呼和浩特京美整形美容医院激光去斑多少钱百度乐园

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 呼和浩特京美整形美容医院激光去斑多少钱导医在线
Arts of Cambodia柬埔寨艺术Out of adversity摆脱困境An ambitious festival of Cambodian arts is about to hit New York别有深意的柬埔寨艺术节将空袭纽约ON HIS lightning tour of South-East Asia last year, Barack Obama made a point of criticising Cambodias prime minister, Hun Sen, for his dismal human-rights record. Cambodians have indeed done horrifying things to each other. But what of Americas own legacy in the country? Cambodians have not forgotten the sustained American bombing campaign between 1970 and 1973, which drove so many people into the arms of Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge army.在去年的东南亚一行中,巴拉克奥巴马因指责了柬埔寨首相洪森在人权上的可怕记录。的确,柬埔寨人对同胞做了一些令人发指的事。但美国又留下了些什么呢?柬埔寨人不能忘记美国在1970至1973年间持续的狂轰乱炸,致使很多人加入波尔波特的大军及其红色高棉军。“Parachute Skirt with Flowers”, an art installation made of military detritus collected over three decades, offers a disturbing reminder of that era. At its heart is a ed States Air Force parachute that landed in Prey Veng village, the home of Leang Seckon, a Cambodian artist. It was known locally as chhat, Cambodian for umbrella, and Mr Leang remembers how it was used to cover leaky houses during the rains.“带花的降落伞裙”是一种由收集了三十多年的军用碎石制成的艺术装置,总让人不安地想起那个年代。在其中心是降落在波萝勉村的美国空军降落伞,这个村子是一位柬埔寨艺术家Leang Seckon 的家乡。当地称之为chhat ,柬埔寨语是伞的意思,梁先生记得在雨天的时候漏雨的人家用伞来遮挡房屋。Mr Leangs artwork arrives at the Bronx Museum this month as part of “Season of Cambodia”, a 2.6m arts festival involving more than 125 artists of different disciplines, performing or exhibiting in 30 New York institutions, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Asia Society. The catalyst behind the festival is Arn Chorn-Pond, a human-rights activist and outspoken critic of Americas foreign policy during that period. Orphaned as a boy, Mr Pond became a child soldier with the Khmer Rouge. After the war he was rescued from a Thai refugee camp by an American pastor, who adopted him. At Brown University Mr Pond met Amy Carter. It was partly through her father, former President Jimmy Carter, that he began working with Amnesty International.梁先生的艺术品在这个月到达布朗克斯物馆,作为“柬埔寨季节”的展览作品。这个耗资2600万美元的艺术节容纳超过125位来自不同流派的艺术家,这些作品将在纽约30个机构中被展出,从大都会艺术物馆到亚洲协会等。这次艺术节的背后始作俑者是阿恩乔恩-庞德,一位人权活动家,也是那段时期对美国外交政策的公开批评家。孩童时代就成了孤儿的他成为了红色高棉军的娃娃兵。战后,他在泰国难民营被一位美国牧师解救,随后被牧师领养。在布朗大学,庞德先生遇见了艾米卡特。他的父亲,前总统吉米卡特,对他产生的影响让他开始在国际特赦组织工作。During the Pol Pot years Mr Chorn-Pond was stationed in the north-western city of Battambang where he witnessed horrific violence every day. He was saved by his skill in entertaining Khmer soldiers on the khim, a dulcimer-like instrument used to play propaganda songs. Mr Chorn-Ponds search for his khim teacher, Yoeun Mek, and their eventual reunion led to the creation of what is now known as Cambodia Living Arts. This Phnom Penh-based organisation tracked down 20 other master musicians, many of them destitute. It gave them housing, food and a small allowance to encourage them to pass on their musical techniques and traditions to future generations. CLA initiated the New York festival.在波尔布特的那些年里,乔恩庞德驻扎在马德望西北部的一个城市,他在那目睹了每天爆发的恐怖暴力事件。他依靠“金”,一种用来弹奏宣传歌声的洋琴,为高棉军表演而逃过一劫。乔恩庞德找到了他的“金”老师,Yoeun Mek ,他们两的重聚创造了现今为人所知的柬埔寨生活艺术。以金边为基地的这个组织拉拢了20位音乐大师,他们当中很多都穷困潦倒。该组织给予他们住所,食物以及一点点津贴,鼓励他们将自己的音乐技术和习俗传递给下一代。CLA开创了纽约艺术节。Cambodia has a long tradition of classical music, dance and film. King Norodom Sihanouk, who ruled the country until 1970, used to appoint artists to Cambodias diplomatic missions. Sihamoni, his youngest son and the current king, trained as a ballet dancer in Paris and Prague. Norodoms eldest daughter, Buppha Devi, specialised in a classical dance style known as robam boran, and performed for General de Gaulle and Marshall Tito.柬埔寨在古典音乐、舞蹈和电影上有着悠久的传统。统治柬埔寨直到1970年的诺罗顿西哈努克曾任命艺术家们为柬埔寨的外交使团,他最年幼的儿子即现任国王西哈莫尼,曾在巴黎和布拉格接受过芭蕾舞的训练。诺罗顿最年长的女儿,布法提毗则专门从事一种现被称为robam boran的古典舞蹈,她还为法国戴高乐将军和马歇尔提托表演过。All that changed with the arrival of Pol Pot in 1975. He regarded artists as superfluous. One of his favourite sayings was, tuk min chamnen, dak chenh ka, min kat—“to keep you is no gain, to kill you no loss”. Thousands died before Pol Pot fled in 1979 and the terror ended. It took another decade for cultural life to recover.这些都在1975年波尔布特到来的时候发生了改变。波尔布特认为艺术家们是多余的。他的一句至理名言是“多你一个不多,差你一个也不少”。1979年波尔布特逃亡恐慌终结前,有数千名艺术家身亡。又过了十年,文化生活才得以复苏。Identifying survivors was just the first challenge. Robam boran dancers start training when they are six years old, and have to learn thousands of different positions to achieve the required balance of technical perfection and spiritual poise. One of the festivals highlights—to be shown at the Brooklyn Academy of Music—is “The Legend of Apsara Mera”, which includes a dance that Princess Buppha Devi made famous. Among the performers are two young stars of the genre, Chap Chamroeun Mina and Chey Sophea.第一项挑战就是确认幸存者。Robam boran 舞蹈家在6岁的时候就开始接受训练,并且得学习数千种不同的姿势以达到技术上的完美和心灵上的镇静所需的平衡。这次艺术节的一个亮点—将在布鲁克林音乐学院上演—是“仙女梅拉的传奇”,当中包括因布法提毗而成名的一种舞蹈。在表演者中有两位风俗画的新星,章姜米娜和谢伊索菲亚。The Joyce Theatre in Chelsea will host the Khmer Arts Ensemble, a privately funded company created by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro, who trained with the Royal Ballet. The ensemble gives modern twists to classical dances, folk legends and even Western plays and operas. “A Bend in the River” (pictured), from a popular Cambodian story of village love and revenge, receives its world premiere in New York. This event has brought together for the first time three of Cambodias most important artists—Ms Shapiro, a Moscow-trained composer, Him Sophy, and Pich Sopheap, a sculptor who is working for the first time as a stage designer.切尔西的乔伊斯剧院将接待高棉艺术团,这是一家由与英国皇家芭蕾舞团有来往的索菲丽娜奇姆夏皮罗私下创建的团队。该团队把现代扭动加入到古典舞蹈、民间传说甚至是西方戏剧和歌剧中。来自柬埔寨有名的乡村爱情与复仇故事“大河湾”在纽约全球首映。该事件首次集齐了三位柬埔寨最重要的艺术家—在莫斯科受过训练的作曲家夏皮罗先生、伊姆索菲以及雕刻家皮奇梭熙,后者首次担任舞台设计师。Mr Pich aly has an international reputation. A child during the final days of the Khmer Rouge, he emigrated to America and enrolled at the Art Institute of Chicago. Mr Pichs works, with their broken Buddhas and undetonated bombs, have a strong autobiographical feel. He was the first Cambodian artist to be offered a solo show at the quinquennial dOCUMENTA exhibition in Kassel, in Germany. During the festival Mr Pichs work will be shown at Tyler Rollins Fine Art, the Metropolitan Museum and the World Financial Centre.皮奇先生早已享有世界声誉。在红色高棉军最后的日子里,还是孩童的他移民到了美国并进入了芝加哥艺术学院。皮奇先生的作品,破碎的佛像和没有爆炸的炸弹,带有一种强烈的自传色。他是首位能在德国每五年一次的卡塞尔文献展上个人表演的柬埔寨艺术家。在艺术节期间,皮奇先生的作品将在泰勒罗林斯美术馆、大都会物馆和环球金融中心展出。Amrita Performing Arts promotes contemporary dance in Phnom Penh with the help of several Westerners, including Peter Chin of Canada and a German choreographer, Arco Renz. Chey Chankethyas 15-minute solo, “My Mother and I”, which opens at the Abrons Art Centre on April 18th shows both her classical Cambodian roots and the influence of these choreographers.仙露表演艺术团与几位西方艺术家将在金边共同表演现代舞,这几位西方艺术家包括加拿大的彼得陈及德国编舞者阿科伦兹。谢伊15分钟的个人表演“我和我的母亲”4月18号将在Abrons艺术中心上演,同时展现了她的古典柬埔寨根源和这些编舞者们的影响。Only two shadow-puppet companies survived the war. Wat Bo, a Siem Reap-based troupe, will perform scenes from the “Ramayana” at the World Financial Centres Winter Garden. An unlikely setting perhaps, but the organisers are confident that the atrium with its giant palms is as close to the puppeteers natural environment as can be found in New York.只有两个皮影戏公司从战争中存活下来。在暹粒市创建的剧团笏公司将在环球金融中心的冬季花园表演“罗传”的场景。也许是一个不太可能的环境,但组织方相信长有巨大棕榈树的中庭是在纽约能够找到的最贴近皮影戏表演自然环境的地方。Cambodia had a vibrant film industry during the 1960s and Asias first international film festival was held in Phnom Penh in 1968. Its best-known director, Panh Rithy, has put together a programme of ten full-length feature films to be shown in New York, along with four shorts.在20世纪60年代,柬埔寨拥有着充满朝气的电影工业,1968年亚洲第一届国际电影节就在金边举行。柬埔寨最有名的一位导演是潘瑞希,他的一个将在美国上映的节目是由十部未删减的剧情片和四个短片。The link between creativity and memory is raised repeatedly by Mr Panh, who lost almost his entire family during the Khmer Rouge era. How to revive a culture after a holocaust is a question that he would like to see more widely discussed. The festival will introduce new audiences to Cambodian culture, and remind Americans of their governments checkered role in Cambodias history.潘先生反复突出创造性和记忆的连接,他在红色高棉军时代几乎失去了所有家人。怎样复原一次大屠杀之后的文化是他想要看到被广泛研究的一个问题。这次艺术节会给柬埔寨文化带来很多新的观众,也能提醒美国政府曾在柬埔寨历史中扮演的多变角色。 /201405/299304Business商业报道Twitters IPO推特上市Going cheep?先闻其声?The microblogging firms shares may not be the bargain investors are hoping for推特股价可能高于投资者预期TWITTER is aly a social-media star.推特已经是社交明星。Now it hopes to become the toast of the stockmarket too.现在它又希望可以成为股票市场的新星。The firm has gradually been unveiling more information about its business.为了准备在纽约券交易所的上市交易,But as it gets y for its first day of trading as a public company on the New York Stock Exchange, which looks likely to be on November 7th, opinions about a fair price for the shares vary considerably.这家公司现在开始逐渐公开一部分商业信息。上市日期大概在11月7日左右,现在对其股票上市的价格有诸多意见。The firm has announced a provisional range of between 17 and 20 for its stock, which would value it at up to 11.1 billion.推特表示其股票价格暂定在17到20美金之间,总价值可达111亿美元。Speculation is rife that Twitter and its bankers could set an even loftier price before trading starts, though as we went to press no change had been announced.虽然现在还没有消息称公司会改变发售价但普遍认为推特及其会在股票发售前定一个较高的价格。If they do push the price higher, long-term investors could get their fingers burned.如果他们真的抬高了发售价,那些长线投资者的利益将会有所损失。Twitbulls point out that Twitter is going public at a time when social-media stocks are all the rage.推文指出现在社交媒体类股票风靡一时,于是推特选在这时上市。On October 30th Facebooks share price, which had aly risen by 84% this year, soared in after-hours trading following news that its latest quarterly revenue had hit 2 billion.10月30号,脸书公布其最新季度收入达到20亿美金,之后其股票飙升,而今年它的股票已经升了84%了。LinkedIn has seen its stellar revenue growth slow a bit recently, but its shares are still up 95% this year.LinkedIn 最近的主要收入增长有所放缓,但今年他的股票仍涨了95%。Twitters boosters also claim that the company deliberately set a conservative initial price range to fuel investor interest in its stock, noting that an internal valuation conducted by the firm in August reckoned its shares were worth 20.62 each at the time.推特的持者声称公司故意设置了一个保守的价格区间以吸引投资者,公司在8月份内部股价认为当时价值20.62美元每股。The company has continued to increase its audience, and now boasts 232m users that visit it at least once a month.现在公司的关注度在持续上升,至少有2亿3千2百万用户每月至少浏览一次。Small wonder, then, that some financial folk are predicting Twitters stock will fly even if the IPO price is a bit higher than the existing range.不足为奇的是,一些民间金融预测推特的股票会上涨即使IPO的价格略高于现有区间。Brian Wieser of Pivotal Research Group reckons its shares will be changing hands at 29 by the end of the year.广告业研究机构匹维托研究集团的布莱恩?维瑟认为这股票到年末会涨至29美元。Others are even more optimistic.甚至还有一席人表现得更为乐观。Doug Kass of Seabreeze Partners Management, a hedge fund, has said he thinks the share price of Twitter could double within its first month of trading and that he would be willing to pay up to 32.50 for its shares. Twitbulls like to point out that Twitter is currently generating about 2.30 of revenue per user.海风资产管理公司的对冲基金管理人Doug Kass表示他认为股票价格会在交易的第一个月翻倍,他愿意以32.5美元的价格买入股票。That is much less than Facebook makes from its audience, implying Twitter has plenty of room to boost sales.推文指出推特最近可以在每个用户上收入约2.30美元,远脸书的收益,旨在暗示推特任由上涨空间。But they gloss over an important fact. Unlike Facebook and LinkedIn, which were making healthy profits before they went public, Twitter is still losing money—134m in the first nine months of this year compared with 71m in the same period of 2012.但是他们掩盖了一个重要事实。推特不像脸书和LinkedIn那样在上市前健康盈利,而是还在亏损。These losses make it impossible to compare Twitters IPO with others using the traditional yardstick of a price-earnings ratio.今年的前9个月亏了1.34亿美金,去年同期则亏损了7千1百万美金。这些亏损使得推特的IPO不能用传统的价格收益比来衡量。Instead, analysts often look at another measure: the ratio of a firms proposed market capitalisation at IPO to the past 12 months sales.相反,分析家经常看其他数据,例如公司就过去12个月销售及IPO所提出的公司目标市值比。Jay Ritter, a professor at the University of Florida, has calculated this ratio for Twitter using a share price of 18.50, which is the midpoint of its proposed range.Jay Ritter佛罗里达大学教授根据这个比计算得出推特的股价应在18.50美元,这一价格处于公司提出的股价范围的中位。Counting in restricted shares and those associated with outstanding stock options, this produces a market cap of 12.9 billion and a price-to-sales ratio of 24.1 based on Twitters revenues over the past 12 months.计算有限的股票和相关的优秀股权,这产生了大约129亿元的市场价值和24.1的市销率。That is the third-highest PSR of any IPO in America since 1980 involving firms with significant revenues.这是自1980年以来美国企业重要收入IPO中第三高的市销率。Shares in the two companies ahead of Twitter in the chart—Facebook and Palm, a now-defunct maker of hand-held devices—fell sharply in the months following their IPOs; and Mr Ritter notes that the top 15 companies in his PSR ranking saw their share prices drop by an average of 5% in the six months after their first day of trading.表上领先推特的2家公司—脸书和Plam的股票继IPO之后在本月快速下降;Ritter先生表示15家市销率榜上的顶尖企业的股票在第一日交易后的6个月中都平均下降了5%。“A valuation at a high price-to-sales ratio removes a lot of the upside potential for investors in the public market,” he says.在公共市场中,基于高市销比的估价减少了投资者的上涨潜力。The challenge faced by companies with high ratios is to generate revenue fast enough to meet investors expectations.那些有着高市销比的公司面临着加快产生收益已满足投资者期许的挑战。So far, Twitter has only a microscopic share of the 118 billion a year global market for online advertising.到目前为止推特只拥有1180亿美元每年的网络广告全球市场的微型股。Yet the fact that many people tweet on their smartphones means it is well-positioned to take advantage of growth in mobile advertising.然而,很多人用智能机发推特表示了它能很好地利用手机广告的增长。On the other hand the compact nature of its tweets, limited to 140 characters, means that Twitter will find it harder than Facebook to generate ad formats that mint money.另一方面,由于140字符的限制使得推特短小精悍,这意味着较脸书推特跟难产生广告效应从而盈利。And it now faces much stiffer competition from the social network and other companies such as Google in the mobile-ad arena.同时现在它正面临着来自其他社交媒体和类似谷歌的公司在手机广告领域的挑战。Trick or tweet?恶作剧还是推特So what is a fair value for Twitters shares?所以推特的真正股票价值是多少?Aswath Damodaran, a professor at New York University, has built a valuation model that assumes Twitter will scoop up around 5.5% of the online ad market by 2023, giving it revenues of 11.2 billion.Aswath Damodaran纽约大学教授建立了价值模型,估计到2023年推特的网络广告市场将会增加5.5%,这会给企业带来112亿美元的收入。His model also posits an operating margin of 25% for the company, which seems plausible given that of other internet firms that have grown fast.他的模型还假定基于其他网络公司快速发展的情况下,推特营运利润率为25%看上去是可信的。Based on his analysis, he reckons Twitters shares are worth 17.84 each, which is towards the lower end of Twitters current price range.根据他的分析,他推算推特的股票脚趾17.84美元每股,低于推特最近给出的价格范围。Given the many uncertainties that still dog the companys business model, a price of around 18 a share seems reasonable.由于公司发展仍有很多不确定性,每股18美元左右的售价是比价合理的。But investors who like volatility may still want to take a flutter on Twitters stock even if the price is somewhat higher.但是那些活跃的投资者仍想入手推特的股票,即使价格有些高。Given all of the hype around the company, Twitters shares could spike upwards immediately after its IPO, allowing investors to mint money by buying and selling quickly.在大肆宣传之后,推特的股票会在其上市后发行,允许投资者以快速买卖的方式流动资金。So Twitters flotation could be a great short-term trading opportunity.所以推特发行股票是一个很好的短期交易机会。But at anything above 18 each, its shares will be a poor long-term investment.但是任何一股超过18美元每股后,他就会变成长期投资。 /201311/263573Finance and economics财经商业Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa非洲撒哈拉以南地区就业状况Sorry, no vacancies抱歉,暂无空缺Why African firms create so few jobs为何非洲公司创造的就业机会如此之少AFRICAN businesses are reluctant employers.非洲企业均为不愿聘请员工的雇主。A given firm in Sub-Saharan Africa typically has 24% fewer people on its books than equivalent firms elsewhere, according to a recent paper from the Centre for Global Development, a think-tank based in Washington, DC.全球发展中心一份近期的报告显示,在给定的相同规模条件下,非洲撒哈拉以南地区的公司通常比其他地方的公司在账面上要少雇佣24%的员工。Given the links between employment and development, economists want to figure out the reasons for the shortfall.就业与增长之间的是有所关联的,而在考虑到这一点后经济学家们都想要弄清楚上述差额产生的原因。The study calculates the missing jobs by crunching information on 41,000 formal businesses globally from a World Bank survey.此次研究使用了来自世界全球41000家正规企业的调查资料,统计出了岗位流失情况。The data capture only a sliver of what actually happens in Africa: nine in ten workers have an informal job.而这些数据只反映出了零星非洲的真实情况:事实上,十个工人当中有九位是在干着非正式的工作。Shunned by the formal sector, workers turn to below-the-radar employment—toiling on family farms or otherwise beyond the governments reach.由于被正规部门所抛弃,工人们转向了地下就业市场—在家庭农场工作或是进入到政府监管之外的领域。But a big informal sector makes it harder for Africa to reduce poverty, even when economic growth is strong.但一个庞大的非正规就业市场,甚至是在经济增长强劲的条件下,也会使得非洲国家难以减少贫困人口。Increases in income on the production side of the economy translate weakly into higher wages for workers.国家经济在生产方面的收入增长,难以转化为更高的工人薪资水平。Indeed the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction is weaker in Africa than any other developing region.事实上,经济增长与贫困人口减少之间的联系密切程度,在非洲地区的要比其他发展中地区弱得多。Several factors explain African bosses reluctance to take on new workers.以下一些因素能够去解释为何非洲的老板们不愿意雇用新工人。One is that firms tend to be younger than elsewhere, but even older ones have fewer employees.首先是非洲公司都普遍比其他地区的公司年轻,但即便是老牌公司也雇用很少的员工。More broadly, Africas business climate discourages hiring.更广泛地说,那就是非洲的市场不鼓励雇用员工。Government officials in search of taxes and bribes tend to chase large firms, rather than small ones, says Vijaya Ramachandran of CGD, because they are considered more likely to cough up.来自CGD组织的Vijaya Ramachandran解释道,渴望税收和贿赂的政府官员更倾向于对大公司下手而不是小公司,因为他们觉得大公司更有可能缴税和贿赂。The managers of Nigerien and Liberian firms with more than 100 employees spend 14% longer dealing with government officials than smaller peers.尼日尔和利比里亚当中规模超过100名员工的公司负责人,要比小规模的同行花费多出14%的时间去与政府官员打交道。A recent study from South Africa revealed that bosses there were desperate to dodge the attentions of bureaucrats and thus avoided taking on new workers.最近一份南非的研究报告揭示,非洲这边的老板们正迫不及待地想要避开政府的关注,因此他们选择避免聘请新工人。High unit labour costs are also culpable.高昂的单位劳动力成本也是其中一个因素。Employing people in Africa should be cheap, given that many of its countries have rock-bottom income levels.鉴于许多非洲国家的国民收入水平都处于底部,这边的劳动力应该是十分低廉的。Yet in half of African countries labour costs are higher than in China because workers are less productive.然而,由于工人生产力低下,半数非洲国家的劳动力成本比中国还要高。They are nearly 80% higher in Africa than those in other countries at similar levels of income.与其他收入水平相当的国家相比,非洲的劳动力成本要高出约80%。That lowers competitiveness and makes hiring less likely.而这不仅降低了国家的竞争力,还令雇佣就业水平大减。Economists disagree about the possible causes of this.对其成因,经济学家们的观点并不一致。Red tape and unionisation may be responsible, though on average indicators of labour-market regulation are no different in Africa than elsewhere.虽然平均来看劳力市场监管的各项指标显示非洲与其他地区没什么不同,但政府的官僚作风和工会的组织不力有着一定的责任。Nonetheless there are horror stories.尽管如此,这里还是有可怕的故事。A 2012 report on South Africa, which lays the blame on greedy unions, calculates that the average employee at Eskom, a state-owned electricity utility, earns 40% more in terms of purchasing-power parity than a German professor.一份2012年来自南非的报告谴责了贪婪的垄断联合团体。该份报告统计了一家国有电力公司Eskom的情况,发现以购买力平价计算,该公司平均员工的薪酬水平比德国教授的薪酬水平还要高40%。Africas commodity-driven export models may be another cause of low formal employment.非洲实体商品出口模式或许是正规就业市场低迷的另一大因素。Four-fifths of the continents export revenues are from commodities.五分之四的非洲出口利润是从实体商品中获取的。That can lead to overvalued exchange rates if their prices rise.如果商品价格上升,这便会导致货币汇率被高估。That hurts firms competitiveness, curbs their growth and thus discourages hiring.而这伤害了公司的竞争力,损害了他们的业绩增长,因此也导致了就业市场的低迷。Changing labour-market dynamics could exacerbate the job problem.动荡的劳动力市场会加剧就业问题。Some 250m people are expected to join the African workforce between 2010 and 2050.有2亿5千万人将在2010年至2050年间加入非洲的劳动力市场。In the short term many will go into farming, which employs 65% of the African labour force.短期内,许多人将会投身于农业耕作当中,而目前这正是非洲65%的劳动力的工作内容。The agricultural sector struggles to create enough jobs.农业部门一直在为创造足够的新就业机会而挣扎。In the 1990s donors lost interest in using their aid dollars for agricultural investment.20世纪90年代,捐赠者们已经对农业方面的投资捐助失去了兴趣。Shame: better farming techniques could bring unproductive land into use and help Africa shift into higher-value-added crops.而这正是一个值得羞愧的事情:更好的农耕技术能够让贫瘠的土地变肥沃,与此同时,还能帮助非洲转向生产更高价值的作物。According to a report by McKinsey, a consulting firm, that could create 6m extra jobs by 2020.麦肯锡咨询公司的报告表示,这样的技术将会在2020年前为非洲创造额外600万个就业机会。But agricultural improvement can also free up labour to work in more productive sectors—if the jobs are available.但是,农业技术进步的同时也解放了劳动力的使用,使得富余劳动力能够往更高产出的部门流动。Africa is embracing structural reform: a recent report from the World Bank shows that of the 20 economies worldwide making the most progress in improving business regulation, nine are in Sub-Saharan Africa.非洲正在实现自身的结构性改革:一份世界近期的报告显示,全球20个在改进商业法规的方面做得最好的国家当中,有9个是非洲撒哈拉以南地区的国家。Without further improvement, employment growth in Africas formal sector will remain depressingly stunted.然而,在没有进一步改善的情况下,非洲正规部门的就业增长将依旧呈现出令人失望的受阻态势。 /201404/284608

As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:承认吧,你已坠入爱河。While that may or may not be true depending on who you are, its nosecret that addiction is a common phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?Or broccoli? Well, maybe notbroccoli, but you get the point.或者说无糖可乐,或是花椰菜?也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain; addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,Youre hooked.而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。 201403/279416

Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼得Unpacking Lego拆乐高How the Danish firm became the worlds hottest toy company来自丹麦的乐高如何成为全球最畅销玩具公司IT IS getting harder to go anywhere without stepping on a piece of Lego-related hype.无论走到哪儿,要想不碰到关于乐高的宣传,真是越来越难了。The Lego Movie is number two at the American box office, after three weeks at number one.《乐高大电影》现在位居美国票房第二位,这之前它已连续三周成为美国票房冠军。Model kits related to the film are piled high in the shops.和该电影有关的工具箱模型在商场大卖,They will add to the aly gigantic heap of Lego bits:让这个世界又多了一大把乐高积木。86 for every person on the planet.据估计,平均每个地球人拥有86块乐高积木。The toymaker has enjoyed ten years of spectacular growth, almost quadrupling its revenue.这家玩具制造商在过去十年中飞速发展,收入翻了两番。In 2012 it overtook Hasbro to become the worlds second-largest toymaker.2012年,乐高追赶上美国的孩之宝公司,成为世界第二大玩具公司。The number one, Mattel, is now seeking to buy the Canadian maker of Mega Bloks toy bricks, to fend off the challenge from Lego.排名第一的美泰为了应对乐高的挑战,正在寻求收购加拿大的美家宝积木。This is remarkable for many reasons.这实在是了不起的成就。Legos home town, Billund in rural Denmark, is so small that the company had to provide it with a hotel—an elegant one, unsurprisingly.理由有很多。乐高的家乡比伦德是丹麦的一个小乡村,因为实在太小,乐高还得专门为它盖一座宾馆—当然是非常高大上的那种。The toy business is one of the worlds trickiest:玩具是世界上最难搞的产业之一。perennially faddish and, at the moment, convulsed by technological innovation.潮流永远是来得快去得也快同时又饱受新技术的冲击。Children are growing up ever faster, and abandoning the physical world for the virtual.现在的孩子成长得越来越快,并且越来越多的抛弃现实世界,投向虚拟世界的怀抱。To cap it all, the company almost collapsed in 2003-04, having drifted for years,最要命的是,乐高在03年到04年已经走到破产的边缘。diversifying into too many areas, producing too many products.那时的乐高已迷茫多年,涉足领域过多,产品线过长。and, in a fit of desperation, flirting with becoming a lifestyle company, with Lego-branded clothes and watches.绝望中,它甚至起了念头想要变成一家生活方式公司,开始生产乐高牌的装和手表。Legos decade of success began when it appointed Jorgen Vig Knudstorp as chief executive.乐高十年的辉煌开始于任命Jorgen Vig Knudstorp为首席执行官。This was a risky move:这是一招险棋。Mr Knudstorp was a mere 35 years old and had cut his teeth as a management consultant with McKinsey rather than running a business.当时的Knudstorp只有35岁,商场上的历练也仅限于在麦肯锡做管理咨询,并未管理过一家公司。But it proved to be inspired.然而事实明这招棋走对了。Mr Knudstorp decreed that the company must go back to the brick: focusing on its core products, forgetting about brand-stretching, and even selling its theme parks.Knudstorp命令公司回到积木生意,专注于核心产品,忘掉品牌拓展,甚至卖掉主题公园。He also brought in stricter management controls, for example reducing the number of different pieces that the company produced from 12,900 to 7,000.他还采用了更严格的管理制度,比如将组件从12900个减少到7000个。Under Mr Knudstorp Lego has struck a successful balance between innovation and tradition.在Knudstorp治下,乐高在创新与传统中找到了平衡。The company has to generate new ideas to keep its sales growing:为保销售量持续增长,它必须不断推出新的创意,customers need a reason to expand their stock of bricks, and to buy them from Lego rather than cheaper rivals.才能给顾客足够理由买更多的积木,而且是从乐高而不是从更便宜的对手那儿买。But at the same time it must resist the sort of undisciplined innovation that almost ruined it.但同时它又必须避免没有章法的创新,当年它就是栽在这一点上。Lego produces a stream of kits with y-made designs, such as forts and spaceships, to provide children with templates.乐高生产有各式各样的工具箱,里面装有现成的设计,比如城堡或者太空飞船,孩子们可以把它们当做模板。But it also insists that the pieces can be added to the childs collection of bricks, and reused to make all sorts of other things.不过它坚称,这些积木也可以和已有的积木混在一起,拼出其他的东西。Lego has got better at managing its relationships.乐高也学会了如何更好地处理与其他产业的关系。The Lego Movie demonstrates how it can focus on the brick while venturing into the virtual world:《乐高大电影》展现了它如何一方面专注做积木,一方面打入虚拟世界。Warner Bros.made the film while Lego provided the models.华纳兄弟拍电影,乐高提供模型。During its years of drift it relied too much on other firms blockbuster franchises,在迷茫的那些年里,乐高过度依赖其他公司的系列大片,such as Harry Potter and Star Wars.如哈利波特或星球大战。This time its intellectual property, not someone elses, is the star of the film.这次电影的主角换成了它自己的创意。It has also got better at tapping its legion of fans—particularly adult fans of Lego, or AFOLs—for new ideas.同时它还懂得了如何更好地利用强大的乐高粉丝团,尤其是成年粉丝,来获取创意。Can the company continue its winning streak?乐高能够保持其辉煌的战绩吗?Its growth is slowing: its net profits grew by 9% in 2013 compared with 35% in 2012, and its revenues rose by 10% compared with 23% in 2012.它的增长正在放缓:2012年乐高净利润增长35%,2013年下降到了9%。2012年总收入增长23%,2013年只有10%。Mr Knudstorp suggests that harder times are ahead: When the company is getting bigger and the market isnt growing,Knudstorp也暗示未来的路不好走:当公司不断扩张而市场却保持不变时,增长率肯定得回到一个可持续的水平,its a pure mathematical consequence that growth rates will have to reach a more sustainable level.这纯粹就是个数学问题。Lego is now at an inflection point, building its organisational capacity and embracing globalisation, to help it find new sources of growth.如今的乐高正处在转折点。通过提高管理水平,主动适应全球化,它在努力寻找新的增长点。Last year the company invested DKr2.6 billion in production facilities and added more than 1,300 full-time workers, a 13% increase.去年乐高在生产设备上共投资26亿丹麦马克,增加全职员工1300多名,增长达13%。It is expanding two existing factories—in Kladno in the Czech Republic and Monterrey in Mexico—and building two new ones—in Nyiregyhaza in Hungary and,如今它正在扩建捷克共和国克拉德诺和墨西哥蒙特雷的两家工厂,位于匈牙利尼尔吉哈萨most important of all, in Jiaxing in China.和最为重要的中国嘉兴的两家新工厂也在施工当中。Its management is being globalised too, with regional offices being opened in Singapore and Shanghai.管理层也日渐国际化,地区办公室已经开到了新加坡和上海,The aim is twofold: to replicate in the rapidly growing east Legos success in the west;目的是在快速增长的东方复制乐高在西方的成功,and to transform a local company that happened to go global into a global company that happens to have its head office in Billund.并且将一个不小心走向全球的地方性公司转变为一个偶然把总部设在比伦德的跨国公司。Late to the party派对去晚了Globalisation, as we point out at length in our business section this week, is fraught with difficulties.全球化的路非常难走,本刊在这周的商业板块花了大篇幅阐明这个道理。Lego is relatively late in making its China play—jumping in when some other western firms are jumping out with nothing but regrets to show for it.乐高进入中国的时间相对较晚—正当一些西方公司一无所获充满悔恨的离开中国之时,它进来了。Lego also owes its identity to its roots in small-town Denmark:乐高的根仍在那个丹麦小镇:Ole Kirk Kristiansen, its founder, made up the name from the first two letters of two Danish words, leg godt, or play well,创始人奥勒取了两个丹麦单词leg godt前两个字母,拼在一起有了Lego,and committed his company to nurture the child in each of us.他给公司定的宗旨是养育每个人心中的那个孩子。An earlier attempt to move some of the responsibilities for designing products to an office in Milan proved to be a disaster.乐高曾将一些设计任务交给米兰的一间办公室来做,结果出了大问题。But the logic of globalisation is nevertheless compelling.然而全球化的诱惑仍让人无法抗拒。The Chinese middle class is exploding, the toy business in the west is stagnant,中国的中产阶级正呈爆炸性增长,而西方的玩具市场又停滞不前;and Lego needs a global workforce if it is to serve a global market.如果要打入全球市场,乐高也必须拥有一批全球性员工。Lego also has one important force on its side in its battle to globalise:在全球化的战役中,乐高还具备一有生力量:parents in emerging markets, just like those in the rich world, are convinced that the companys products are good for their children.和发达国家一样,新兴国家的父母们相信乐高产品对他们的孩子有好处。Grown-ups everywhere welcome it as a respite from the endless diet of s and digital games that their offspring would otherwise consume.世界各地的成年人都喜欢可高,因为它能将孩子们从无休止的电玩和数码游戏中解放出来。Chinese adults, including those very grown-up ones in government ministries,中国的成年人,包括政府部门的官员,hope it will provide the secret ingredient that their education system sorely lacks:creativity.希望乐高能够提供中国教育体系中匮乏的东西、也是国家发展的秘方:创造力。The Lego Movie may be providing the company with a welcome boost during the toy industrys post-Christmas doldrums.圣诞节过后是玩具业的淡季,《乐高大电影》也许在短期内能给这家公司注入一剂强心针。But Legos long-term success rests on the way adults feel reassured at buying a toy whose roots lie in an age before games, mobile apps and toy-themed films.然而从长期看,乐高若要成功,就必须让成年人能够放心地购买一个来自另一年代的玩具,那个没有电玩、移动应用或玩具主题电影的年代。 /201403/279988

To find the answers, we need to rewind history around 14,000 years to a time when the first people set foot in North America. The continent was about to undergo a profound change, a change these new arrivals may have played a part in.为了找到,我们需要重新回顾14000年前的历史,那时,第一批人类踏足北美大陆,而大陆也即将经历一次深刻的变化,这个变化就是由这些新的到访者带来的。Throughout the ice age, North America was home to a variety of giant creatures. But in little more than a thousand years of the first humans’ arriving, almost two thirds of the largest animals were extinct.在整个冰河时代,北美都遍布各种大型生物。但是就在人类踏足北美大陆一千年多一些的时间后,二分之三的大型动物都已经灭绝。What role did people play in this mass extinction? To learn about their lives, you have to look at the clues they left behind.大型生物灭绝的范围如此之大,人类在其中起了怎样的作用?想要知道他们的生活,你就必须从他们遗留下来的痕迹中寻找线索。Archaeological finds tell us that the first people in North America had an advanced Stone Age technology. They were master of flintknappers meticulously chipping and sharpening pieces of flint to make spears and cutting tools. From the examples they left behind, its obvious they were well equipped to hunt.考古学发现告诉我们,北美洲第一批人类具有先进的石器时代的技术。他们擅长用打火石精细雕刻,用尖利的碎石片制作长矛以及削制工具。从他们留下的工具来看,很明显,他们打猎时很好地利用了这些工具。And we know from spear points found alongside mammoth remains that these hunters tackled even the biggest beasts on the continent. Mammoths would have been a prized source of protein, providing enough meat to feed their families for weeks. The hunters probably worked in pairs or small groups. Any mammoth straying from its own herd would have been singled out.从猛犸象化石上的长矛凹痕我们可以看出,这些猎手们甚至可以扑杀北美大陆体型最大的生物。猛犸象肉蕴含丰富的蛋白质,扑杀一头,便能喂养他们的家庭数周。这些猎人们可能几个人一组或多个人一组。任何离群的猛犸象都可以成为他们的猎物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201310/261642

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