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2019年09月19日 15:08:49 | 作者:丽时讯 | 来源:新华社
Superglue 强力胶Male: Help!Help!求助!求助!Female:Whats wrong?你怎么了?M: I was fixing my coffee cup with superglue.And I must have got some on my fingers but I scratch my forhead.And now my hand is stuck to my head.我刚刚在用强力胶粘合我的咖啡杯。我一定是弄了一些(胶水)在手上,而后又用手抓了前额。现在我的手黏在头上了。F: Superglue? Cool! What makes superglue so strong anyway?强力胶?真酷!那是什么让它威力这么大?M: If I tell you,will you get my hand off my head?如果我告诉你的话,你会讲我的手和头分开吗?F: Sure!当然!M:Cyanoacrylate,there. Now will you plese...氰基丙烯酸盐粘合剂。好现在可以……F: ;Cyano; what?“氰基”什么?M: Cyanoacrylate. Its a sticky substance called a resin. When its molecules come into contact with water molecules on skin, or any other surface, they begin to form chains that lash around and create a really strong, durable plastic weave. Chains of molecules keep getting added into the mesh until the structure is so thick and hard that the chains cant move anymore. Anything stuck to the mesh is usually stuck for good. Now if you dont mind...氰基丙烯酸盐粘合剂。它是一种叫做“树脂”的粘合物质。当其分子接触到皮肤或者其它东西表面的水分子时,它们就开始形成了一条条甩动的链子并形成了很结实、耐性好的塑料织物。分子链持续增加直到它粘性够好,够坚硬,以至于再也不能移动了。通常粘到这个网上的东西就会永久的被粘着。现在如果你不介意的话……F: So what is such strong glue used for?那么如此强硬的胶水是用来干什么的?M: Eh.Besides fixing coffee cups and larger things, a special type of superglue can be used to close wounds instead of stitches.额。除了修补咖啡杯和一些较大的东西外,一种特殊类型的超强力胶可以用来取代缝线来愈合伤口。F: Now what was it you want me to do?那现在你想我怎么做?M: Get me out of this!把它从我身上弄走!F: I know,just kidding!Now hold still.我知道,只是开个玩笑!站着别动。M: What are you gonna to do? Paint my nails?你要干什么?给我涂指甲?F: No, this is nail polish remover, which just happens to be good and dissolve glue even superglue.There!不是,这是指甲油净洗剂。它正好能溶解胶水,甚至强力胶也可以!给!M: Ah,thank you!啊,谢谢! /201210/204931

Science and Technology Collective behaviour科技 集体行为A groups ;intelligence; depends in part on its members ignorance集体的;智商;部分取决于成员的无知HUMAN beings like to think of themselves as the animal kingdoms smartest alecks. It may come as a surprise to some, therefore, that Iain Couzin of Princeton University believes they have something to learn from lesser creatures that move about in a large crowd. As he told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, groups of animals often make what look like wise decisions, even when most of the members of those groups are ignorant of what is going on.人类常常自诩为最聪明的动物。事实真的如此吗?美国普林斯顿大学Iain Couzin认为人类需要向其他生物学习,学习他们的集体行为。正如他在华盛顿美国科学促进会的会议上所说,动物群体往往会做出明智的决定,即便群体中的大多对所发生的事情一无所知。Coming to that conclusion was not easy. Before lessons can be drawn from critters perched on the lower rungs of the evolutionary ladder, their behaviour must first be understood. One way to do this is to tag them with devices that follow them around—motion-capture sensors, radio transmitters or global-positioning-system detectors that can put a precise figure on their movements.得出这个结论并不容易。想要从低等生物上获得研究结果,首先得了解他们的行为。一种做法就是用仪器来捕捉他们的行动,如:动作捕捉感应器,无线电发射器或全球定位系统探测器,这些仪器可以把他们的动作准确记录下来。Unfortunately, it is impossible to tag more than a few individuals in a herd, flock or swarm.Researchers have therefore tended to extrapolate from these few results by using various computer models. Dr Couzin has done quite a bit of this himself. Most recently, he has modelled the behaviour of shoals of fish. He posited that how they swim will depend on each individuals competing tendencies to stick close to the others (and thus move in the same direction as them) while not actually getting too close to any particular other fish. It turns out that by fiddling with these tendencies, a virtual shoal can be made to swirl spontaneously in a circle, just like some real species do.不幸的是,要想标记出一大群动物的行为几乎是不可能的。研究人员因此倾向于通过使用各种计算机模型来推断这些鲜为人知的结论。Couzin士身先士卒。最近,他用计算机模仿了鱼群的行为。他设想,鱼群的游动主要取决于每条鱼之间的相互挤碰(因此鱼群会向着一个方向游动),而实际上并不会挤碰旁边的其他鱼,只是一种趋势而已。事实明,鱼群内部像这样彼此间的相互挤碰,不自然的就会是鱼群形成螺旋状。That is a start. But real shoals do not exist to swim in circles. Their purpose is to help their members eat and avoid being eaten. At any one time, however, only some individuals know about—and can thus react to—food and threats. Dr Couzin therefore wanted to find out how such temporary leaders influence the behaviour of the rest.表面如此,但是真正的鱼群是不会螺旋状游动的。他们的真正目的其实是相互帮助觅食和躲避掠食者。然而,任何时候只有鱼群中的少数才会会对食物和威胁作出反应。因此,Couzin士十分想弄明白这些所谓的;领导;是如何影响鱼群的行为的?He discovered that leadership is extremely efficient. The larger a shoal is, the smaller is the proportion of it that needs to know what is actually going on for it to feed and avoid predation effectively. Indeed, having too many leaders with conflicting opinions results in confusion. At least, that is true in the model. He is now testing it in reality.他发现,领导力至关重要。鱼群越大,花在捕食和躲避掠食者方面的精力就越少。而事实上,领导太多,意见相左,就会陷入混乱,至少在模拟试验中是这样。现在,他要在真实的环境中开始测试了。Tracking individual fish in a shoal is hard. Fortunately, advances in pattern-recognition software mean it is no longer impossible. Systems designed to follow people are now clever enough not only to track a person in a crowd, but also to tell in which direction his head is turned. Since, from above, the oval shape of a human head is not unlike the oblong body of a fish, this software can, with a little tweaking, follow piscine antics, too.追踪鱼群中的个体十分的困难,幸运的是,外形识别软件的进步意味着它不再成为不可能。人类行为识别系统已经十分的智能化了,不仅能在人群中追踪个体,而且还可以告诉他的头正朝向哪里。从上面看,既然人类头颅的椭圆形状与鱼类长圆型的体型没区别不大,那么,这个软件只需稍加调整便可识别鱼了。机器鱼Robo fishDr Couzin has been using a program developed by Colin Twomey, a graduate student at his laboratory, to track individual fish in a tank. The result is not just a model of shoaling fish, but a precise numerical representation of their actual movements and fields of vision. That means it is possible to investigate whether real-life fishy leaders have the same effect on a group as their virtual kin.Couzin士一直在使用研究生科林图梅开发的一个程序,该程序能追踪鱼缸里的鱼的行为。研究结果不仅能反映整个鱼群的活动,并且能用数字精确地表示出鱼群的确切行动和视野。这意味着它可以研究出是否鱼群中的;领导;对整个鱼群有影响。Alas, merely observing a shoal does not make it clear which individuals lead and which follow. Instead, Dr Couzin has built a biddable robot three-spined stickleback. A preliminary study of a shoal of ten flesh-and-blood sticklebacks shows that they do indeed mingle with the robot and that they follow its leadership cues as predicted. He is now making a robot predator to see how the shoal reacts to less benign intruders.唉,只观察鱼群不能说明鱼群中谁是领导,谁是追随者。相反,Couzin士已经设计了一条机器三刺鱼。通过把机器三刺鱼跟10条真正的三刺鱼混在一起对进行研究——正与先前的预测一样,他们的确听其号令。现在,士正在做一个机器捕食者,看看鱼群对这些凶恶入侵者将会会做出如何反映。If the models are anything to go by, the best outcome for the group—in this case, not being eaten—seems to depend on most members being blissfully unaware of the world outside the shoal and simply taking their cue from others. This phenomenon, Dr Couzin argues, applies to all manner of organisms, from individual cells in a tissue to (rather worryingly) voters in the democratic process. His team has aly begun probing the question of voting patterns. But is ignorance really political bliss? Dr Couzins models do not yet capture what happens when the leaders themselves turn out to be sharks.如果这些模型能够说明问题,要得出最好的结果——没有被吃掉,似乎取决于鱼群中的大多数对周围所发生的情况一无所知,而只是默默地接受其他鱼的暗示。这种现象,Couzin士认为在所有生物体中都存在,无论是单个细胞生命,还是在民主进程中(令人担忧的)的选民。士的研究小组已经着手开始使用这一成果来研究投票形式的问题了,可是,无知真的会带来政治上的福音吗?Couzin士的模型没能明,如果鱼群中的;领导;变成鲨鱼会怎样? /201301/218356

New York has a second nickname,; the city that never sleeps;, an insomnia metropolis in perpetual motion. Like the city, the subway never rests. It runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Its the fastest way to get around. Average speed on asphalt 10 kilometers per hour. Average speed on rails, 48 kilometers per hour.纽约有着第二个绰号,那就是;不眠的城市;,这个好动的大都市也有着失眠的一面。像城市一样,地铁也从不休息。它一天24小时运行,一周7天。这是最便捷的交通方式。沥青上的平均速度是每小时10公里。铁轨上的平均速度是每小时48公里。Conceived in the 19th century, it was the worlds first subway with four track service, two local tracks, two express. No waiting. In a city chokes by congestion, the subway was a breakthrough.成形于19th世纪,它是世界上第一个有四条线路的地铁,两条当地线路,两条高速路。不需要等待。在拥挤的城市中,地铁是一种突破,为人们带来了便利。From a single line tentacles sp across the city to become the most extensive subway system on earth.从单一横跨城市的线路成为地球上最广泛覆盖的地铁系统。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/170731

Business商业Physical attractiveness and careers美貌与职场Dont hate me because Im beautiful漂亮有罪吗?Attractive women should not include a photo with a job application长得漂亮的女性不应该在投递简历时附上照片AT WORK, as in life, attractive women get a lot of the breaks.就跟在日常生活中一样,在工作中,漂亮的女性总会得到很多眷顾。Studies have shown that they are more likely to be promoted than their plain-Jane colleagues.有研究表明,比起长相平平的同事,这些美女晋升的机会更大。Because people tend to project positive traits onto them, such as sensitivity and poise, they may also be at an advantage in job interviews.由于人们倾向于把她们跟一些积极向上的性格特征对号入座,比如说反应敏捷和处变不惊。美女也可能在求职面试中占有优势。The only downside to hotness is having to fend off ghastly male colleagues; or so many people think.唯一不利的是,她们得避开那些心术不正的异性骚扰;很多人大概都会有这种想法。But research by two Israelis suggests otherwise.然而,两名以色列人的研究却显示了迥然不同的结果。Bradley Ruffle at Ben-Gurion University and Zeev Shtudiner at Ariel University Centre looked at what happens when job hunters include photos with their curricula vitae, as is the norm in much of Europe and Asia.在很多欧洲和亚洲国家,求职者都会在简历中附上照片。来自班古里昂大学(Ben-Gurion University)的Bradley Ruffle和来自Ariel 大学中心的Zeev Shtudiner对附上照片后的情况进行了调查。The pair sent fictional applications to over 2,500 real-life vacancies.两人针对现实中2500多个空缺职位投出了虚构的简历。For each job, they sent two very similar résumés, one with a photo, one without. Subjects had previously been graded for their attractiveness.他们给每个职位都投了两份非常相似的简历,一份有照片,一份没有。他们提前根据相片的美貌程度划分了等级。For men, the results were as expected.在男性方面,调查结果在意料之中。Hunks were more likely to be called for an interview if they included a photo.帅气的男士如果在简历上附上照片,通常会得到面试通知。Ugly men were better off not including one.所以,长得抱歉的男性投简历时还是不要附上照片为好。However, for women this was reversed.然而,女性的情况则恰恰相反。Attractive females were less likely to be offered an interview if they included a mugshot.在简历中附有照片的美女通常不那么轻易得到面试通知。When applying directly to a company (rather than through an agency) an attractive woman would need to send out 11 CVs on average before getting an interview; an equally qualified plain one just seven.在直接向公司提交工作申请(即不通过中介)时,美女平均要投出11份简历才能得到一次面试机会;而相貌一般的女性平均只需投出七份即可。At first, Mr Ruffle considered what he calls the ;dumb-blonde hypothesis;-that people assume beautiful women to be stupid.一开始,Ruffle认为这是因为他称之为;漂亮的女人没大脑;的这一假说,即人们通常会认为长得漂亮的女性会比较笨。However, the photos had also been rated on how intelligent people thought each subject looked; there was no correlation between perceived intellect and pulchritude.两人同时也对照片上看起来的聪明程度做了评级,但结果显示看上去聪不聪明和貌美程度并没有联系。。So the cause of the discrimination must lie elsewhere.所以,引起这种区别对待必有其它原因。Human resources departments tend to be staffed mostly by women. Indeed, in the Israeli study, 93% of those tasked with selecting whom to invite for an interview were female.在人事部工作的多数是女性,而在这次调查中,负责筛选简历并确定面试名单的确实有93%都是女性。The researchers unavoidable-and unpalatable-conclusion is that old-fashioned jealousy led the women to discriminate against pretty candidates.所以调查者最终不免要得出的一个令人不快的结论——正是亘古不变的妒忌心使得漂亮的求职者受歧视。So should attractive women simply attach photos that make them look dowdy?那么,美女就应该附上一张看起来邋遢的照片在简历上吗?No. Better, says Mr Ruffle, to discourage the practice of including a photo altogether.不,Ruffle说,最好是不要附上照片。Companies might even consider the anonymous model used in the Belgian public sector, where CVs do not even include the candidates name.公司甚至会考虑采用比利时公共部门招聘时运用的匿名模式,在这种模式下,连求职者的姓名(更别说照片了)都不予显示。 /201210/203876

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