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青岛妇女儿童医院有整形美容吗龙马分享

2019年07月18日 01:31:03|来源:国际在线|编辑:120时讯
Once you got your fire,you need to get a hot drink brewing straightaway.生火成功之后 你需要尽快喝下一杯热饮Really, what I want is some food and some sugars to replace all that lost energy.我想要吃些食物和糖 以此来补充能量But, you know, a bit of spruce-needle tea will do the trick.但是 用云杉枝泡水也有同样的功效Its gonna warm me, give me a bit of vitamin c.喝下它既能让我感觉热乎又能给我补充维CAlso, itll just make me feel a load better again.与此同时 它让我重新找回活力On thermal imaging, you can see the bright white cup full of boiling-hot tea.通过热成像 你可以看到 整杯的沸腾的热水呈现的是耀眼的白色Get that inside you,and it will begin to stabilize your core temperature.把它整杯的喝下 它将使你体内的温度保持稳定Of all the environments,Its extreme cold that hits me the hardest.在整个冰雪覆盖的世界里 最让我难受的是太冷了Ive suffered frostnip before in my fingers and toes,之前我的手指脚趾一直都有冻疮And the damaged capillaries have never fully recovered.毛细血管一直没有完全恢复It gets me every time.Boy, that was cold.冻疮每次都打垮了我 实在是太冷了Thats it. Im done with ice swims.是的 要是再冬泳我就完了Fighting your way through this kind of environment,presents the ultimate challenge.跟这样的环境艰苦搏斗吧 面对最艰难的挑战It takes you to the limit...and sometimes beyond.这会让你挑战到极限 也许更加糟糕201703/496474Has anyone ever told you, ;Stand up straight!; or scolded you for slouching at a family dinner?有没有人曾经告诉过你:“不要弯腰驼背!”亦或是因为你在家庭晚餐的时候肩背佝偻而受到训斥。Comments like that might be annoying, but theyre not wrong.但所谓忠言逆耳,他们并没有错。Your posture, the way you hold your body when youre sitting or standing,姿势,也就是你掌控自己身体的方式,例如坐姿和站姿is the foundation for every movement your body makes,不仅是你肢体做出每个动作的基础,and can determine how well your body adapts to the stresses on it.也能决定你的身体能承受多大压力。These stresses can be things like carrying weight, or sitting in an awkward position.这些压力可能来自于重物的搬运或者不正确的坐姿。And the big one we all experience all day every day: gravity.还有一项每天都在影响我们的:万有引力。If your posture isnt optimal, your muscles have to work harder to keep you upright and balanced.如果你的姿势不标准,你的肌肉需要更紧绷来保持身体的直立与平衡。Some muscles will become tight and inflexbile. Others will be inhibited.一些肌肉将会变得紧绷而且僵硬。还有一些会被拘束从而让人不自在。Over time, these dysfunctional adaptations impair your bodys ability to deal with the forces on it.随着时间流逝,这些功能失调将会减弱你身体对外来压力的抵抗性。Poor posture inflicts extra wear and tear on your joints and ligaments,不良的姿势会给你的韧带和关节增加额外负担,从而撕裂它们,increases the likelihood of accidents, and makes some organs, like your lungs, less efficient.也会增加事故发生的可能性,同时让某些器官,比如肺的工作效率降低。Researchers have linked poor posture to scoliosis, tension headaches, and back pain,研究明,不正确的姿势可导致的症状有:脊柱侧凸神经紧张性头痛以及背疼,though it isnt the exclusive cause of any of them.尽管不良姿势并不是这些症状的唯一诱因。Posture can even influence your emotional state and your sensitivity to pain.姿势甚至可以影响你的精神状态以及你对痛觉的敏感度。So there are a lot of reasons to aim for good posture.所以保持好的姿势是很必要的。But its getting harder these days.但最近保持好姿势越来越难了。Sitting in an awkward position for a long time can promote poor posture,长时间别扭的坐姿会进一步加重不良姿势,and so can using computers or mobile devices, which encourage you to look downward.电脑和手机的使用也会有同样效果,因为电子产品会促使你向下看。Many studies suggest that, on average, posture is getting worse.很多研究表明,通常来讲人们的姿势越来越糟糕。So what does good posture look like?所以正确的姿势看起来是什么样的呢?When you look at the spine from the front or the back, all 33 vertebrae should appear stacked in a straight line.当你从前方或者后方观察脊椎时,所有的33根脊椎骨看起来应该在同一条直线上。From the side, the spine should have three curves:从侧面观察,脊柱应该有三个曲线。one at your neck, one at your shoulders, and one at the small of your back.一个在脖子处,一个在肩膀处,还有一个小弯曲在背部。You arent born with this s-shaped spine. Babies spines just have one curve like a ;c.;这个S曲线不是与生俱来的。婴儿的脊椎只有一个弧度,就像字母C一样。The other curves usually develop by 12-18 months as the muscles strengthen.其他的弯曲通常会在12-18个月发育成型,与肌肉力量的增长同步。These curves help us stay upright and absorb some of the stress from activities like walking and jumping.这些弯曲帮助我们直立,并帮助我们分担一部分来自于走路和跳跃的压力。If they are aligned properly, when youre standing up,如果它们被排成一条直线。当你站立时,you should be able to draw a straight line from a point just in front of your shoulders,你能够画上一条直线,从你的肩膀正前方to behind your hip, to the front of your knee, to a few inches in front of your ankle.经过臀部的正后方、穿过膝盖的前方,直到你脚踝前方几英寸。This keeps your center of gravity directly over your base of support,这让你的重心正好在你的撑面的正上方,which allows you to move efficiently with the least amount of fatigue and muscle strain.让你能够更有效率的移动,同时减少了肌肉的绷紧与疲劳。If youre sitting, your neck should be vertical, not tilted forward.如果你正坐着,你的脖子应当是竖直的,而不是向前倾斜。Your shoulders should be relaxed with your arms close to your trunk.你的双肩应当放松,双臂靠近躯干。Your knees should be at a right angle with your feet flat on the floor.你的膝盖应在正确的角度,且脚掌平放接触地面。But what if your posture isnt that great?不过万一你的姿势没有那么好呢?Try redesigning your environment. Adjust your screen so its at or slightly below eyelevel.试着重新设定你所处的环境。调整你的屏幕,使其刚好或略低于你的平视视线。Make sure all parts of your body, like your elbows and wrists, are supported, using ergonomic aids if you need to.确保你身体的每一个部分,比如肘和腕关节都有撑物,必要的时候使用人体工程学的辅助设备。Try sleeping on your side with your neck supported and with a pillow between your legs.试着侧睡,并让脖子得到撑,以及双腿之间夹一个枕头。Wear shoes with low heels and good arch support, and use a headset for phone calls.穿低跟或能撑足弓的鞋,并用耳麦接电话。Its also not enough to just have good posture.但是,仅仅拥有好的姿势是不够的。Keeping your muscles and joints moving is extremely important.保持关节和肌肉的持续运动是非常重要的。In fact, being stationary for long periods with good posture can be worse than regular movement with bad posture.事实上,长时间以正确的姿势保持静止不动甚至比用不好的姿势做寻常运动更糟糕。When you do move, move smartly. Keep anything youre carrying close to your body.所以要明智的移动。保持你所搬运的人或物靠近你的身体。Backpacks should be in contact with your back carried symmetrically.背包需要对称地紧贴在背上。If you sit a lot, get up and move around on occasion, and be sure to exercise.如果你长时间坐着,每隔一段时间起身在周围走动一下,另外一定要锻炼。Using your muscles will keep them strong enough to support you effectively,经常锻炼肌肉让它们保持强健,以便于让它们更有效地为你务,on top of all the other benefits to your joints, bones, brain and heart.另外这对你的关节、骨骼、大脑以及心脏都有好处。And if youre really worried, check with a physical therapist, because yes, you really should stand up straight.而且如果你实在很担心,你可以去找理疗师做检查,因为是的,你真的应该站直。201706/515119

Then, when darkness falls, we fire up the spots.天黑之后 我们会开灯照明One of the biggest reasons that people die in blizzards人们死于暴风雪的最大原因之一is that they push on, try and battle the elements,when actually they should just stop.是继续前进 试图抵抗风雪 而正确的是应该原地不动If youve got high winds, difficult terrain,and zero visibility,如果遇见暴风 地形不利 并且能见度很差if you push on, its futile.Its like being on a tmill.继续前进就是死路一条 就像原地踏车一样Its gonna beat you, and youre gonna die.它会打败你 你的下场就是死Your number-one priority is protection,and in this case,its protection from the wind and from the cold.头号大事就是注意保护 在这种情况下 可以抵抗大风和寒冷Okay, fire it up, guys.Okay, lets go.好了 朋友们 启动吧 我们出发Got to try and cover up, best you can, any exposed skin.Okay, get into this.尽力盖住所有裸露在外的皮肤 迎难而上吧As the wind chill kicks in, the temperature dives.当风寒开始起作用 温度开始下跌In winds this high, frostbite can set in in minutes,and theres no natural shelter here.如此强力的风速 片刻之内就会生冻疮 这儿也没有任何天然屏障My only option is to dig.唯一的选择就是挖洞And this is gonna be a good place to dig a snow hole.这儿是挖洞的好地方 You want a lee slope with a big buildup of powdered snow from the wind.你需要一个有大量干末雪的背风斜坡 用于抵挡狂风Also, if you dig into the slope, when youre shoveling,并且如果你要在斜坡挖洞 那铲雪时gravity is gonna take the snow down away from you.Let gravity do the work.地心引力会带走一部分雪 让地心引力帮你的忙Its best to dig horizontally into the snow face.最好与雪地表面平行挖掘Dig downwards, and youll create a well,向下挖 你就可以挖出一口槽and all the cold air will sink on top of you.所有冷风就只会从你头顶上方吹过Okay, were y.好的 我都准备好了201702/494752

Seventy-thousand years ago, our ancestors were insignificant animals.七万年前,我们的先祖不过是各种动物中的一种。The most important thing to know about prehistoric humans is that they were unimportant.当你想到原人时,最重要的是他们有多不重要。Their impact on the world was not much greater than that of jellyfish or fireflies or woodpeckers.他们对世界的影响力,和水母、萤火虫、啄木鸟差别不大。Today, in contrast, we control this planet. And the question is: How did we come from there to here?今天,相反地,我们变成地球的霸主。所以问题是:我们是怎么走到这一步的?How did we turn ourselves from insignificant apes, minding their own business in a corner of Africa, into the rulers of planet Earth?我们是如何从毫不起眼的人猿,在非洲的角落自生自灭,摇身一变成为地球霸主的?Usually, we look for the difference between us and all the other animals on the individual level.通常,我们会在个体差异上检视我们与其它动物的差别。We want to believe -- I want to believe -- that there is something special about me,我们想要相信--我想要相信,我有些特别的地方about my body, about my brain, that makes me so superior to a dog or a pig, or a chimpanzee.我的身体,我的大脑,让我比、猪或是黑猩猩更高级。But the truth is that, on the individual level, Im embarrassingly similar to a chimpanzee.但事实是,就个体差异来说,我和黑猩猩尴尬地相似。And if you take me and a chimpanzee and put us together on some lonely island,如果你把我和一头黑猩猩放在孤岛上,and we had to struggle for survival to see who survives better,看我们之间谁能生存的更好,I would definitely place my bet on the chimpanzee, not on myself.我会赌是黑猩猩,而不是我。And this is not something wrong with me personally.这不是我个人的错,I guess if they took almost any one of you,我想如果有人把你们其中任何人,and placed you alone with a chimpanzee on some island, the chimpanzee would do much better.和一头黑猩猩一起放在孤岛上,黑猩猩绝对会生存的更好。The real difference between humans and all other animals is not on the individual level; its on the collective level.真正让人类与其它动物分别开来的特质不是个体的,而是群体的。Humans control the planet because they are the only animals that can cooperate both flexibly and in very large numbers.人类控制地球,是因为我们是唯一可以大规模灵活合作的动物。Now, there are other animals -- like the social insects, the bees, the ants其它动物,那些社会性昆虫,蜜蜂、蚂蚁,that can cooperate in large numbers, but they dont do so flexibly.它们也可以大规模地合作,但没有像我们这么灵活。Their cooperation is very rigid. There is basically just one way in which a beehive can function.它们的合作方式是固定的。蜂巢总是用同一种方式运作。And if theres a new opportunity or a new danger, the bees cannot reinvent the social system overnight.就算遇见新的机会或威胁,蜜蜂也无法在一夜之间创造一种社会制度。They cannot, for example, execute the queen and establish a republic of bees, or a communist dictatorship of worker bees.比如说,它们无法处死蜂后,建立蜜蜂共和国,工蜂也不能组成共产政权。Other animals, like the social mammals -- the wolves, the elephants, the dolphins, the chimpanzees其它群居的哺乳类动物,像是狼、大象、海豚、黑猩猩they can cooperate much more flexibly, but they do so only in small numbers,它们的合作更灵活,但规模有限,because cooperation among chimpanzees is based on intimate knowledge, one of the other.因为黑猩猩合作的基础是对彼此的亲密的认知。Im a chimpanzee and youre a chimpanzee, and I want to cooperate with you. I need to know you personally.要是你我都是黑猩猩,我想和你合作,我会需要先认识你。What kind of chimpanzee are you? Are you a nice chimpanzee? Are you an evil chimpanzee? Are you trustworthy?你是哪种黑猩猩?善良的黑猩猩?还是邪恶的黑猩猩?你可靠吗?If I dont know you, how can I cooperate with you?如果我不认识你,我们怎么合作?The only animal that can combine the two abilities together and cooperate both flexibly and still do so in very large numbers is us, Homo sapiens.唯一拥有这两种特质,能大规模合作又能保持灵活的,只有我们,智人。One versus one, or even 10 versus 10, chimpanzees might be better than us.一比一,甚至十比十,黑猩猩都比我们优秀。But, if you pit 1,000 humans against 1,000 chimpanzees, the humans will win easily,但,如果数目提高到一千个人和一千头黑猩猩,人类就能轻易获胜。for the simple reason that a thousand chimpanzees cannot cooperate at all.因为上千头黑猩猩无法一起合作。And if you now try to cram 100,000 chimpanzees into Oxford Street, or into Wembley Stadium,如果你尝试把十万头黑猩猩塞进牛津街、温布利体育馆、or Tienanmen Square or the Vatican, you will get chaos, complete chaos.天安门广场或梵蒂冈,绝对会陷入一片混乱。Just imagine Wembley Stadium with 100,000 chimpanzees. Complete madness.想象塞满十万头黑猩猩的温布利体育馆,那个景象将有多疯狂。In contrast, humans normally gather there in tens of thousands, and what we get is not chaos, usually.相对的,就算成千上万的人在会场里,通常也不会陷入混乱。What we get is extremely sophisticated and effective networks of cooperation.我们有效率、有制度地合作。All the huge achievements of humankind throughout history,人类在历史上达成的巨大成就,whether its building the pyramids or flying to the moon, have been based not on individual abilities,无论是金字塔还是上月球,都不是建立在个体的能力,but on this ability to cooperate flexibly in large numbers.而是群体的灵活合作。Think even about this very talk that Im giving now:想想我这场演讲,Im standing here in front of an audience of about 300 or 400 people, most of you are complete strangers to me.我在三四百个人面前演讲,你们中的大多数我都不认识。Similarly, I dont really know all the people who have organized and worked on this event.我不认识所有组织或参与这个活动的人。I dont know the pilot and the crew members of the plane that brought me over here, yesterday, to London.我不认识昨天带我飞抵伦敦的驾驶员和机组人员。I dont know the people who invented and manufactured this microphone and these cameras, which are recording what Im saying.我不认识是谁发明和制造这些正在拍摄我的演讲的录像机和麦克风。I dont know the people who wrote all the books and articles that I in preparation for this talk.为了准备这段演讲,我读了不少书和论文,我却不认识它们的作者。And I certainly dont know all the people who might be watching this talk over the Internet,我更不知道那些正在网上观看这个演讲的人,somewhere in Buenos Aires or in New Delhi.他们可能在布宜诺斯艾利斯或是在新德里。Nevertheless, even though we dont know each other, we can work together to create this global exchange of ideas.而且,尽管我们不认识彼此,却能在世界的舞台上,一同参与、创造、交换意见。This is something chimpanzees cannot do.这是黑猩猩所做不到的。They communicate, of course, but you will never catch a chimpanzee traveling to some distant chimpanzee band当然,它们也能沟通,但你不会看到一只黑猩猩远渡重洋,to give them a talk about bananas or about elephants, or anything else that might interest chimpanzees.对另一群黑猩猩讲解香蕉或大象,或任何黑猩猩有兴趣的事。Now cooperation is, of course, not always nice; all the horrible things humans have been doing throughout history合作自然不是只有好事。人类历史上所有恐怖的事件and we have been doing some very horrible things -- all those things are also based on large-scale cooperation.我们的确做过一些非常恐怖的事--它们同样也是人类大规模合作达成的。Prisons are a system of cooperation; slaughterhouses are a system of cooperation; concentration camps are a system of cooperation.监狱是一种合作系统,屠宰场是一种合作系统,集中营是一种合作系统。Chimpanzees dont have slaughterhouses and prisons and concentration camps.黑猩猩没有屠宰场、监狱或集中营。Now suppose Ive managed to convince you perhaps that yes,现在或许我已经说你,we control the world because we can cooperate flexibly in large numbers.由于我们大规模灵活合作的能力,我们掌控了世界。The next question that immediately arises in the mind of an inquisitive listener is: How, exactly, do we do it?下一个问题随之而来。好奇的听众心里想:我们是怎么做到的?What enables us alone, of all the animals, to cooperate in such a way? The answer is our imagination.在所有动物中,为什么只有我们这样合作?是我们的想象力。We can cooperate flexibly with countless numbers of strangers,我们之所以可以和无数陌生人一同合作,because we alone, of all the animals on the planet, can create and believe fictions, fictional stories.因为在这星球上的所有动物中,只有我们能创造和相信虚构的故事。And as long as everybody believes in the same fiction,只要大家一同相信同一个故事,everybody obeys and follows the same rules, the same norms, the same values.每个人从并执行一样的规则,一样的基准,一样的价值观。All other animals use their communication system only to describe reality.其它动物的沟通只限于描述真实的事物。A chimpanzee may say, ;Look! Theres a lion, lets run away!;黑猩猩说:“看啊!有狮子!快跑!”Or, ;Look! Theres a banana tree over there! Lets go and get bananas!;或是:“看啊!那有香蕉树!去摘香蕉吧!”Humans, in contrast, use their language not merely to describe reality,而人类呢,我们的语言不只是用来描述现实,but also to create new realities, fictional realities.更能用来创造新的现实,想象的现实。A human can say, ;Look, there is a god above the clouds!人可以说:“看啊!云上有神!And if you dont do what I tell you to do, when you die, God will punish you and send you to hell.;如果你不听从命令,神会在你死后惩罚你直达地狱。”And if you all believe this story that Ive invented,如果你相信我发明的故事,then you will follow the same norms and laws and values, and you can cooperate.你就会依循一样的基准、法则、价值观,你就会合作。This is something only humans can do.这件事只有人类做得到。You can never convince a chimpanzee to give you a banana by promising him, ;After you die, youll go to chimpanzee heaven;你永远无法说一只黑猩猩交出香蕉,就算你承诺它:“死后,你可以到黑猩猩天堂...”;And youll receive lots and lots of bananas for your good deeds. So now give me this banana.;“到时候你的善行,会为你赢得无数的香蕉。现在,快把香蕉给我。”No chimpanzee will ever believe such a story.没有一只黑猩猩会相信这种故事。Only humans believe such stories, which is why we control the world,只有人类会相信这种故事。这就是我们称霸世界,whereas the chimpanzees are locked up in zoos and research laboratories.而黑猩猩关在动物园或实验室的原因。Now you may find it acceptable that yes, in the religious field, humans cooperate by believing in the same fictions.或许你现在可以接受,在宗教领域,拥有相同信念的人一同合作。Millions of people come together to build a cathedral or a mosque or fight in a crusade or a jihad,百万人同心合力建造教堂、清真寺一同参加圣战,because they all believe in the same stories about God and heaven and hell.因为他们信仰神、天堂和地狱。But what I want to emphasize is that exactly the same mechanism underlies all other forms of mass-scale human cooperation,但我想说的是,同样的机制存在于人类各种的大规模合作,not only in the religious field.不限于宗教领域。Take, for example, the legal field.譬如,法制领域。Most legal systems today in the world are based on a belief in human rights. But what are human rights?现在世界上大部分的法律,都以人权为基础。但人权是什么?Human rights, just like God and heaven, are just a story that weve invented.人权,就像神和天堂,都是我们发明的故事。They are not an objective reality; they are not some biological effect about homo sapiens.它们不是客观的事实;它们不是某种智人的生理反应。Take a human being, cut him open, look inside, you will find the heart,解剖人体,往里探看,里面有心脏、the kidneys, neurons, hormones, DNA, but you wont find any rights.肾脏、神经元、荷尔蒙、基因,但你找不到什么权利。The only place you find rights are in the stories that we have invented and sp around over the last few centuries.权利只存在故事里,我们在这几个世纪里创造、散播的故事。They may be very positive stories, very good stories, but theyre still just fictional stories that weve invented.这些故事很好、很正面,但仍然是我们虚构的。The same is true of the political field.政治领域也一样。The most important factors in modern politics are states and nations.国家是今日政治里最重要的元素。But what are states and nations? They are not an objective reality.但国家是什么?它们不是客观事实。A mountain is an objective reality. You can see it, you can touch it, you can ever smell it.山陵是客观事实。你看得到,摸得到,甚至闻得到。But a nation or a state, like Israel or Iran or France or Germany,但国家,以色列、伊朗、法国或德国,this is just a story that weve invented and became extremely attached to.只是我们创造,并且非常依赖的故事。The same is true of the economic field.经济领域也一样。The most important actors today in the global economy are companies and corporations.公司和企业是今日全球金融中不可或缺的元素。Many of you today, perhaps, work for a corporation, like Google or Toyota or McDonalds.你们当中的许多人为企业工作,像谷歌或丰田或麦当劳。What exactly are these things? They are what lawyers call legal fictions.它们是什么?律师叫它们法人。They are stories invented and maintained by the powerful wizards we call lawyers.需要有巫师创造和维持,不过我们通常叫这些巫师叫律师。And what do corporations do all day? Mostly, they try to make money.企业都在做些什么?它们主要的功能是赚钱。Yet, what is money? Again, money is not an objective reality; it has no objective value.但钱是什么?钱也不是客观事实。Take this green piece of paper, the dollar bill. Look at it -- it has no value.这张绿色的纸,一元钞票。它其实一文不值。You cannot eat it, you cannot drink it, you cannot wear it.你不能吃它,不能喝它,不能把它穿在身上。But then came along these master storytellers但这些大故事家来了the big bankers, the finance ministers, the prime ministers, and they tell us a very convincing story:大家,各国的财政部长,总理,他们说着同一个动人的故事:;Look, you see this green piece of paper? It is actually worth 10 bananas.;“你看这张绿色的纸,它可以换十个香蕉。”And if I believe it, and you believe it, and everybody believes it, it actually works.如果我信了,你也信了,大家都信了,这事就成了。I can take this worthless piece of paper, go to the supermarket,我可以拿着这张一文不值的纸,到任何超市,give it to a complete stranger whom Ive never met before, and get, in exchange, real bananas which I can actually eat.把它交给一位素昧平生的陌生人,拿到我可以吃的真的香蕉。This is something amazing. You could never do it with chimpanzees.这未必太神气了。黑猩猩可办不到。Chimpanzees trade, of course: ;Yes, you give me a coconut, Ill give you a banana.; That can work.当然,黑猩猩也懂得交换:“你给我一颗椰子,我给你一根香蕉。”也行。But, you give me a worthless piece of paper and you except me to give you a banana?但如果你给我一张废纸然后要我给你一根香蕉?No way! What do you think I am, a human?想都别想!你把我当什么了,人类吗?Money, in fact, is the most successful story ever invented and told by humans, because it is the only story everybody believes.钱,其实是人类史上最成功的故事。因为它是唯一一个所有人都相信的故事。Not everybody believes in God, not everybody believes in human rights, not everybody believes in nationalism,不是每个人都相信神,不是每个人都追求人权,不是每个人都爱国,but everybody believes in money, and in the dollar bill.但每个人都相信钱,相信现金。Take, even, Osama Bin Laden. He hated American politics and American religion and American culture,就像拉登。他憎恨美国的政策和信仰、美国文化,but he had no objection to American dollars. He was quite fond of them, actually.但他绝对对美金没有意见。他其实挺爱它们的。To conclude, then: We humans control the world because we live in a dual reality.结论是:我们人类称霸世界,因为我们活在双重现实里。All other animals live in an objective reality.其他动物活在客观事实里。Their reality consists of objective entities, like rivers and trees and lions and elephants.它们的真实世界存在于客观现实,像河流、树木、狮子和大象。We humans, we also live in an objective reality.我们人类也活在客观现实里。In our world, too, there are rivers and trees and lions and elephants.我们也有河流、树木、狮子和大象。But over the centuries, we have constructed on top of this objective reality a second layer of fictional reality,但几个世纪来,我们在客观现实上建构了另一个层次的虚拟现实,a reality made of fictional entities, like nations, like gods, like money, like corporations.一个由虚拟现实组成的真实世界,比如国家、神、钱、企业。And what is amazing is that as history unfolded,厉害的是,在历史进程里,this fictional reality became more and more powerful so that today,虚构的现实日渐强大,直到今日,the most powerful forces in the world are these fictional entities.世界上最强大的力量,是这些虚构的主体。Today, the very survival of rivers and trees and lions and elephants今天,幸存的河流、树、狮子和大象,depends on the decisions and wishes of fictional entities,仰赖着这些虚构主体的决定和期待生存,like the ed States, like Google, like the World Bank -- entities that exist only in our own imagination. Thank you.像美国、谷歌、世界--这些只存在于我们想象中的主体。谢谢各位。Yuval, you have a new book out.乌瓦尔,你有一本新书即将出版。After Sapiens, you wrote another one, and its out in Hebrew, but not yet translated into...出版《人类大历史》后,你又写了一本,希伯来文的版本已经出版了,但还没翻译成...Im working on the translation as we speak.我现在正在翻译。In the book, if I understand it correctly, you argue that在这本书里,如果我想得没错的话,你说the amazing breakthroughs that we are experiencing right now not only will potentially make our lives better,我们现在经历的这些奇妙的技术突破,不只会让我们的生活更好,but they will create -- and I e you -- ;new classes and new class struggles, just as the industrial revolution did.;更有可能创造--你这么说--“新的阶级和新的阶级斗争,就像工业革命时期一样。”Can you elaborate for us?你可以多说一点吗?Yes. In the industrial revolution, we saw the creation of a new class of the urban proletariat.好的。在工业革命时期,我们创造了城市中的无产阶级。And much of the political and social history of the last 200 years过去两百年的社经历史,involved what to do with this class, and the new problems and opportunities.都在处理由此而生的新问题和机会。Now, we see the creation of a new massive class of useless people.现在,一群没用的人组成了一个新阶级。As computers become better and better in more and more fields,计算机在各个领域越来越强。there is a distinct possibility that computers will out-perform us in most tasks and will make humans redundant.很快的,计算机在许多领域上会胜过人类,人类将变得多余。And then the big political and economic question of the 21st century will be,这个世纪最大的政治和经济问题是,;What do we need humans for?;, or at least, ;What do we need so many humans for?;“我们需要人类做什么?”或者至少是,“我们需要这么多人做什么?”Do you have an answer in the book?书里会找到吗?At present, the best guess we have is to keep them happy with drugs and computer games...目前,我们只能用药物、尽量让他们开心...but this doesnt sound like a very appealing future.虽然好像也不是什么值得期待的前景。Ok, so youre basically saying in the book and now,所以你在书里和现在所说的是,that for all the discussion about the growing evidence of significant economic inequality,各种讨论和据都显示,所有的贫富差距、经济不平等,we are just kind of at the beginning of the process?都只是刚刚开始而已?Again, its not a prophecy; its seeing all kinds of possibilities before us.这不是预言;只是评估眼前的所有可能性。One possibility is this creation of a new massive class of useless people.其中一种可能是创造了一种无用阶级。Another possibility is the division of humankind into different biological castes,另一种可能是用生理把人类分成几种阶级,with the rich being upgraded into virtual gods, and the poor being degraded to this level of useless people.富人升等为神,穷人则贬到无用之人的阶级。I feel there is another TED talk coming up in a year or two.我想一两年内会有这个TED演说。Thank you, Yuval, for making the trip. Thanks!谢谢你远道而来。谢谢!201706/513992

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201606/448609

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