Sha-Von) and it took place on October 31 through to November 1. During this period, it was believed that the boundaries between our world and the world of the dead were weakened, allowing spirits of the recently dead to cross over and possess the living. In order to make themselves and their homes less inviting to these wayward spirits, the ancient Celts(凯尔特人)would douse (插入水中, 把弄熄, 弄湿)all their fires. There was also a secondary purpose to this, after extinguishing all their fires, they would re-light them from a common source, the Druidic fire that was kept burning at Usinach, in the Middle of Ireland. Samhain was considered to be a gateway not only from the land of the dead to the land of the living, but also between Summer and Fall/Winter. For the Druids, this was the last gasp (喘息, 气喘)of summer (it was also the Celtic New Year), so therefore they made sure it went out with a bang before they had to button down (把...弄清楚)for the winter ahead. They would dress up in bizarre costumes and parade through their villages causing destruction in order to scare off any recently departed souls who might be prowling (巡游)for bodies to inhabit, in addition to burning animals and other offerings to the Druidic deities(神, 神性). It is also a popular belief that they would burn people who they believed to be possessed, but this has largely been debunked (揭穿, 拆穿假面具, 暴露)as myth. This yearly festival was adopted by the Roman invaders, who helped to propagate (传播, 宣传)it throughout the rest of the world (and at that time, the Roman Empire was the world). The word "Halloween" itself actually comes from a contraction of All Hallows Eve, or All Saint's Day (November 1), which is a Catholic day of observance in honor of saints. This tradition was later brought to the North American continent by Irish immigrants who were escaping the Potato Famine in their homeland. In addition to the festival itself, the immigrants brought several customs with them, including one of the symbols most commonly associated with Halloween -- the Jack 'O Lantern. According to Irish folklore, there once lived a man named Jack who was known for being a drunk and a prankster(顽皮的人, 爱开玩笑的人). One night Jack tricked the devil into climbing a tree, and quickly carved an image of a cross on the trunk, trapping the devil. Jack then made him promise that, in exchange for letting him out of the tree, the Devil would never tempt him to sin again. He reluctantly agreed, but was able to exact his revenge upon Jack's death. Because of his mischievous ways in life, Jack was barred from entering heaven and because of his earlier trick, he was also barred from hell. So he was doomed to wander the earth until the end of time, with only a single ember(灰烬, 余烬) (carried in a hollowed out turnip.[植]芜箐, 芜箐甘蓝) to warm him and light his way. In Ireland, they originally also used turnips for their "Jack Lanterns", but upon arriving in the new world, they discovered that pumpkins were abundant and easier to carve out.- /200804/36478。

  • Scientists have discovered how to edit DNA to repair #39;broken genes#39; to cure incurable diseases - and potentially extend human lifespan.科学家已经发现如何通过编辑DNA来修复“受损基因”,从而治愈绝症并有可能延长人类寿命。Until now, it has not been possible to alter genes in the brain, heart, liver and eyes - the root of many debilitating illnesses.目前为止人们还无法改变人体大脑、心脏、肝脏和眼睛的基因,而这正是许多致命疾病的根源。Since the cells in these vital organs tend not to divide, it is difficult to gain access to make changes.由于这些重要器官的细胞往往不能分裂,因此对其几乎无计可施。However, researchers at the Salk Institute claim to have landed on #39;the holy grail of gene editing#39;, which can delicately and smoothly cut through DNA.然而,索尔克研究所的研究人员声称,他们已经发现了基因编辑的法宝,可以准确并顺利地切断DNA。So far the technique, called HITI, has been used to successfully restore blindness in lab mice.这种技术被称为HITI,目前已经成功应用于失明的试验小鼠身上。Lead researcher Professor Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte insists that is nothing compared to the changes the technique could have in the decades to come.该研究领头人安.卡洛斯.依思皮舒.贝尔蒙特教授认为,这项技术在未来几十年将带来无可比拟的改变。#39;We are very excited by the technology we discovered because it#39;s something that could not be done before,#39; Dr Belmonte said.贝尔蒙特教授表示,“发现这项技术让我们感到非常兴奋,因为这是史无前例的。”#39;For the first time, we can enter into cells that do not divide and modify the DNA at will. The possible applications of this discovery are vast.#39;“人类首次攻入了不能分裂的细胞,并随意修改其DNA。这一发现具有巨大的实用价值。”News of the discovery comes a day after Chinese scientists successfully tested a similar DNA-modifying technique, known as CRISPR.该发现公布前一天,中国科学家成功测试了一种类似的DNA改造技术,被称为CRISPR。To date, CRISPR has been the most effective method for dividing cells in large organs like the skin or the gut.对皮肤、肠道等较大的器官来说,CRISPR是迄今为止最有效的细胞再生方法。 /201611/480524。
  • Standing tall, feeling confident, believing in yourself — these are all important ways to feel your best. But as any woman who's ever stood in front of a mirror can tell you, beauty secrets count too!While the way we look may be only one part of who we are, it is still a part of us. And feeling that you look your best can be a real confidence booster.Looking your best doesn't have to be complicated or expensive, either. Experts say most of us really only need to pay attention to a few basic beauty secrets — essentials that can help you look and feel great without spending a lot of time or money.To help you find the beauty tips that really work, WebMD talked to top skin care and beauty experts, who parted with their personal tips for looking great:Beauty Tip 1: Never Underestimate the Power of MoisturizerWhether your skin is dry, normal, or even oily, if you can only afford one skin care product, experts say, your dollars will be well spent on a good moisturizer."Sometimes, all you really need is a good moisturizer and a mild cleanser, and you can take years off your face," says New York University professor Rhoda Narins, MD, president of the American Society of Dermatologic Surgery. When skin is dry, says Narins, every wrinkle is accentuated, making you look older.If you're in your 20s or 30s, doctors say, moisturizers will give you some of the protection you need to keep skin from prematurely aging."In your 20s and early 30s, a good moisturizer can take the place of a lot of products," says Park Avenue plastic surgeon Darrick Antell, MD.So what exactly is a "good" moisturizer? Dermatologist Charles E. Crutchfield III, MD, describes it this way: "It's a product that will do anything from gently adding moisture, to sealing in the moisture you've achieved, to helping your skin produce more moisture — and which type you choose should be based on your skin's individual needs."If skin is normal to dry, look for moisturizers containing alpha hydroxy acids. They can help skin produce more moisture on its own, Crutchfield says. Such products include Neutrogena Advanced Solutions Daily Moisturizerand Anew Advanced All In One Cream by Avon.Products such as AmLactin XL — the over-the-counter version of the prescription cream Lac-Hydrin — not only contain alpha hydroxy acids, but also a new ceramide technology to seal in moisture."You put on when you skin is slightly damp, and it locks in all the water," says Crutchfield, an associate clinical professor of dermatology at the University of Minnesota Medical School.If skin is very dry, he also suggests products using a technology called vesicular emulsion."This technology uses microscopic spheres that are alternating layers of moisture and water that slowly release throughout the day, so you get continual moisturization," says Crutchfield. Products using this type of technology include Atopalm and Curél.If skin is oily, look for a light, gentle moisturizer — but don't skip this step, cautions Crutchfield."Oil is not moisture, and even if you have excess oil you still need moisture," he says. Recommended products include Aveeno with Colloidal Oatmeal, Vanicream Light, Neutrogena Oil-Free Moisturizer, or Cetaphil Moisturizer.Beauty Tip 2: Sunscreen Is Your Best Antiaging Product.Before you see the plastic surgeon, before you plunk down half a paycheck on that pricey anti-aging cream, in fact, before you do anything, put on sunscreen.While most of us know it reduces the risk of skin cancer, did you also know it's an amazing beauty secret that can help keep skin looking young?The reason, say experts, is that when sunscreen blocks out the sun's damaging rays, it also blocks their aging effects."The sun impacts collagen production in the skin, and without collagen, skin won't naturally maintain that plump, moist, youthful, wrinkle-free look," says Antell. Get enough sun exposure, he says, and skin will wrinkle long before its time.Without the protection of sunscreen, just a few minutes of daily sun exposure over the years can cause noticeable changes in how skin looks and feels, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.Not only will you see more wrinkles and fine lines, but also more freckles, age spots, and spider veins. Skin itself can look rough and leathery or loose and slack — all thanks to the sun.Sunscreen can protect your skin from these damaging rays, so that even if you do spend time outdoors, your face is less likely to give away your age.Crutchfield advises choosing a sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher. Because sun breaks down its effectiveness over time, if you're going to be in direct sunlight for an extended period, reapply every hour or two.For longer-lasting results, he recommends Melashade, a sunscreen using new technology that remains in force hours longer than most other products.Another option: Use your regular sunscreen before putting on makeup (it should go on first, before anything). Then, for touch-ups, use a light, translucent mineral powder to add extra protection throughout the day."These powders contain a natural sunscreen, and since they generally don't build up on the skin you can keep adding protection all day long," says Crutchfield. Products include Glo Minerals Powder, Neutrogena Healthy Defense Protective Powder, and BareEscentuals Mineral Veil.Beauty Tip 3: Choose Your Cleanser WiselyIf you're a "soap and water" girl (or guy), you may want to rethink your cleansing strategy. Dermatologists say that one of the best beauty tips around is to use the gentlest cleanser you can find — and use it sparingly."While the temptation may be great to wash your face several times a day (or more if skin is oily), not only will over-cleansing not help you, if you're using a harsh product — particularly soap — you could be harming your skin," says Crutchfield.Wash your face too often — more than twice a day — and you can damage the natural lipid barrier, the protective mantle of lubrication that keeps skin looking and feeling healthy."Once that protection is lost, and the integrity of the skin barrier disrupted, skin becomes dry — which means it can crack, peel, itch, burn, sting, or any combination," says Crutchfield. It also means you can look older than your years.The solution: Wash skin no more than twice a day and choose your cleanser wisely. Crutchfield's three top favorites: Dove Unscented Bar, Cetaphil, and Vanicream Cleanser.Beauty Tip 4: Use the Right Tools for the Right JobYou can have the best eyeshadow money can buy, the world's most luxurious foundation, a bronzer straight from the cosmetic bag of a supermodel. But if you don't have the right tools to apply them, their benefits will be lost. That's the advice of Smashbox Cosmetic's director of global artistry, Holly Mordini."Using the right brushes, the right application tools — it's key to making the products go on the way they are intended and to give you the look that you want. For a professional makeup artist, the tools are as important as the products," says Mordini, who has painted and puffed some of Hollywood's most famous faces.What constitutes the "right" tools? Brushes should be soft and feel gentle on the skin, but also have substance so the product can be moved to the surface of your skin. If you dip a brush in shadow or blush and the color falls off before you make it to your face, that's a bad brush, experts say.If you don't know what to buy, you can't go wrong if you purchase the tools sold with a high-quality beauty line, Mordini says. Most, she says, are created to give your application a professional touch and to work best with each product in the line."It also makes putting on makeup incredibly easy, plus it's often what sets apart women who have the 'professional makeup look' and those that don't," she says.Beauty Tip 5: Update Hair and Makeup Every 2 YearsIf you walk into your high school reunion and hear a chorus of "You haven't changed a bit," run, run, RUN to the nearest beauty salon!Experts say that if you can't even remember the last time you changed your hair and makeup, it's way overdue."Ideally, your image, including hair and makeup, should be updated at least every two years — and sooner if the styles change dramatically," says Beverly Hills hair expert and QVC personality Nick Chavez.By keeping your look current, says Chavez, you also look younger and more modern. "Nothing dates a woman more than outdated hair and makeup," says Chavez.If it's been a while since you've had a change, visit the makeup counters at your favorite department or beauty store, and don't be afraid to ask for help. Most of the better lines are sold by makeup artists who can quickly catch you up on what's new.To find the best new hairstyle without commitment, try wig shopping! It's a fun, fast, and easy way to try on styles and even colors before making a hair appointment. /200804/36740。
  • Audi, the luxury German carmaker owned by Volkswagen, plans to work with China’s three biggest technology companies to enhance its reputation for building connected cars.大众(Volkswagen)旗下的德国豪车制造商奥迪(Audi)计划与中国三大科技公司开展合作,以增强其打造联网汽车的声誉。At its annual summit in Shanghai on Sunday, Audi signed agreements with Tencent, Alibaba and Baidu, saying it will work closely with each in data analysis, internet-vehicle platform building and urban intelligent transport.在上周日于上海举行的年度峰会上,奥迪与腾讯(Tencent)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和百度(Baidu)签署协议,称将与这些公司在数据分析、互联网-车辆平台建设和城市智能交通等领域密切合作。Audi’s move is the latest example of a traditional carmaker linking up with software specialists to avoid being left behind, as new entrants compete on self-driving vehicles and so-called internet of things connectivity. 在市场新参与者在自动驾驶汽车和物联网上展开竞争之际,奥迪此举是一家传统汽车制造商与软件专家联手以免落后的最新例。In July, German rival BMW teamed up with Israeli sensor maker Mobileye to produce autonomous cars over the next decade.今年七月,德国竞争对手宝马(BMW)联手以色列传感器厂商Mobileye,拟在未来10年生产自动驾驶汽车。China is the world’s largest car market for new cars, and while Audi lags behind BMW and Mercedes in the global luxury market, it has been China’s number one luxury car brand by sales since 1988 — when it established a joint-venture with partner Chinese First Automobile Works.中国是世界上最大的新车市场,而尽管奥迪在全球豪车市场落后于宝马和奔驰(BMW),但它自1988年(那年豪迪与中国第一汽车制造厂(Chinese First Automobile Works)组建了一家合资企业)以来一直是中国销量最高的豪车。From January to July this year, Audi sold 336,580 cars in China, accounting for almost one in- three of the brand’s global sales. 今年1至7月,奥迪在中国的汽车销量达到33.658万辆,占该品牌全球销量近三分之一。However, its rivals are catching up. 然而,它的竞争对手正在迎头赶上。Audi sales were only up 6.5 per cent, while BMW deliveries were up 8.5 per cent and Mercedes sales climbed 32 per cent, to 287,753 and 257,276 respectively.奥迪销量增幅只有6.5%,而宝马和奔驰的销量分别增长8.5%和32%,至28.7753万辆和25.7276万辆。Maintaining the lead requires investing in internet-connected technology, analysts argued. 分析师们提出,保持领先要求投资于联入互联网的技术。Arndt Ellinghorst, at Evercore ISI, said Chinese car buyers appear to be even more connected than people in the western world, in part because the average buyer is 36 years old — 10 years younger than in the US and 20 years younger than in Germany.Evercore ISI分析师阿恩特#8226;埃林霍斯特(Arndt Ellinghorst)表示,中国购车者似乎比西方买家的联网程度还要高,部分原因是中国买家的平均年龄为36岁,比美国年轻10岁,比德国年轻20岁。In 2013, Audi opened a research and development centre in Beijing to develop technology that it will aim to monetise in China first, and then export globally.2013年,奥迪在北京设立了一个研发中心,力求开发首先在中国投入商用、然后输出至全球的技术。The Chinese are early adopters. 中国人乐于尝试新技术。If you’re not here with the latest stuff, then you can’t win, said Martin Kühl, an Audi spokesman in Shanghai.如果你在这里拿不出最新的东西,那你是赢不了的,奥迪在上海的发言人马丁#8226;屈尔(Martin Kühl)表示。Mr Kühl said Audi has aly been successful developing technology in China and then deploying it elsewhere. 屈尔表示,奥迪已成功地在中国开发技术,然后将其推广至其他地方。Touchscreen technology developed in Beijing is now being used by engineers in Germany.在北京开发的触摸屏技术,如今被德国的工程技术人员采用。Audi’s relationship with Alibaba aly goes back a decade. 奥迪与阿里巴巴的关系可以追溯到10年前。This year, the two companies have been working on 3D maps and traffic data technology that Mr Kühl said is high-resolution, providing almost real-life pictures of buildings.今年以来,两家公司合作研发3D地图和交通数据技术;屈尔表示,这种高分辨率技术提供近乎真实的建筑物图像。This kind of map material is not even available outside of China, he said. Alibaba has done a really great job and we’ve been the first to use this data, to use these maps.这种地图资料在中国以外根本无人提供,他说,阿里巴巴做了真正了不起的工作,而我们能够率先利用这些数据,利用这些地图。It is not yet clear when the technology will made available in Europe but Mr Kühl said the interface can be linked with a different data feed, enabling Audi to link it with services from Google or HERE, the navigation software Audi joint-purchased with BMW and Daimler last year for Euro2.8bn.尚不清楚该技术何时将在欧洲推出,但屈尔表示,相关接口可链接不同的数据馈送,使奥迪能够将其与谷歌(Google)或HERE的务链接;HERE是奥迪去年联手宝马和戴姆勒(Daimler)斥资28亿欧元收购的导航软件。Audi’s relationship with Baidu began two years ago and, next year, it plans to introduce Baidu CarLife, a local competitor to Apple’s CarPlay, into its cars. 奥迪与百度的合作始于两年前,明年它计划在自己的汽车中推出百度CarLife,后者是苹果(Apple) CarPlay的本地竞争产品。This app includes free navigation software from the Chinese search giant as well as support for third-party apps.这款应用包含来自百度这家中国搜索巨擘的免费导航软件,并持第三方应用。Of course we also offer Apple CarPlay in China but there are more Chinese using the local services, Mr Kühl said.当然,我们在中国也提供苹果CarPlay,但是更多的中国人使用本地务,屈尔表示。With Tencent, Audi is working to integrate WeChat MyCar services for location sharing and music sharing. 至于腾讯,奥迪正致力于集成微信(WeChat) MyCar务,用于地点共享和音乐共享。The two companies started co-operating earlier this year.这两家公司是在今年早些时候开始合作的。 /201609/465990。
  • Many artists and comedians politely ask the crowd to refrain from snapping pictures and shooting s during their performance – only to be ignored once the show starts.许多艺术家和喜剧演员都会礼貌地请求观众,不要在他们表演的时候拍照或者录像--不过一旦演出开始之后,观众们还是会这样做。Apple#39;s latest patent could be the solution, disabling the use of recording and photography features inside concert halls.苹果公司最新的一项专利可能会解决这一问题,能够在音乐大厅里禁止使用拍照和录像等功能。Using infrared data transmissions, venues would emit a signal that would hit every iPhone, preventing users from taking pictures and recording s of the stage.通过使用红外线数据传输技术,演出场馆将会向现场的每一台iPhone都发送一个信号,使得iPhone的用户暂时不能使用手机的拍照和摄像功能。#39;In some embodiments, a transmitter can be located in areas where capturing pictures and s is prohibited and the transmitters can generate infrared signals with encoded data that includes commands temporarily disabling recording functions,#39; s the patent published by the ed States Patent and Trademark Office.根据美国专利和商标局公布的专利说明中,我们可以读到:“在某些实例中,红外线发射器可以安放在某些禁止拍照和摄像的地方,而且这个发射器能够产生带有编码数据的红外信号,信号中包含的指令将使得观众暂时不能使用录像和拍照功能。”The new technology would allow event organizers and performers to set up a device on the stage, push a button and instantly hinder the audience from recording their favorite song or snapping an image of the performer for their Instagram.要使用这一新技术,活动主办方和表演者要在舞台上安装一台设备,按下按钮的瞬间,观众就不能录下他们喜欢的歌曲,也不能拍下表演者的照片发到Instagram上去了。When switched on, the device would shoot out the signal and every iPhone in the audience would display #39;recording disabled#39; on the screen – but only if users attempt to take pictures or shoot a at something you shouldn#39;t.一旦开始运转,这台设备就会发出信号,现场观众手中iPhone的屏幕上将出现“不能摄像”的字样--但也只有在用户们企图拍摄那些不允许被拍摄的东西的时候才会这样。For example, it will be disabled if you try to take a picture of the performer on stage but not if you are taking a picture of your friend dancing to the music.举例来说,如果你打算拍一张舞台上表演者的照片的话,你的手机就不能使用拍照功能了,但是如果你想拍一张你的朋友随着音乐跳起来的照片的话,那就没问题。This is because infrared is directional, meaning the receiver that is on stage can only hit the iPhones that are pointed directly at the device.这一情况是因为红外信号是定向的,这就意味着只有当iPhone正对着舞台上的设备的时候,发出的信号才能够传送到iPhone中去。Another option of this technology would either add a watermark or blur effect to images snapped during the event – in a bid to discourage people from sharing them online.这项技术还有另外一个备选方案,那就是让观众们在活动现场拍摄的照片上带有水印或者模糊效果--以此来劝阻人们不要在网上传播这些图片。 /201607/453515。
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