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2020年01月22日 09:38:35
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Brown Researchers Believe Gamers Are Able To Learn Visual Tasks Faster Than Non-Gamers游戏玩家的认知能力更强As gaming moves from just a casual pastime to becoming a more significant part of our lives, researchers are getting increasingly curious to find out how it affects learning. A recent study concluded that gamers have better visual skills and other cognitive abilities. Now there is some evidence that gaming not only augments visual skills, but also, helps speed up the learning process.视频游戏正从一项消遣渐渐变成我们生活中重要的一部分,研究者对其是否会影响到我们的认知能力也越来越感兴趣。近期一项实验表明,游戏玩家不仅视觉更敏锐,其他一些认知能力也更强。下面这项实验进一步明了视频游戏不仅增强玩家的视觉能力,还加速了他们的学习能力。The study conducted by Brown University Associate Professor Yuka Sasaki and graduate student Aaron Berard, pitted nine avid gamers against a control group of nine individuals who had rarely if ever, played games. The participants were subjected to two days of visual task learning. Each group was trained in two tasks (in random order). The first was to observe the design of an on-screen texture of horizontal lines and point the area with maximum irregularities as fast as possible. The second task was similar except that the lines were vertical.布朗大学副教授Yuka Sasaki和研究生Aaron Berard共同开展的这项研究,他们挑选了9位游戏玩家与9位很少玩或不玩游戏的人进行对比研究。他们都进行了为期2天的视觉任务培训。受试者按随机顺序进行两项测试,首先是在屏幕上快速(以毫秒为衡量标准)地指出水平线组成的纹理中有何异常之处。第二项测试与前一项相同,只不过换成了垂直纹理。The following day, the study participants were asked to perform the same tasks (again in randomized order) to test if there was any improvement in how quickly they noticed the irregularities. 随后的几天,受试者依然按随机顺序反复做这两项测试,主要是为了检测他们识别无规则纹理的速度是否有所改善。Sure enough, the frequent gamers showed great progress in both tasks - they improved an average of 15% on the second and 11% on the first. The non-gamers did not fare as well. Though they improved by the same amount as the gamers (15%) on the second task, their performance on the first task worsened, declining by 5%!数据显示,游戏玩家组在第一项任务中在速度和准确度方面的表现提高了15%,在第二项任务中提高了11%;非游戏玩家组在第二项任务中也提高了15%,然而在第一项任务中,他们只提高了约5%。Clearly more research needs to be done before firm conclusions can be reached, but the first indications are certainly encouraging. And for those that are still skeptical, a separate study conducted by Oxford University in 2014, concluded that children that play games are happier, more social and less hyperactive than non-gamers! But before you go all out, the study also stipulates that kids should spend no more than 60 minutes a day on this pursuit.为了获得确切的,我们需要进行更多研究,但该实验带给我们的启示还是鼓舞人心的。带着怀疑,2014年牛津大学又单独进行了一项实验,明了玩视频游戏的孩子比不玩的孩子更幸福,更社会化,并且不那么过度活泼!但在你跃跃欲试之前,这项实验也提醒了我们应该控制孩子的游戏时间在60分钟之内,否则过犹不及。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/384631缅甸星乌龟怎么样好养吗Poets are sensitive, ethereal creatures, ineffectual dreamers obsessed with metaphors and finding the right rhythms and rhymes. They#39;re generally harmless, right? Not always. On this list, there are killers, crooks, plotters, rakes, a blackmailer, several revolutionaries, heartbreakers, duelists, drunkards, an opium fiend, a serious oddball, and even one fascist. To borrow the words of Lady Caroline Lamb, who played mistress to one of them, these men were mad, bad, and dangerous to know.人们印象中诗人是机智敏感,超凡脱俗,痴迷修辞和韵律的梦想家。他们通常应该不会惹什么麻烦,对不对?但事实并非如此。以下列出的十位诗人简直无恶不作,他们不是杀人放火,欺诈勒索就是决斗厮杀,策划阴谋,他们还造反,负心,酗酒,吸食鸦片,放荡不羁,行为古怪甚至还有一个法西斯主义者。借其中一人的情妇卡洛琳·兰姆的话来说这真是一群疯狂,恶劣又危险的人。10. Fran漀椀猀 Villon10. 弗朗索瓦·维庸Villon by name and villain by nature, he was a murderer, thief, and an all-round low-life. He was also the finest lyric poet in France in the 15th century. Born in either 1431 or 1432, he was brought up by a professor of canon law in Paris. After leaving university in 1452, his life descended into a series of brawls, imprisonments, and exiles. His only appearances within the historical record come from prison data.维庸可以说是干尽坏事,他不仅是小偷还是杀人犯。但也是十五世纪法国最优秀的抒情诗人。维庸1431年或1432年出生于巴黎,被一名教士收养。1452年离开大学之后,他的生活一落千丈,打架闹事,锒铛入狱,多次被驱逐流放。历史上对他的记载基本都与他入狱相关。Villon by name and villain by nature, he was a murderer, thief, and an all-round low-life. He was also the finest lyric poet in France in the 15th century. Born in either 1431 or 1432, he was brought up by a professor of canon law in Paris. After leaving university in 1452, his life descended into a series of brawls, imprisonments, and exiles. His only appearances within the historical record come from prison data.1455年,维庸在巴黎醉酒后,与人争执中捅死了一名律师。他本应被逐出巴黎,却得到了王室的赦免。1456年,他又带领着一帮强盗从纳瓦拉学院里偷了500顶金冠。因此再次遭到驱逐。1457年,他在布洛瓦刑,1461年,在穆兰刑。维庸最后出现在巴黎的记录是1462年的盗窃罪。刑满释放后,他又参与了一场打架,被判处死刑,后改为流放。1463年之后,他就彻底消失了。Despite his lifestyle, Villon was a master of the intricate poetic forms of the ballade, the rondeau, and the chanson. His longer works touch on cosmology, satire, and religious symbolism. His work is rife with themes of failed love, melancholia, human suffering, lost time, and the ubiquity of death, featuring a cast of princes and prostitutes mired in Parisian brothels and drinking dens. Rimbaud revived his work in the 19th century, while Rossetti translated it into English, giving us the magnificent line “Where are the snows of yesteryear?”虽然行径不端,但是维庸在叙事诗,回旋诗和香颂上造诣颇高。他的长诗涉及到宇宙学,讽刺和宗教象征等方面。作品中充满了对爱情失意,痛苦忧郁,时光逝去以及死亡不可避免的诉说,多以各种王子和沉溺在妓院和酒馆为主题。19世纪,兰波重整他的作品并由罗塞蒂译成英语,才使我们领略到了“Where are the snows of yesteryear”这样精的诗句。 /201505/372855金钱龟养殖技术方法吃什么新疆维吾尔自治区印度棱背龟佛罗里达红肚龟黄腿象龟中部锦龟安南龟海龟扁头长颈龟价格怎么养

蛇颈龟怎么养图片批发价格印度棱背乌龟采购信息大全养殖方法1. The Early Period of the Movie1、中国早期电影的发展At the move of the 19th century, the movie was introduced into China. In 1896, a Western movie was shown in Shanghai, which was the first movie showing in China. In 1905,a photo studio in Beijing made the first Chinese movie , which was only a collection of scenes from a Beijing opera based on the classical novel The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In the early thirties, many revolutionary movies were produced, such as Spring Silkworms, Plunder of Peach and Plum , Three Modem Women , The Great Road,Song of the Fishermen,and Crossroads. These movies reflect the realities of society and the wishes of the people.19世纪末期,电影引人中国。中国第一部引进的西方电影于1脱年在上海上映。 1905年,北京一家照相室选取京剧传统曲目《三国演义》的一些简单场景制作了中国第一部电影。在中国电影事业发展的最初30年中,创作了许多革命电影,例如:《春蚕》、《桃李劫机《三个登女性》、《大路》、《温光曲》、《十字街头},集中反映了当时社会的现状和人民的愿望。 During the Anti-Japanese War, many progressive movies were made, such as Defend Our Land, The March of Victory, The North is Ours, Sons and Daughters of China,and The Snowy Taihang Mountains. The movies reflected the people#39;s requirement for resistance against Japan.抗战期间,许多进步电影诞生了,例如《保卫我们的土地》、《胜利进行曲》、《华北是我们的》、《中华儿女》、《风雪太行山》。这些电影都反映了人民要求坚持抗战的强烈愿望。After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War,a great number of excellent movies were produced , Such as Remote Love , Along the Songhua River,Eight Thousand Li of Cloud and Moon, and The Spring River Flows East. All of them areαbout the people#39;s life or struggles during the War of Resistance against Japan.抗战胜利后,中国电影发行了如《遥远的爱》、《松花江上》、《八千里路云和月》和《一江春水向东流》等大批反映抗战时期人民生活和斗争的杰出电影。In the liberated areas, the founding of the Ya#39;ann Movie Group marks the starting point of the people#39;s movie industry. This group shot valuable documentaries which included yan#39;an and the Eighth Route Army, Dr. Norman Bethune, and Nanniwan. In 1946, the Yan#39;an Movie Studio was founded and recorded part of the Liberation War. In October, the Northeast Movie Studio was established. Its main productions were seventeen newsreels entitled The Democratic Northeast.在解放区,延安电影团的成立标志着人民电影事业的开始。先后拍摄了《延安与八路军》、《白求恩大夫》和《南泥湾》等一些价值很高的纪录片。1946年,延安电影制片厂成立,出品了一些解放战争的影片。10月,东北电影制片厂成立,主要作品为《民主东北》17部系列新闻片。Many old progressive movies made before the founding of the People#39;s Republic of China adopted the realistic style; therefore they reflect Chinese society and the lives of the people and show sympathy for the poor. Early movie-makers owned clear purpose of their work: to make movies which could entertain the ordinary people so that they managed to make the plot development, customs and habits , language and acting of their movies conform to the tastes of the audience. Obviously, the pioneers of China#39;s progressive movies made great contributions to the development of China#39;s movie industry.建国前很多进步影片采用了现实主义形式,对中国社会、民生都有很大的影响力,这些影片都表达了对穷苦大众的同情。为了实现电影的创作目标一一一愉悦普通老百姓,早期电影工作者努力使情节发展、风俗习惯、语言、表演都能符合观众品位。中国进步电影的先驱们为中国电影事业的发展做出了巨大贡献。 /201505/373199西华县靴脚陆龟咸水泥彩龟安哥洛卡象龟凹甲陆龟红腿象龟价格怎么养Exercise seems to be good for the human brain, with many recent studies suggesting that regular exercise improves memory and thinking skills. But an interesting new study asks whether the apparent cognitive benefits from exercise are real or just a placebo effect — that is, if we think we will be “smarter” after exercise, do our brains respond accordingly? The answer has significant implications for any of us hoping to use exercise to keep our minds sharp throughout our lives.体育锻炼似乎对大脑有益,最近的许多研究表明,经常锻炼可以改善记忆和思维能力。但一项有趣的新研究却提出了这样的问题:体育锻炼在提高认知能力方面显现出来的益处,是真实存在,还是心理作用?也就是说,假如我们相信自己在运动之后会“更聪明”,我们的大脑会不会做出相应的反应?对于想要通过锻炼来在一生中保持头脑敏捷的人来说,这个问题的至关重要。In experimental science, the best, most reliable studies randomly divide participants into two groups, one of which receives the drug or other treatment being studied and the other of which is given a placebo, similar in appearance to the drug, but not containing the active ingredient.在实验科学中,最出色可靠的研究会把参与者随机分为两组,一组得到正在研究的药物或治疗方法,另一组得到的则是无效的安慰剂,其外观与第一组拿到的药物类似,但不含活性成分。Placebos are important, because they help scientists to control for people’s expectations. If people believe that a drug, for example, will lead to certain outcomes, their bodies may produce those results, even if the volunteers are taking a look-alike dummy pill. That’s the placebo effect, and its occurrence suggests that the drug or procedure under consideration isn’t as effective as it might seem to be; some of the work is being done by people’s expectations, not by the medicine.安慰剂很重要,因为它们帮助科学家来控制受试者的预期。例如,如果人们相信一种药物会产生某些效果,他们的身体可能就会出现相应的反应,即使志愿者只是吃了外观相似的无效药物。这就是安慰剂效应,它的存在意味着,正在研究的药物或疗程并没有看上去那么有效;有些效果是由人们的期待促成的,而不是药物本身。Recently, some scientists have begun to question whether the apparently beneficial effects of exercise on thinking might be a placebo effect. While many studies suggest that exercise may have cognitive benefits, those experiments all have had a notable scientific limitation: They have not used placebos.最近,一些科学家开始怀疑,体育锻炼表现出来的改善思维的益处可能是安慰剂效应。尽管许多研究显示,运动或有提高认知能力的好处,但这些实验都存在一种明显的科学局限性:它们没有使用对照组。This issue is not some abstruse scientific debate. If the cognitive benefits from exercise are a result of a placebo effect rather than of actual changes in the brain because of the exercise, then those benefits could be ephemeral and unable in the long term to help us remember how to spell ephemeral.这个问题本身并不涉及什么深奥的科学辩论。如果运动提高认知能力的益处是安慰剂效应,而不是大脑因为运动发生了真正的改变,那么这些好处可能就会转瞬即逝,无法长期帮助我们记住“转瞬即逝”这种复杂词汇。Studying this issue, however, is difficult. There is no placebo for exercise and no way to blind people about whether they are exercising. They know if they are walking or cycling or not.然而,研究这个问题却很困难。对于体育锻炼来说,不存在无效对照剂,也没有办法不让受试者知道自己是不是在运动。他们清楚自己有没有步行或骑自行车。So researchers at Florida State University in Tallahassee and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign came up with a clever workaround. They decided to focus on expectations, on what people anticipate that exercise will do for thinking. If people’s expectations jibe closely with the actual benefits, then at least some of those improvements are probably a result of the placebo effect and not of exercise.因此,来自塔拉哈西的佛罗里达州立大学(Florida State University)以及伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的研究人员想到了一个聪明的迂回办法。他们决定把关注点放在:受试者预期锻炼会对思维产生何种影响。如果他们的期待与实际的益处吻合,那么至少部分好处很可能是源于安慰剂效应,而不是锻炼的结果。The scientists had seen this situation at work during an earlier study of games and cognition. Past research had suggested that playing action-oriented games improves players’ subsequent thinking skills. But when scientists in the new study asked -game players to estimate by how much the games would improve their thinking, the players’ estimates almost exactly matched the gains seen on cognitive tests after playing. In other words, the cognitive benefits of playing games appear to be largely a result of a placebo effect.在早前对视频游戏与认知能力的关系所做的研究中,科学家们就遇到过这种情况。过去的研究显示,玩动作类视频游戏可以改善玩家的思维能力。但当进行新研究的科学家们让视频游戏玩家估计游戏能在多大程度上改善他们的思维能力时,玩家的估计几乎和玩后的认知测试的加分完全吻合。换句话说,玩视频游戏的认知好处似乎主要是心理作用。For the new study, which was published last month in PLOS One, the researchers repeated this experiment but focused on exercise. Recruiting 171 people through an online survey system, they asked half of these volunteers to estimate by how much a stretching and toning program performed three times a week might improve various measures of thinking, including memory and mental multitasking.关于锻炼的这项新研究上个月发表在《公共科学图书馆:综合》期刊(PLOS One)上。研究人员重复了这个实验,但把实验内容换成了体育锻炼。他们通过一个在线调查系统招募了171人,要求其中一半的志愿者来评估,如果一周进行三次拉伸运动,能够在多大程度上改善思维能力,比如和一心多用的能力。The other volunteers were asked the same questions, but about a regular walking program.另一组志愿者被问到同样的问题,不过锻炼项目换成了有规律的步行运动。In actual experiments, stretching and toning regimens generally have little if any impact on people’s cognitive skills. Walking, on the other hand, seems to substantially improve thinking ability.在真实的实验中,拉伸运动基本上对认知能力没有多少影响。另一方面,散步则显示出能大幅改善思维能力。But the survey respondents believed the opposite, estimating that the stretching and toning program would be more beneficial for the mind than walking. The volunteers’ estimates of the likely cognitive improvements from gentle toning averaged about a three on a scale from one to six. The estimates of benefits from walking were lower.不过,在这项实验中,受试者的想法则正好相反。他们估计拉伸项目比步行对大脑更有益处。以1到6级来衡量,志愿者认为,轻度拉伸对认知的潜在改善的平均等级是3。他们对步行的评估则低一些。These data, while they do not involve any actual exercise, are good news for people who do exercise. “The results from our study suggest that the benefits of aerobic exercise are not a placebo effect,” said Cary Stothart, a graduate student in cognitive psychology at Florida State University, who led the study.这些数据虽然没有涉及真正的体育锻炼,对于真正从事锻炼的人来说却是个好消息。“我们的研究结果显示,有氧运动的好处不是安慰剂效应,”佛罗里达州立大学的认知心理学研究生卡里·斯托塔特(Cary Stothart)说。他牵头进行了这项研究。If expectations had been driving the improvements in cognition seen in studies after exercise, Mr. Stothart said, then people should have expected walking to be more beneficial for thinking than stretching. They didn’t, implying that the changes in the brain and thinking after exercise are physiologically genuine.斯托塔特解释,假如是人们的期待在驱动研究中发现的锻炼对认知能力的改善,那么受试者就应该是期待步行比拉伸更有益处。他们没有,这就意味着体育锻炼之后,大脑和思维能力真的发生了生理上的变化。Of course, this study was small and involved a self-selected group of people who happen to like completing online surveys. Some said they exercised, others said they did not. None claimed to be familiar with the science related to exercise and the brain, but it is impossible to know if people were being forthright.当然,这项研究的规模较小,参与者只涵盖了喜欢完成网上调查的人。有些人声称自己平时锻炼,其他人则说自己不运动。没人自称熟悉与运动和大脑有关的科学,但也无法知道他们是不是都说了真话。Still, the findings are strong enough to suggest that exercise really does change the brain and may, in the process, improve thinking, Mr. Stothart said. That conclusion should encourage scientists to look even more closely into how, at a molecular level, exercise remodels the human brain, he said. It also should spur the rest of us to move, since the benefits are, it seems, not imaginary, even if they are in our head.不过,斯托塔特表示,这些发现仍然足以明,锻炼真的会改变大脑,或许在这个过程中,还可能改善思维能力。他说,这个结论应该可以鼓励科学家们进一步探索:在分子层面上,运动是如何重塑了我们的大脑。它还应该激励我们其他人动起来,因为看来这些益处并非想象出来的,虽然它们的确发生在我们的大脑里。 /201411/344933监利县印度星龟密西西比红耳龟黄头侧颈龟东部网目鸡龟价格怎么养

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