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厦门微格超声刀美容超声刀手术超冰脱毛哪家便宜价格厦门薇格医疗门诊部美容中心厦门微格祛痣多少钱 Chinese patents中国专利Ever more inventive越来越具创造性Mainland companies are building up their intellectual property内地企业正在建立自己的知识产权CHINAS leaders see patents as rungs on the ladder to becoming an innovation powerhouse. So in five-year plans and through subsidies and official exhortations, they have encouraged locals to file patents. And locals have responded with gusto. Two years ago Chinas patent office became the worlds busiest. Sceptics have scoffed that most of those filed are “utility model” patents—short-term ones granted for relatively trivial ideas, as opposed to proper “invention” patents—and that few Chinese inventors have won patents in countries where standards are higher.中国的领导人们认为,专利便是通往创新大国那扶梯上的横档。因此,不论是在五年计划里,还是经由种种补贴和官方规诫,他们一直鼓励国人申请专利,而国人也对此颇为捧场,两年前,中国专利局一跃成为世界上最繁忙的专利机构。怀疑论者对这些专利嗤之以鼻,他们认为,大多数人申请的都是“实用新型”专利,与正式的“发明”专利不同,这类短期专利价值不高。而且,对那些专利门槛颇高的国家而言,很少有中国发明人能入其法眼。Many patents, it is also argued, are exercises in a-filling by academics, with no hope of commercialisation. In short, these patents are a sham. Not quite, argues the UNs World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). A new study scrutinises Chinese patents and concludes that a small but rapidly growing proportion are up to world standards.也有另一种说法称,许多专利是学者们纯粹为了定量完成任务而练手的结果,并没有将其商业化的期许。说白了,这些都是伪专利。不过在联合国世界知识产权组织(WIPO)看来,也非尽然如此。一项审视中国专利的新研究得出结论,称其占比虽小,但迅速增长的比例已达到世界标准。The WIPO included only patents filed by Chinese residents—that is, those with a Chinese address—who filed their patents first on the mainland. So, inventions by the Shanghai labs of GE or Philips are not included, since Western multinationals typically file first in America or Europe. Foxconn, a manufacturing goliath controlled by Hon Hai of Taiwan, is included in the study because, unlike other Taiwanese firms, it resides in China and files its patents first on the mainland.世界知识产权组织仅将中国居民申请的专利列入统计—这包含两个概念:申请人居住在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。而由于西方跨国公司通常会先在美国或欧洲申请专利,通用和飞利浦的上海实验室做出的发明便不包括在统计之列。之所以台湾鸿海集团旗下的制造业巨擘富士康包括在此项研究之内是因为和其他台商不同,它的驻地在中国,且是在内地首次注册专利。The findings challenge conventional wisdom in several ways. Not only do they show that the number of Chinese patents filed abroad is rising sharply (see chart). They also show that, since 2003, most of these have been invention patents, not utility-model ones.该研究结果在许多方面挑战了传统认知。他们不仅表明在国外申请的中国专利数量急剧上升。还表明自2003年以来,这些专利大部分都是费了番脑子的发明,而非中看不中用的“实用新型”绣花枕头。Finally, the firms topping the rankings of foreign patent applications are also revealing. Some, like Huawei and ZTE, are unsurprising: 29% of all foreign filings from 2005 to were in information and communications technology. Lenovo comes in at 16th. Others, like Sinopec in oil and gas, and BYD in batteries, suggest the energy industry is rising.而值得注意的是,国外专利申请排名靠前的公司也慢慢冒头。华为和中兴之类的企业跻身其中不足为奇:2005至年,源自信息和通信技术行业的专利申请占国外专利市场的29%。联想位列第16位。而出现在名单上的其他公司,像石油和天然气领域的中石化,以及电池行业的比亚迪,都意味着能源产业的崛起。The surprise is that three of the top five spots are held by divisions of Foxconn. By 2012 it had filed more than 12,000 patents abroad, in areas from electrical machinery to computer technology to audio- technology. A firm some scorn as a low-tech sweatshop turns out to be a model of invention.出人意料的是,名单上排名前五的公司有三位是由富士康的部门占据。至2012年为止,富士康已在国外申请超过12000项专利,覆盖面从电机到计算机技术,再到音视频技术。被一些人所轻视的低技术含量的血汗工厂到头来居然是发明界的典范。 /201407/309038厦门薇格整形美容医院隆鼻修复怎么样

厦门Vmax薇格整形医院玻尿酸隆鼻多少钱These holes are the unmistakable hallmark of a violent death. Their shape suggest they were made by the teeth of a big cat, but which one? Today there’s only one large cat in the region, the Florida panther. Though similar to the cougar at the western states, its now much rarer. But it was around during the ice age, so could it have killed the glyptodont? 这些裂孔无疑出自一位猛烈的“死亡收割者”。从形状上看,他们出自一种大型猫科动物的牙齿,但是是哪一种呢?今天,在这片区域只存活着一种大型猫科动物——佛罗里达豹。尽管和西部各州的美洲狮有很多相似之处,但是他们却更为稀少。然而换作是在冰河时代,他们能杀死雕齿兽吗?Although it could easily manage a deer, the Florida panther was probably too small to tackle such a giant. But it wasnt the only big cat around 13,000 years ago. There was also the mighty American lion, powerful enough to kill a glyptodont. 尽管能够轻易猎杀一只鹿,但是佛罗里达豹的体型却没有大到能够对付如此一个大型动物。但是在13000年以前,大型猫科动物的种类更多。例如大美洲狮,他们十分强大,杀死一只雕齿兽绰绰有余。The scimitar-toothed cat, known to attack young mammonths, was also big and strong enough. And then there was the most infamous cat of all, the sabertooth. Like the scimitar, it saved its awesome fangs for slashing soft flesh. It would have been unlikely to risk breaking them on bony armor. But the warm climate of ice age Florida made it a sanctuary for another killer cat. Still South Americas top predator, the jaguar is capable of taking prey much larger than itself. Weight for weight, its probably the most powerful cat alive today.这种牙齿呈月牙状的猫科动物经常捕杀年幼的猛犸象,他们体型巨大且十分强壮。而另一个例子就是鲜为人知的剑齿虎。和大美洲狮的月牙状牙齿一样,他们也有着长长的牙齿,并用此来撕扯柔软的肉。但要是用他们在撕咬骨盔也并不可行。然而温暖的气候使冰河时代的佛罗里达成为了另一种猫科“杀手”的避难所,这种猫科动物同样是南美州的顶层捕猎者——美洲虎,它们能够猎杀比自身体型大得多的动物。同样,它们也可能是当今存活的最为强大的猫科动物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201307/249995厦门微格打瘦脸针多少钱 State-controlled airlines国营航空公司Flags of inconvenience“不舒适”的代名词Why governments are so keen to keep their loss-making airlines aloft为什么各国政府都十分热衷于保有不断亏损的航空公司呢?MALAYSIA AIRLINES deserves sympathy. This year Flight MH370 disappeared over the Indian Ocean and MH17 was shot down over eastern Ukraine. But these tragedies merely hastened the struggling airline on its route back into full government ownership. On August 8th the countrys sovereign-wealth fund offered to buy the 30% of shares in private hands in order to restructure the airline. The root cause of Malaysias troubles should elicit far less pity. Like many national carriers, it was losing money as a matter of course.近期马来西亚航空的遭遇值得同情。今年,马航相继发生了两起灾难:航班MH370在印度洋上空失踪,以及航班MH17在乌克兰东部遭到击落。但这些悲剧事件仅仅是加快了深陷泥潭的马航回归到全面国有控制的步伐而已。8月8日,国家主权财富基金提出以从私人持股者手中购入30%的马航公司股份,进而对该航空公司实施重建计划。然而,导致马航深陷经营危机的原因或许根本不值得怜悯。就像诸多国营航空公司一样,马航也理所当然地处于亏损状态。Malaysias is not the only government that persists in keeping rickety airlines in flight. Italy raided the states coffers again last year to keep Alitalia going. Then, on the day of the Malaysia bail-out, Etihad, the flag carrier of the ed Arab Emirates, agreed to inject a further 560m (750m) into Alitalia in return for a 49% stake. A restructuring plan agreed at the end of July will keep Polands LOT in business—in return for 200m of taxpayers cash.在坚持保有这些摇摇欲坠的航空公司方面,马来西亚政府并不“孤单”。意大利政府在去年再次搜刮国库资金,以维持意大利航空的运作。紧接在马航被收归国有的那天,阿联酋的旗舰航空公司阿提哈德航空(Etihad)同意向意大利航空进一步注入5亿6千万欧元,以换取后者49%的股份。一份7月末达成的重建计划将令波兰的LOT航空持续经营,而其代价则是纳税人手中的2亿美元。The drain on public funds has a long tradition. Airlines used to be regarded as a vital part of transport infrastructure, like roads or bridges. So, until the mid-1980s, governments owned most of the airlines, set fares and routes, and protected flag-carriers by restricting new entrants. But privatisation made air travel more competitive and liberalisation brought competition from low-cost carriers. Most airlines in state control have failed to adapt.政府对公共资金的耗费俨然已有很长的历史。就像是公路和桥梁一样,航空公司从前就被认为是交通基础建设当中的一个重要部分。因此,直到上世纪80年代为止,大部分航空公司都是政府所有的。政府不仅设置机票价格,还设定飞行路线,同时还通过阻止新竞争者进入市场的方式来保护旗舰航空公司。然而,航空业的私营化却使得航空旅行的较量更加激烈,航空业的开放也将低成本航空公司引入了市场竞争当中。而这也令许多国营航空无所适从。The exceptions are few. The thriving airlines of Singapore and Ethiopia, and the Gulf carriers, Etihad, Emirates and Qatar Airways, all benefited from government money but have been allowed to operate as commercial enterprises with minimal interference. Such entrepreneurial thrust is rare. Elsewhere, inexperienced cronies often dominate management. State employees frequently travel free. Many carriers are obliged to maintain loss-making domestic routes to please politicians. Olympic Airlines was forced to deliver newspapers for a pittance to keep the countrys press barons happy. The Greek national carrier went to the wall in .独树一帜的国营航空是很罕见的。有一批蓬勃发展的国营竞争者,如新加坡航空和埃塞俄比亚航空,以及海湾地区的阿提哈德航空、阿联酋航空和卡塔尔航空,上述“例外”均为国家资本持,但在经营上都有着如同商业企业般的权限,有着极低的政府干预。如此开创性的航空业推动很稀有。而在其他非“例外”的国营航空当中,缺乏行业经验的“裙带货”常常身处管理层的高位;国企员工经常性地能够享受免费航空旅程;为了取悦政客的欢心,许多航空公司还一直运作部分持续亏损的国内航线。为了令国家媒体大亨开心,奥林匹克航空公司不得不以微薄的酬劳来为其配送报刊。这家希腊国营的航空公司最终于年宣布倒闭。Poor management, overstaffing and strong unions have left airlines struggling in a changing business and with little hope of cost-cutting or streamlining. Small state-owned carriers have little clout when buying planes and are far down the pecking order in global airline alliances. So why do governments keep their flag carriers?在一个不断变化的经营环境里,管理不善、人浮于事以及盘根错节的“小联盟”都使得国营航空公司苦苦挣扎,削减成本和部门改革等等的手段对他们来说只是奢望。在购置飞机的时候,小型国营航空话语权极低,而在全球航空联盟等级当中也是地位低下的弱者。那么,为什么各大政府都愿意保有他们的旗舰航空公司呢?Partly because there are few options beyond an endless cycle of failed restructurings. Privatisation plans are plentiful but rarely succeed because heavy losses, debts and legacy costs frighten investors away. It is cheaper to start an airline from scratch. Saviours such as Etihad are as rare as an on-time departure from Beijing airport.其部分原因是,除了深陷于一个不停失败的重建循环之外,航空公司并没有多少更好的选择。私营化的案例很多,但成功的私营化案例却很少,而这是出于沉重的亏损、债务以及历史遗留成本,这些不利因素都令投资者惊慌而逃。与接手一家航空公司相比,白手起家似乎更实惠些。就算是阿提哈德航空这样的国营航空里的“救世主”,也无法准时在北京机场起飞。The political cost of turfing out thousands of state employees makes liquidation unpalatable. So do fears that vital connections to the world will be lost forever. These, in fact, are largely unfounded. Switzerland and Belgium have done without a flag carrier for years. Indeed, opening up to competition is likely to result in more flights and lower fares. But even in death, protectionist urges are strong. Zambian Airways was liquidated in but the government refuses to let foreign airlines use Lusaka as a hub, in the unlikely event that the airline will one day fly again.要令成千上万国企员工失去饭碗才能达成的重组计划,其政治代价过于高昂,这也意味着实施清盘难上加难。与此同时,政府还十分害怕一旦实行了航空业改革,一个联系世界的重要通道就此被隔绝。但事实上,这些担忧大多都是没有必要的。就像是瑞士和比利时政府,他们早已在多年前放弃了国营旗舰航空。航空业的改革开放确实会令竞争加剧,从而令更多的航班和更低的票价能够参与到市场竞争来。然而,就算这些国营航空徘徊于生死线当中,贸易保护主义者的姿态依然强硬。赞比亚航空在年遭到了清盘,而即便是国外航空公司有能力让其重新运营,政府还是拒绝让国外的航空公司插手其中,其原因是政府不想让卢萨卡成为一个航空枢纽。 /201408/323070厦门Vmax薇格医院激光去斑手术多少钱

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