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2019年08月19日 15:20:34 | 作者:新华常识 | 来源:新华社
In a scientific triumph that will change the way the world fights a killer, an experimental Ebola vaccine tested on humans in the waning days of the West African epidemic has been shown to provide 100 percent protection against the lethal disease.在西非埃拉疫情减弱的时期,一种实验中的埃拉病毒疫苗经过人体测试,已被明可对这种致命疾病产00%的免疫效果。这是一场科学的胜利,将改变世界打击这种致命疾病的方式。The vaccine has not yet been approved by any regulatory authority, but it is considered so effective that an emergency stockpile of 300,000 doses has been created for use should an outbreak flare up again.该疫苗尚未得到任何监管机构的批准,但它被认为非常有效,目前已建立30万剂的应急储备,以便在疫情再次爆发时投入使用。Since Ebola was discovered in the former Zaire in 1976, there have been many efforts to create a vaccine. All began with a sense of urgency but then petered out for lack of money. Although only about 1,600 people died of Ebola over those years, the grotesque nature of their deaths has lent the disease a frightening reputation.自从1976年埃拉病毒在前扎伊尔被发现以来,人们为研制疫苗进行了大量努力。所有项目最早都颇具紧迫感,但后来因为缺乏资金无果而终。虽然那些年里只有大600人死于埃拉病毒,但他们死亡时的恐怖情形为这种疾病带来了可怕的名声。Ultimately, only the explosive 2014 outbreak that took 11,000 lives in Africa and sp overseas, killing a handful of people in Europe and the ed States, provided the political and economic drive to make an effective vaccine.最终,2014年的疫情爆发令非洲的11000人丧生,并且传播到海外,在欧洲和美国令数人丧生,这才为研制有效疫苗提供了政治与经济动力。The test results of the trial in Guinea were released Thursday in The Lancet.周四,《柳叶刀The Lancet)公布了在几内亚的实验结果。The vaccine was not y in time to stop the outbreak, which probably began in a hollow, bat-filled tree in Guinea and swept Liberia and Guinea before being defeated. But the prospect of a vaccine stockpile has brought optimism among public health experts.此次疫情爆发可能始于几内亚一棵住满蝙蝠的空心树,横扫利比里与几内亚后才被击退,当时疫苗尚未准备就绪,未能及时阻止疫情爆发。但是疫苗储备的前景令公共卫生专家感到乐观。The vaccine opens up new, faster, more efficient ways to encircle and strangle the virus. .疫苗开辟了全新的方式,可以更快、更有效地包围并扼杀病毒。The new vaccine has some flaws, experts said. It appears to work against only one of the two most common strains of the Ebola virus, and it may not give long-lasting protection. Some of those who get it report side effects like joint pain and headaches.专家说,新疫苗有一些缺陷。它似乎只能对抗埃拉病毒的两种最常见的菌株之一,并且可能无法提供长期保护。有些注射疫苗者报告了副作用,如关节疼痛和头痛。The Lancet study was done in 11,841 residents of Guinea last year. Among the 5,837 people who got the vaccine, none came down with Ebola 10 or more days later. There were 23 Ebola cases among the thousands of others not immediately vaccinated.去年,这个发表在《柳叶刀》上的项目在几内亚的11841名居民中进行了研究。在接受疫苗837人中0天乃至更长时间内没有人感染埃拉病毒。在其余数千名没有立即接种疫苗的人当中,3人感染埃拉病毒。来 /201612/485566Theresa May was central to pushing through the new spying laws in her job as home secretary Getty Images特蕾莎·梅在她担任内政大臣期间,是推动新监视法案的核心人物The UKs Investigatory Powers Act is now in effect, placing Britain under some of the widest-ranging spying powers ever seen.英国的调查权力法案已经生效,英国情报机构正式被赋予史上最极端的侦查权力。The law passed last month but going into effect on 30 December is intended as an update to Britains often unwieldy surveillance legislation. But it also includes a large set of new powers including the ability to collect the browsing records of everyone in the country and have them by authorities as diverse as the Food Standards Agency and the Department for Work and Pensions.该法案于上个月通过,但是将20日开始生效,是目前英国繁琐的监视法案的升级版。该法赋予了政府新的监视权力,包括强制要求互联网务供应商保存所有用户网页浏览的完整记录。有关部门可以调取这些记录,包括英国食品标准局以及劳动与养老金部。Most of the central parts of the act are now in force. That includes new powers to gather and retain data on citizens, and new ways to force technology companies and others to hand over the data that they have about people to intelligence agencies.该法案的大部分核心条款都已经生效。这包括赋予权力收集并保存公民信息,以及强制要求科技公司等其他单位向有关部门上交他们所拥有的用户信息。Many of the most invasive powers in the bill havent yet gone into force. That includes, for instance, the collection of those Internet Connection Records, which has been postponed until the government and internet companies have worked out how they can collect such information safely.法案中那些最具侵入性的权力条款还没有生效。这包括,例如,互联网连接数据这部分将等到政府和互联网公司测试到能够安全的收集信息的时候再启用。The government has argued that the powers introduced in the bill are necessary to allow intelligence agencies and police to stop modern crime and prosecute the people involved in it.政府强调该法案中描述的权力对于持监视机关和警察部门来阻止现代犯罪并起诉相关嫌疑人是非常必要的。But Bella Sankey, Amnesty’s policy director, said that it was a ;sad day; when the bill passed into law last month.但是大赦政策顾问Bella Sanky表示,上个月通过该法案的那天是“悲哀的”一天。“The Home Secretary is right that the Government has a duty to protect us, but these measures won’t do the job,; she said then. ;Instead they open every detail of every citizen’s online life up to state eyes, drowning the authorities in data and putting innocent people’s personal information at massive risk.“内政大臣说政府有保护我们的义务,这倒是没错,但这些措施达不到保护我们的目的。相反,这些措施使得每位公民的网上生活的所有细节被一览无余,加重政府部门处理数据的负担,并且给无辜群众的个人信息带来极大的泄露风险。;This new law is world-leading but only as a beacon for despots everywhere. The campaign for a surveillance law fit for the digital age continues, and must now move to the courts.;“这部新法律世界领先,但只是从专制上做到了领先。我们仍然需要一部适应这个数字化时代的监视法律,而现在必须去法院来解决问题。”The law has been opposed by tens of thousands of people in a public petition. But much of that opposition only started after the bill was quietly passed into law by MPs, meaning that it was unlikely to have any effect.该法案收到了数万人的反对请愿书,但是大部分的反对声音是在法案悄悄通过以后才发出的,所以没产生什么影响。But some of the central powers of the law were criticised by European courts earlier this month. As such, the law is set to face a range of legal challenges and could be changed in the coming months and years.但是该法案的部分核心条款本月受到了欧洲法院的批评。照这样下去,该法案将不得不面对大量的法律挑战,并且可能在接下来的岁月里进行调整。来 /201701/487507

The U.S. and Iraq have agreed on a plan that will send about 600 additional American troops to Iraq to help retake Mosul from Islamic State, Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced Wednesday.美国国防部长卡特星期三宣布,美国和伊拉克达成一项增00多名美军前往伊拉克的计划,协助伊拉克从伊斯兰国手中夺回苏尔。Speaking to reporters in New Mexico, Carter said the increase is part of the coalitions ;accelerating campaign; to ;isolate and collapse; Islamic States control over Mosul and ;expand gains by Iraqi Security Forces elsewhere in Iraq.;卡特在新墨西哥州对记者说,增派美军是联军“加速攻势”的一部分,以“孤立和粉碎”伊斯兰国对苏尔的控制,并“扩大伊拉克保安部队在其他地区的战果。”A U.S. defense official put the total number at 615, bringing the number of American troops authorized to fight IS in Iraq at 5,262.一名美国国防官员说,增派的美军人数15人,从而将美国授权在伊拉克与伊斯兰国作战的总兵力增262人。Carter said the additional U.S. military personnel will train, advise and assist Iraqi Security Forces and Kurdish Peshmerga. They also will be used to improve logistics and to intensify intelligence operations with a “special emphasison uncovering IS plans to launch terror attacks against Baghdad and the West.卡特说,增派的美军人员将训练、建议并协助伊拉克保安部队和库尔德自由战士。他们还将被用来改善后勤工作并加强情报行动,“特别着重于”破获伊斯兰国对巴格达和西方发动恐怖袭击的阴谋。Carter also echoed other top U.S. defense officials who have suggested the battle to retake Mosul could get under way in a matter of weeks.卡特也表达了与其他美国高层国防官员相同的看法。他们提出,重新夺回苏尔的战斗几个星期之内就有可能展开。来 /201610/469089

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