山东省荣军总医院的地址
时间:2019年09月19日 04:44:20

The divorce rate is rising rapidly. In 2014, 3.6 million Chinese couples broke up, almost double the number from a decade previously. In the past, couples required permission from employers or community committees to divorce, and many put up with their spouses just to avoid public embarrassment.离婚率近年来迅速飙升。2014年,中国有360万对夫妻离婚,比10年前几乎增长了一倍。在过去,夫妻离婚需要获得工作单位和社区委员会的许可,因而很多夫妻为了避免公共尴尬,只好对配偶忍气吞声。A 2003 regulation on marriage and divorce simplified the divorce procedure and allowed couples to divorce the same day at a cost of 10 yuan (1.53 dollars).2003年颁布的婚姻和离婚法简化了离婚程序,当天即允许夫妻离婚,花费仅为10元人民币(折合1.53美元)。Reservations and appointments began in Dali on Feb 1, 2015. By the end of last year, 9,571 couples made reservations, but 4,531 of them, 47 percent, did not end up in divorce. In many other cities, similar reservation systems are in place.大理在2015年2月1日开始实行保留和预约制度。截止到去年年底,有9571对夫妻进行预约离婚,但其中约占47%的4531对夫妻最终没有离婚。其他许多城市也准备实行类似的预约体系。These measures are not without their critics. ;It is not proper for governments to put obstacles in front of people wanting a divorce, because Chinese citizens enjoy freedom of marriage,; said Nie Aiping of Jiangxi Academy of Social Sciences. He suggests that interventions should be conducted by an impartial organization.但这样的方式也引来了一些批评。“政府给想要离婚的人设置障碍的方式是不妥的,因为中国公民享受婚姻自由。”江西社科院的聂爱平表示。他建议应由一个公正的组织来实行相关干预。Liu Min in East China#39;s Anhui province has been a divorce attorney for years. She believes that not all broken marriages can be repaired, because the causes of divorce vary.中国东部安徽省的刘敏多年来一直从事离婚律师职业。她认为并不是所有破碎的婚姻都能够修复,因为导致离婚的原因各不相同。;In the past people wanted to divorce mostly because of domestic violence and affairs, now it is increasingly common among young couples to separate after trivial disputes or interference of their parents,; she said.她说:“过去人们离婚主要由于家庭暴力和风流韵事,现在年轻夫妻由于小事争吵或父母干预而离婚这一现象变得越来越普遍。”Most people born in the 1980s and 1990s are only children whose parents tend to interfere too much in their lives, Liu said. What#39;s more, unlike their parents, they attach more importance to individuality and the quality of life.刘敏表示,大部分80后和90后都是独生子女,父母往往喜欢干涉他们的生活。而且与他们父母不同的是,这些年轻人更加关注个性化和生活质量。For the couples careering into divorce without careful forethought, marriage guidance offices have been set up next to registry offices in Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai and other provinces. Psychologists are available.对于那些没有慎重考虑就急着离婚的夫妻,北京、重庆、上海及其他省份均在登记处旁边设立了婚姻指导办公室,有心理学家提供咨询务。The registrars who handle dissolutions in Anhui province have been trained to tell whether a marriage can be saved or not, according to their statement and emotional state, according to Gao Jiamei of Anhui Provincial Civil Affairs Department.安徽省离婚处的登记员接受过培训,能根据夫妻的陈述和情绪状态辨别这段婚姻是否能够被挽救,安徽省民政厅的高佳梅说。A local government in the provincial capital Hefei has invited professional counselors to work alongside registrars. They help couples calm down and think over their relations, establishing a sense of responsibility leading to a rational choice.在省会城市合肥,地方政府邀请了专业咨询师在登记处旁边工作。他们帮助夫妻冷静下来,仔细思考他们的关系,建立责任感,引导他们做出理性选择。But marriage is, after all, deeply personal. To divorce or not, the choice finally lies with the couple themselves.但婚姻毕竟是和个人紧密相关的。离或者不离,决定权最终还是在于夫妻本人。 /201603/429524

Failed to earn himself credits as a member of royal family before coming to power, together with his ordinary capability , Sima Rui was not supported by the big northern immigrant landlords and the southern gentry.司马睿即位后,因为他在皇族中声望不够,本人才能平平,所以得不到南北士族的持,皇位不稳。As he had little to start out with as an emperor now, Sima Rui enlisted the support of statesman Wang Dao, who wisely brought together the two powerful groups in a joint effort to prop up the newly established dynasty in southern China. Thus the Eastern Jin*s governing in the south was sustained.但是,他重用了政治家王导。王导运用策略,使南方士族持司马睿,北方南迁的士族也决意拥护司马睿,稳定了东晋政权, 维持了偏安局面。Out of gratitude, Wang Dao was assumed the position of the chief Minister in control of the court and Wang Dun, the half brother of Wang Dao, grasped the power of army forces and defense. Besides ,other main posts in court were in the hands of Wang’s families as well.司马睿十分感激王导,任他为宰相,执掌朝政,让王导的堂兄王敦都督军事,握有重兵,控制军权,其他重要的官职,大多数也由王导家族担任。Virtually, it was a joint ruling of Sima Rui and Wang Dao in the Eastern Jin govern-ment.东晋王朝,实际上是王导和司马睿共同掌握的。Upon the ceremony of ascending the throne, Sima Rui repeatedly invited Wang Dao to sit together with him, which meant the sharing of authority, and was declined by the latter.司马睿在登基大典上,几次请王导和他一起坐上宝座,接受群臣拜贺,王导谢绝。No wander there was word that“Wang and Ma (Sima Rui),under the sun”.时人曾流传说:“王与马,共天下。”Being well accepted by his people, Sima Rui became unsatisfied with the situation of sharing power with Wang Dao, and he kept close terms with Liu Kui and Diao Xie,meaning to dent the influence of Wang Dao in the court. He made an unsuccessful conspiracy to remove thoroughly Wang Dao#39;s weight resulting from the fact that Wang Dun, hearing the words, took an initial strike, defeated Liu Kui in Wuchang (now Hubei), breezed through Jiankang, the capital, and killed Diao Xie.司马睿在稳定了皇位后,开始不满“王马共天下”的局面,就起用刘隗、刁协为心腹,以削弱王导势力,并暗中进行军事部署,试图最终全面排除王导势力。王敦先发制人,从武昌(今属湖北)起兵击败刘隗,进入建康,杀死刁协。It was under Wang Dao ’ s persuasion that Wang Dun withdrew to Wuchang leaving the power still in the hands of Wang Dao.在王导的劝说下,王敦才退兵武昌,政权仍然由王导控制。Realizing that there was no way to restrict the weight of Wang Dao and his order was like to that of the deaf ears despite he was the emperor, Sima Rui was upset and fell ill as the time being.司马睿见无法动摇王导势力,自己名为天子,号令却不出宫门,渐渐忧愤成病,卧床不起。As the last resort, he appointed Situ Xunzu, the only minister could be trusted, Tai Wei (officials in charge of the army force in court) and the Guard of the Apparent Emperor with purpose to suppress Wang Dao.他想到大臣中只有司徒荀组对自己比较忠顺,就任命他为太尉兼领太子太保,打算让他参与朝政,钳制王导。However, Situ Xunzu was ill and died shortly afterwards. Sima Rui was even mourned, and was his illness aggravated. On a night in November 322, Sima Rur^died in his adytum leaving last order that his son, Sima Shao would succeed him.不料司徒荀组受任不久就病死,司马眷更加忧伤,病势加重,公元322年11月的一个晚上,司马睿病死于建康宫中的内殿。遗诏宣布由太子司马绍继位。 /201512/415742

The founder of Shu-Han,Liu Bei,the descendant of Han Jingdi#39;s son Liu Sheng, came from Zhuo prefecture (near present-day Beijing).刘备,蜀汉的开国皇帝,汉景帝之子中山靖王刘胜的后代。Liu Bei was born in a poor family and lived by selling shoes and weaving straw mat.刘备居于河北涿州(今北京附近),少年孤贫,以贩鞋织草席为生。However, he acquired his first reputation in warfare against the Yellow Turban rebellion of 184 and swore to be brothers with Zhang Fei, Guan Yu, who are both in the following years of fighting devoted to him until death.公元184年黄巾起义时,刘备与关羽、张飞桃园结义,成为异姓兄弟,一同剿除黄巾有功。When civil war caused by Dong Zhuo broke out he served Gongsun Zan to fight against Dong Zhuo. Later he allied himself with the warlords: Cao Cao,Yuan Shao,and Liu Biao one after another and held short-lived power over substantial territory in the north of China.董卓乱政之际,刘备随公孙璜讨伐董卓,刘备势力弱小,经常寄人篱下,先后投靠过曹操、袁绍、刘表等人,几经波折,却仍无自己的地盘。In 200, however, at the time of the campaign between Cao Cao and Yuan Shao at Guan-du, Liu Bei was thoroughly defeated by Cao Cao ’ s forces and fled to take refuge with Liu Biao.公元200年,在曹操与袁绍的官渡之战中,刘备被曹操打败,投奔刘表。Liu did, however, maintain the followers who had accompanied him into exile ,and it was at this time while stationing in Xinye Xu Shu, one of his assistants, recommended Zhuge Liang, a master of strategies to him.但在流亡过程中却一直有人跟随刘备,屯兵新野时,徐庶为其幕僚,向刘推荐诸葛亮。Liu Bei visited and consulted Zhuge Liang three times and the latter agreed to serve him as minister. With the help of Zhuge Liang, Sun-Liu allies defeated Cao Cao from the north at the Red Cliffs and Liu Bei established a position in the southern part of Jing prefecture which laid the fundation for the three kingdoms.刘备在荆州三顾茅庐,请诸葛亮出山辅助,在诸葛亮的帮助下,赤壁之战宁,联合孙权打败曹操,占领荆州,奠定了三分天下的基础。In 211 Liu Bei was invited into Yi prefecture by the Governor, Liu Zhang, to assist him in dealing with enemies on his northern borders.211年受刘璋请求来益州共同防御北方边界。In the summer of 214 Liu Bei seized Yi prefecture and established his own regime at Chengdu.214年夏,刘备攻取益州在成都建立政权。In 219 the decisive victory over Xiahou Yuan obtained Liu Bei’s control of the Han valley, and gave justification for his claim to the royal and then imperial title of Han with an area covering Jing and Yi prefectures.219年,刘备大败曹将夏侯渊,夺取汉中,称汉中王,建立了横跨荆益两州的政权。In the further east line, however, the destruction of Guan Yu, and the failure of Liu Bei’s expedition , aiming at taking revenge for Guan Yu in 222 restricted the territory of Han to Yi province. Despite its imperial pretensions Shu-Han never recovered from those massive defeats.在东线关羽被杀,刘备为给关羽报仇,公元222年,发兵大举进攻东吴兵败。Liu Bei fled to Baidi city and died there in Yong’an Palace in the following year.When Liu Bei died in 223, his son Liu Chan was seventeen, but Zhuge Liang acted as regent and held control of the government. He confirmed the alliance with Wu, and in campaigns to the south during 224 and 225 he established reign over the territory and people as far as the Lake Dian in present-day Yunnan.刘备兵败逃至白帝城,次年病死于白帝城的永安宫。蜀汉一蹶不振,势力一直被局限在益州。刘备死后,其子刘禅继位,是为蜀后主,刘禅17岁由诸葛亮等人辅助,主张与吴国交好。公元224 ~225年,诸葛亮平定南中,势力涉及滇池(今云南境内)。In 227 he turned his attention to the Wei in the north : from Hanzhong he launched a series of attacks across the Qinling Range, however, was quickly destroyed by the Wei gen-eral Sima Yi,and Zhuge Liang was not able to achieve a position.向北为了实现刘备的遗愿,诸葛亮自蜀建兴五年至十二年(227 ~ 234)六次从汉中出兵向秦岭伐魏,但均告失利。In 233 Zhuge U-ang embarked on a renewed attempt to break the line of the mountain barrier , however, he was, successfully opposed by Sima Yi, and died in the following year in front.233年,在发起突破秦岭防线时,被司马懿击破,本人也于公元234年卒于两军阵前。After a short period of intrigue and confusion,Zhuge Uang ’ s position as com-mander-in-chief and head of government was taken by Jiang Wei.诸葛亮死后,姜维继任军士统帅和丞相。Like Zhuge Liang ,Jiang Wei had his headquarters in Hanzhong on the frontier against Wei, and the central administration at Chengdu was maintained by a secondary office.姜维仍以汉中为攻魏前哨,以成都为总部。In 244, Jiang Wei became ill and failed to function effectively, and at his death in 246 Liu Chan, now forty years old, took formal authority at the capital.244年,姜维病重,不能有效行使权力。246年姜维病逝时,刘禅40岁已独立行使皇权。Despite his maturity Liu Chan was an unimpressive ruler. He was more interested in his harem and his personal pleasures than in the responsibilities of government, therefore he gave excessive power to his favourite Chen Zhi and the eunuch Huang Hao.刘禅是一个没有作为的皇帝,他不问政事,贪恋后宫声色,将朝中大事交给宠臣陈志和太监黄浩。Sima Yi was a well-known strategist and stateman in Chinese history, and in fighting against Zhuge Liang and Jiang Wei,he succeeded in preventing Shu-Han from expanding northernwards.司马懿是我国著名的军事家、政治家。他多次出兵汉中,与诸葛亮、姜维等蜀将交战,遏制了蜀国的北扩。In 226, Wei Emperor Cao Pi died and his son Cao Rui succeeded the throne.此间,魏帝曹丕已于魏黄初七薨(226)。Sima Yi acted as Chief Minister to serve the emperor , then ttie control of government was gradually transferred to the hands of Sima family.其子曹睿继位,以司马懿为辅政大臣。此后,魏国大权逐渐落人司马氏手中。In 263,after the Sima family had established control of the government of Wei, they planned the attack on Shu-Han. Sima Zhao, son of Sima Yi, and two generals Zhong Hui and Deng Ai launched attack on Shu Han. In the autumn of 263 they captured the passes into Hanzhong, and while one army held Jiang Wei in the northwest, the general Deng Ai went forward to attack Chengdu.魏景元四年 (263)在魏政权归司马氏之后,司马懿之子司马昭派遣钟会、邓艾等数路人马伐蜀,并于当年夏天控制了通往汉中的要塞,将姜维困在西北,由邓艾继续攻打成都。In the winter, after victory in one pitched battle, he received the surrender of Liu Chan. And in the summer of 264 Liu Chan was received into honoured exile at Luoyang, thus Shu-Han perished.当年冬天攻破成都,后主刘禅降魏,并于264年夏流放至洛阳,蜀汉灭亡。Shu-Han took the same measures of land reclamation and developed the irrigating system. As a far reaching area, the development of agriculture was not damaged as that of in the Yellow River Valley and there was no famine heard. At hat time the silk of Shu was well-known and trade within domestic was prosperous and Chengdu, the capital of Shu was the commercial centre.蜀在耕地方面没有什么改制,也实行屯田,水利做得比较好,由于地处偏远蜀汉没有像中原那样遭到严重破坏,也没有发生粮荒,丝织业发达,蜀锦有名,境内贸易发达,成都商业繁荣,蜀汉农业自始至终未遭破坏。After Zhuge Liang destroyed the non-Chinese alliance led by Meng Huo, he left the people under continuing control by their native leaders, and confirmed that power with seals and other emblems of authority although in formal terms, they were subjects of Shu-Han. All these practices facilitate the tranquility of Shu-Han.在平定了南方少数民族孟获的叛乱之后,他们成为蜀汉的臣民,但仍由其首领继续管理内部事务,这有利于蜀汉政权的稳定。 /201512/415714


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