明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月18日 16:21:37
Putin#39;s ex-wife Lyudmila has married a man 21 years her junior, according to reports in Moscow. The 58-year-old former Russian first lady appears on official records to have changed her name as if she is now the spouse of a known friend, dashing businessman Arthur Ocheretny, 37.据来自莫斯科的报道称,普京的前妻柳德米拉嫁给了一个比自己小21岁的男人。在官方记录中,58岁的前俄罗斯第一夫人已经更改了她的姓氏,如今她是一名知名人士的配偶,即37岁的、风度翩翩的商人亚瑟·奥切列德内。Putin and his wife announced their divorce in July 2013. Since then she all but disappeared from view while the Russian president forbids any questions about his private life although he made clear in 2014 that he was happy in his love life.2013年7月,普京与妻子宣布离婚。从那以后,她便从公众的视线里消失了。普京也拒绝回答任何关于他私生活的问题,尽管他在2014年曾明确表示,他生活得很幸福。Ocheretny is reported as heading the Centre For Interpersonal Communications and Literature Education publishing house in Moscow. His previous job was at a company called Art Show Centre, which organised parties for ed Russia - Putin#39;s political party - and energy giant Gazprom.据该报道称,奥切列德内是莫斯科人际交流中心和文学教育出版社的负责人。他以前曾在“艺术展示中心”公司工作,该公司曾为普京领导下的“统一俄罗斯党”效力,同时也与能源巨头俄罗斯天然气工业公司有着联系。Had she wed Ocheretny, this would be her married name. However, marriage records are not open to public scrutiny in Russia. Yet the pair have not been pictured together but they appear to be#39;friends#39; on social media.如果柳德米拉已经嫁给了奥切列德内,她就要改变她的姓氏。但是在俄罗斯,她的婚姻登记记录并不会向公众公开。此外,目前还没有两人在一起的合照,而且两人在社交媒体上仍是好友关系。The former first lady has been supporting Centre for development of interpersonal communication (CRMK) which is headed by 37-year-old Artur Ocheretny. Little is known of Ocheretny but he has a son aged around ten years old.这位前任第一夫人一直在赞助人际交流发展中心,而现在这个中心由37岁的亚瑟·奥切列德内领导。关于奥切列德的消息很少,除了获知他有一个10岁大的儿子。In 2014, Putin told Russians he would not contemplate remarrying until Lyudmila was happily betrothed.#39;First I have to see my ex-wife Lyudmila Alexandrovna married, and only then think about myself,#39; he told a televised question and answer session when asked about how long Russia would have to wait for a new first lady.2014年,普京曾告诉俄罗斯民众,除非柳德米拉开心得订婚,否则他不会考虑再婚。当电视访谈问道:俄罗斯多久之后将迎来新的第一夫人?普京答道:“首先我必须看到我的前妻柳德米拉结婚,然后我才会考虑自己,” /201601/424802When you meet someone for the first time, do you put across a good impression? And what do we mean by #39;good#39; in this context?与人第一次见面时,你能给人留下一个好印象吗?在这里我们所谓的“好”又指的是什么呢?According to Presence, a new book by Harvard Business School professor Amy Cuddy, people assess you on two main criteria when they first meet you:哈佛商学院教授艾米·库迪的新书《存在》 ,谈到了影响第一印象的两个主要评判标准:1. Can I trust this person?他(她)值得我信赖吗?2. Can I respect this person?他(她)值得我尊重吗?You level of trustworthiness, or warmth, is the most important factor in how people initially perceive you, Cuddy says—yet many mistakenly believe that the second factor, characterised as competence, is more important.库迪说,可信度(或者说亲近感)是影响人们第一印象最重要的因素。但许多人错误的认为第二个因素——能力——才更重要。;From an evolutionary perspective,; Cuddy writes, ;it is more crucial to our survival to know whether a person deserves our trust.;库迪在书中写道:“从进化的角度看,知晓一个人是否值得我们信任,对我们的生存更为重要。”While displaying competence is certainly beneficial, particularly in a work setting, Cuddy warns that focusing on winning people#39;s respect, while failing to win their trust, can backfire - a common problem for young professionals attempting to make a good impression early on in their careers.向别人展示能力当然会对我们有好处,尤其是在工作场合。但库迪提醒大家,只顾赢得别人的尊重而忽视赢得别人的信任,可能会适得其反。想要在事业早期给别人留下好印象的职场新人,普遍存在这个问题。;If someone you#39;re trying to influence doesn#39;t trust you, you#39;re not going to get very far; in fact, you might even elicit suspicion because you come across as manipulative,; Cuddy says.库迪说:“如果你尝试去影响的人并不信任你,那么你是走不了很远的;事实上,因为你给别人留下了控制欲强的印象,他们反而对你有疑虑。”;A warm, trustworthy person who is also strong elicits admiration, but only after you#39;ve established trust does your strength become a gift rather than a threat.;一个平易近人、值得信任,同时能力又强的人,才会让人心生敬佩。不过,只有在你们之间建立了信任后,你的能力才会变成一种优点,而不是一种威胁。In Cuddy#39;s book she also explains some of the science that can help you spot a liar.库迪在书中也提供了一些科学理论,可以帮你识别撒谎的人。When a person is lying there is likely to be discrepancies between what they are saying and what they are doing, she suggests.她表示,一个人在说谎时,他的言行可能会有不一致的地方。;Lying is hard work,; she writes. ;We#39;re telling one story while suppressing another, and most of us are experiencing psychological guilt about doing this, which we#39;re also trying suppress. We just don#39;t have the brainpower to manage it all without letting something go—without #39;leaking#39;.;她写道:“说谎并非易事,编造谎言的同时也意味着隐瞒另一个事实,大多数人还会因撒谎而心生愧疚,并试图掩盖愧疚。我们人类的脑力还没有强大到可以在撒谎时做到天衣无缝——即不让自己“露馅”。The author adds that these #39;leaks#39; can be seen in a person displaying conflicting emotions, like a happy tone of voice paired with an angry facial expression.作者补充说,如果一个人表达的情感产生了冲突——比如语调是欢快的,但同时呈现的面部表情却是愤怒的——最容易被人抓住撒谎的漏洞。;It#39;s about how well or poorly our multiple channels of communication—facial expressions, posture, movement, vocal qualities, speech—co-operate,; she adds.她还说,这跟我们与人交流时,对身体协调能力的掌控有关:包括面部表情、姿势、动作、音质以及说话方式。Professor Cuddy argues that most of us are not very good at spotting a liaras we are distracted by the words coming out of their mouth.库迪教授说,大多数人并不善于识别说谎者,因为我们可能会被他们的言语分散注意力。;When we#39;re consciously looking for signs of deception or truth, we pay too much attention to words and not enough to the nonverbal gestalt of what#39;s going on,; the professor adds. ;Truth reveals itself more clearly through actions than it does through our words.;她补充说:“当我们小心翼翼找寻谎言或事实的迹象时,我们往往会过分关注说话人的言语,而忽视与之同时出现的肢体语言。肢体动作比言语更能揭示出事实真相。” /201602/426441

We associate items with cultures or eras because it helps our brains categorize information. We hear the word ;pyramid,; and we instantly associate it with ancient Egypt, despite the numerous non-Egyptian pyramids in the world. Many of these associations are incorrect. Some things we strongly associate with the modern world are actually quite older.我们常常将身边的事物与本族的文化或者我们现在所处的年代联系到一起,因为这样的联系可以帮助我们的大脑将接收到的信息分门别类。比如,当我们听到;金字塔;这个词时,尽管世界上大多数金字塔并不属于埃及,我们的大脑也会下意识地将金字塔与古埃及联系起来。由此可见,很多类似于这样的联系是不准确的。像是那些我们认为和现代生活密不可分的事物,其实在很早以前就存在了。10.Rap Battles10.说唱对决Rappers in early 1980s New York might get most of the credit for this type of lyrical performance, but the practice is actually much older and comes from Scotland. It is called flyting and it was practiced by makaris (Scottish poets) during the 15th and 16th centuries. In this contest, two poets would engage in an exchange of verbal abuse, oftentimes in verse, and the winner was usually decided by the audience. The winner would then enjoy a large cup of mead or beer and more often than not would invite the loser to drink as well.大部分人认为说唱这种特殊的词汇表演技巧起源于那些在19世纪80年代早期出现的纽约说唱家(Rappers)。但事实上,早在这段时间以前,苏格兰就已经有了这样的词汇表演技巧。他们将这个词汇比赛似的表演叫做flyting。Flyting最早出现在15世纪和16世纪,是由一个叫做马卡瑞斯的苏格兰诗人发明的。比赛规则为:两名参赛的诗人在比赛过程中对骂,然后由观众们来决定最终的获胜者。获胜者在比赛结束后会豪饮一杯蜂蜜酒或者啤酒以示庆祝,但是他们不会邀请战败者来共同庆祝。At one point, flyting was so popular in Scotland that the obscenities and vulgarities were overlooked, though they were otherwise not permitted in public. Flytes would usually take place in large rooms like feasting halls, but the most skilled poets would engage in flyting at the royal courts. King James IV was known to be a big fan of flyting, as well as James V.Unfortunately, not many flytes from those times have survived. The most memorable one took place at the aforementioned court of James IV. It is known as ;The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy; and took place between Walter Kennedy and William Dunbar.那个时期的Flyting在苏格兰十分受欢迎,因为在比赛时可以尽情使用那些在公共场合不允许使用的粗俗和下流的词语。比赛通常会在宴会大厅里举行,不过那些知识最渊的诗人的比赛通常会在宫廷内举行。詹姆斯四世与詹姆斯五世都十分热衷于这项比赛。遗憾的是,这项比赛并没有流传到现在。最盛大的一场比赛是在詹姆四世的宫廷里举行的。这场比赛被称为;肯尼迪与邓巴的争论;,参赛者就是著名诗人沃特肯尼迪和威廉·邓巴。9.Dentures9.假牙Dentures#39; long history is not particularly surprising. George Washington, for example, was a famous wearer of dentures (although none of his were made of wood, despite the myth). However, dentures go back much further than that. To the time of the Etruscan civilization, in fact, located in modern Italy between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C.假牙拥有悠久的历史这件事应该在人们意料之中。乔治·华盛顿就是一个著名的假牙佩戴者(大家都说他的假牙是木头做的,尽管事实并不是这样)。但事实上假牙的出现要追溯到公元前8世纪到公元前4世纪的伊特鲁里亚(现为意大利)文明时期。A lot of evidence suggests that the Etruscans were the first to create false teeth as early as 700 B.C. Ancient skulls have been discovered with gold bands inside them, and in Marzabotto, a skull was found with an artificial tooth still attached using gold wire. Apart from dentures, individual crowns have also been discovered, made for molars and canines.Their dentistry skills were surprisingly advanced, and the dentures they made were quite similar to those still in use centuries later, even in the time of the aforementioned Washington. They were made using either animal or human teeth, which were fixed onto a gold band with metal pins and then secured in place inside the mouth.许多据表明伊特鲁里亚人早在公元前700年就发明了假牙。远古时期的人类头骨化石里就有金子做的类似于绑带一样的用来固定假牙的东西,并且在玛扎多发现的人类头骨里也有用金线固定的人造牙齿。除了假牙以外,人们还发现了一顶用臼齿和犬齿制作的王冠。他们的牙科学的先进程度令人咋舌,并且他们制造的假牙与几个世纪之后所使用的假牙别无二致,包括前面提到的华盛顿的假牙也是一样。这些假牙的制作材料不是人牙就是兽牙,然后这些假牙再被用金子做的绑带和金属的小钉子固定在人们的口腔内。8.Newspapers8.报纸For a publication to classify as a newspaper, it must publish up-to-date information covering a range of topics at regular intervals and be reasonably accessible to the public. Some would say that a newspaper also has to be printed, which means that they couldn#39;t have existed prior to the printing press. However, if we overlook that small detail, then newspapers go back a lot farther. Ancient Rome and China both had handwritten news sheets presented to the public on a regular basis detailing current events and other important happenings.如果有一种出版物被称作报纸,那么它在出版时不仅要刊登那些最新的并且涵盖了日常生活各个方面的消息,还要与公众有某种程度的联系。谈到报纸出现的时间,有人会说报纸毕竟也是被印刷出来的,意思就是说报纸的出现必然要晚于印刷术的出现。然而,如果我们忽略掉这个小细节,那么我们就会知道报纸出现的时间实际上比印刷术出现的时间更早一些。古时候的罗马和中国都有每天在特定的时间发表的手写的报纸,并且报道的内容通常都是一些琐事或者其他一些重要的大事。In Rome, it was known as Acta Diurna and is considered to be the first daily gazette, even if it wasn#39;t even written on paper (it was carved in stone or metal). At first, it only covered legal proceedings and the results of trials. As its popularity grew, it expanded to also include politics, military campaigns, births, deaths, and executions.In China, the earliest forms of newspapers were known as tipao (also Di Bao). They were imperial bulletins published during the Tang Dynasty. During the Kaiyuan era, they were replaced with Kaiyuan Za Bao, an official publication handwritten on silk and distributed mostly to imperial officials.在罗马,一个名叫;罗马公报;的报纸被看作当时的第一份日报,尽管报纸的内容并不是书写在纸上的(是被镌刻在石头或金属上的)。一开始,罗马公报的内容仅仅包括法律审判的过程和案件审判的结果。但当它渐渐开始变得受欢迎后,内容便逐渐扩充到了时政、军事、人们的出生与死亡以及官方执行的日常任务。在中国,我们知道的最早的报纸是邸报。唐朝时期,邸报相当于是皇家公告。然后在开元年间,邸报被开元早报所取代。开元早报是手写在丝绸上的官方出版物,大部分被分发给臣子。7.Toothbrushes7.牙刷Early dental techniques were of course a lot more primitive. In fact, the first ;toothbrushes; were nothing but sticks with frayed ends that were rubbed against the teeth. While these weren#39;t particularly efficient, they at least gave the user refreshing breath. Such ;chew sticks; were found in ancient China, Egypt, and even Babylonia, dating back to 3,000 B.C.古代的牙科在技术上比起现在自然是粗糙了不少。事实上,世界上第一把牙刷仅仅就是一根木棍,并且这根木棍的某一端可以用来擦牙齿。尽管这样的牙刷并不是特别有效,但至少也给予了刷牙者一个清新的口腔。这种像;磨牙棒;一样的东西在公元前3000年的中国、埃及以及巴比伦就出现了。Something similar to a modern toothbrush didn#39;t appear until the 15th century in China. It was made out of bone or bamboo and had natural bristles made out of the hairs of a hog#39;s neck. Also around that time, China started trading with Europe, so the design was brought there before long. However, Europeans found the hog hairs too rigid and preferred to replace them with softer horse hairs. While the design of the toothbrush would be updated from time to time, it really didn#39;t turn into the modern brush we know today until the beginning of the 20th century, when Wallace Carothers invented nylon for DuPont. Up until that point animal hairs kept being used for the bristles.一直到了15世纪,中国人才发明出了与现代的牙刷相似的牙刷。这样的牙刷是由骨或者竹子以及猪脖子上的鬃毛做成的。同样是在这个时期,中国与欧洲开始进行贸易活动,因此在这样的牙刷在被发明后不久就流传到了欧洲。但是欧洲人认为猪的鬃毛太硬了,所以他们用较柔软的马毛代替了猪的鬃毛。尽管牙刷的设计在这之后也不断地更新,我们今天使用的牙刷也是到了20世纪初期才逐渐成形的。当时华莱士-卡罗瑟斯为杜邦公司发明了尼龙材料,而在这之前牙刷的刷毛都是由动物的毛做成的。6.Welfare6.社会福利Ancient Rome had quite a few programs in place to provide its citizens with subsidized food. At first, this was not an obligation yet was still quite common when either the government or wealthy individuals wanted to gain favor with the public. They would make donations of corn to the people, known as frumentatio. In 123 B.C., however, a tribune by the name of Gaius Gracchus introduced Lex Frumentaria. Through this law, each citizen of Rome was entitled to an amount of wheat each month available at a reasonable price (somewhere around half the market price). This was only available to fathers of families but was not restricted only to poor Romans.古罗马在很早以前就有许多为市民提供补贴食物的活动。最开始,这并不是一项政府或者某一个有钱人想要从公众身上得到好处的普遍的义务。他们直接将粮食送给公众,这样的行为被称作frumentatio。在公元前123年,一个叫做盖约·格拉古的民权保护者出台了新粮食分配政策。通过这项条例,罗马的每个公民每个月都可以得到以公道的价钱(一般都是市场价的一半)售卖的定量小麦。但是对于半价售卖的小麦,有劳动力的家庭,其购买的数量会受到限制,而贫穷的罗马人购买半价小麦的数量是不受限的。Roman emperors also had various approaches when it came to dealing with the poor. It was not uncommon for emperors back then to give money to each Roman to celebrate a certain event (usually a military victory). One emperor who instituted new welfare programs was Trajan. While he increased the number of citizens who could receive free grain from the state, he also introduced alimenta, a publicly funded institution that benefited poor children.罗马帝王也有很多补助贫困公民的政策。但是让罗马帝王回到那种一到庆祝某个重大事件(比如战争的凯旋)就随意分发钱财的时代自然也是不太现实的。因而罗马帝王图拉真出台了一个新的福利政策:他增加了可以免费得到粮食的公民的数量,并且他还创立了一个名叫alimenta的公众基金机构来资助贫穷的儿童。翻译:赵雨晴 来源:前十网 /201510/402675



  Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars焚书坑儒1. Book burning1、焚书According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the First Emperor of Qin annexed the State of Qi and unified China in 221 , his Chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions.根据《史记》的记载,秦始皇吞并齐国并一统中国之后,他的丞相李斯建议压制演讲的自由,统一思想和政见。This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.这个建议被指责知识分子阿谀奉承和进行文字诽谤的论点明了它的合理性。Beginning in 213 B.C, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought----except those from his own, the school of philosophy known as Legalism----were subject to burning.公元前213年开始,争鸣的所有典籍,除了他所尊崇的法家学说以外,全部被焚烧。Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned;李斯建议帝国档案馆里的所有史料,除去秦朝历史学家所撰写的,都应该被烧毁;that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed into the local authorities for burning;包括《诗经》、《书经》和那些由诸子所写的著作都应被收至中央进行焚烧;that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed;that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families;任何人谈论这两本书都应被处死,任何人用过去的例子来讽刺当朝的政治都应被处死,他们的家人也应被行刑;that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty;朝廷中有任何人知情不报同样该被治罪;and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall.那些没有按圣旨在30天内焚烧名单上书籍的人应被发配到北疆和犯人们一起修建长城。The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and divination.在焚书期间唯一得以流传的书籍是有关医药、农业和占卜的。2. Burial of the scholars2、坑儒After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor of Qin ordered more than 460 of them in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure.自从在寻找长生不老方法的过程中被两个炼金术士欺骗,秦始皇在放逐他们的第二年就在都城活埋了超过460个儒家学者,不过2世纪时卫宏又为这个数据增加了700个人。The Crown Prince Fusu counseled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.太子扶苏劝谏说,对于一个刚刚统一的国家,外敌还未平定,对尊崇孔子学说的那些人采取这样严酷的刑法会造成不稳定。However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.但是,他不仅无法改变秦始皇的想法,甚至还被发配至边疆充军。The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription.秦朝如此快速的覆灭就源于这些对于人权的剥夺。Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state.儒学思想在之后的汉代复兴并成为了中国封建社会的官方学说。However, many of the other schools of thought disappeared.然而,其他的思想学派却消失了。 /201509/397328

  Consumption of sugary drinks results in some 184,000 deaths worldwide each year, a new analysis found. 一项新分析发现,全球每年因饮用含糖饮料而导致的死亡约达18.4万例。To reach their conclusions, scientists pooled data from dozens of dietary surveys and large prospective studies of the effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on body mass index and Type 2 diabetes, and of the effect of B.M.I. on cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. They used data on sweetened drink consumption from 62 national dietary surveys, which included more than 600,000 people in 51 countries surveyed between 1980 and 2010. The study is online in Circulation.这个结论来之不易,为此,科学家们检索了关于摄入含糖饮料对身体质量指数(B.M.I.)和II型糖尿病的影响,以及B.M.I.对心血管疾病、糖尿病和癌症的影响的数十项膳食调查和大规模前瞻性研究,汇总了其中的数据。他们使用的有关含糖饮料消费的数据来自62项全国性膳食调查,涉及在1980年至2010年间接受调查的51个国家的超过60万人。该研究在线发表于《循环》杂志(Circulation)上。For confirming disease-specific causes of death, researchers used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010, an international analysis that is periodically updated.研究人员利用了定期更新的国际性分析《2010年全球疾病负担、伤害和风险因素研究》(Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010)来确认疾病特异性死亡原因。Worldwide, they estimate that sweetened drinks cause 133,000 deaths from diabetes, 45,000 from cardiovascular disease, and 6,450 from cancers.他们估计,在世界范围内,含糖饮料导致13.3万人死于糖尿病,4.5万人死于心血管疾病,6450人死于癌症。Deaths linked to sugary drinks as a percent of all deaths from these causes varied widely by age and country, from less than 1 percent among Japanese people older than 65 to 30 percent in Mexicans younger than 45. In the ed States, about 25,000 deaths a year are caused by sweetened drinks.在不同原因的所有死亡中,与含糖饮料有关的死亡所占的比例因死者的年龄和国家而大相径庭,从日本65岁以上人群中的不足1%到墨西哥45岁以下人群中的30%不等。在美国,每年约有2.5万例死亡是由含糖饮料引起。“There’s no need to drink these beverages,” said the senior author, Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, dean of the School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts. “They’re causing tens of thousands of deaths, and we should eliminate them from the food supply.”“人们完全没必要饮用这些饮料,”该研究的主要作者,塔夫茨大学(Tufts)营养科学与政策学院(School of Nutrition Science and Policy)的院长戴瑞什·莫萨法利安(Dariush Mozaffarian)士说。“它们造成了成千上万的死亡,我们应该将它们从膳食中清除出去。” /201510/406135A Chilean architect who has focused his career on building low-cost social housing and reconstructing cities after natural disasters has been named the winner of architecture’s highest prize, the Pritzker.今年的普利兹克奖(Pritzker)由一位智利建筑师获得,他的职业生涯致力于建造低成本社会福利房,以及自然灾害后的城市重建。The architect, Alejandro Aravena, the first Pritzker laureate from Chile, received the honor at a time when his fellow architects have been recognized for designing distinctive buildings with regional materials. They include Pedro Alonso and Hugo Palmarola, who in 2014 won the Silver Lion award at the Venice Architecture Biennale, and Smiljan Radic, who that same year designed the annual pavilion at the Serpentine Gallery in London.这位建筑师便是亚历杭德罗·阿拉维纳(Alejandro Aravena),他是首位获得普利兹克奖的智利人,与此同时,不少其他智利建筑师亦因采用本地材料建造独特的建筑而受到赞赏,其中佩德罗·阿隆索(Pedro Alonso)和雨果·帕马洛拉(Hugo Palmarola)两人2014年在建筑双年展上获得银狮奖;斯米尔耶·拉蒂克(Smiljan Radic)同年为伦敦蛇形画廊(Serpentine Gallery)设计了年度展馆。Mr. Aravena’s work “gives economic opportunity to the less privileged, mitigates the effects of natural disasters, reduces energy consumption, and provides welcoming public space,” Tom Pritzker, chairman and president of the Hyatt Foundation, which sponsors the prize, said in a statement. “Innovative and inspiring, he shows how architecture at its best can improve people’s lives.”阿拉维纳的作品“为穷人和自然灾害的受害者提供了经济机会,减少了能源损耗,提供了友好的公共空间”, 赞助普利兹克奖的凯悦基金会(Hyatt Foundation)主席兼董事长汤姆·普利兹克(Tom Pritzker)在声明中说。“他的作品充满创新,极具启发性,展现了建筑如何最大程度地改善人们的生活。”Indeed, Mr. Aravena, 48, in an interview, described his architecture as being fueled more by public service than by aesthetic design. While many architects aim to create iconic buildings, Mr. Aravena said he was mostly concerned with a project’s underlying purpose.48岁的阿拉维纳在采访中说,自己的建筑更多是从公共务的目的,而不是务于美学设计。很多建筑师的目标是设计标志性的建筑,而阿拉维纳却说,自己最关心的是项目的基本目的。“Sometimes the solution to the forces at play is an economic building; sometimes you need to focus people’s imagination with architecture,” he said, adding that the challenge is “to analyze in a coldblooded way what particular equation is required.”“有时候,对于各种现存因素的解决方案是一栋经济实惠的建筑;有时候,你需要去关注人们对建筑的想像。”他还补充说,挑战在于“以一种冷血的方式阐述眼下需要哪一种等式”。He added: “The success, in conventional terms, is less guaranteed — you have less control over the project. But that’s thinking in artistic terms, if you consider your building a piece of art.”他说:“用老话来说,你对项目的控制越少,成功越没有把握。但是,如果你认为自己的的建筑是一件艺术品,那就要以艺术的方式去思考。”Though not a “starchitect,” Mr. Aravena has gained prominence in the profession: He’s this year’s director of the Venice Architecture Biennale and a former member of the Pritzker jury. He also gave a TED talk in 2014.阿拉维纳尽管不是“明星设计师”,但也在行业内获得了声望:他是今年建筑双年展的总监,亦是普利兹克奖评审委员会的前成员。2014年,他还做过TED演讲。Mr. Arevena’s Santiago-based firm, Elemental, has spearheaded a participatory design-build process it calls “half of a good house,” which allows residents to complete the work themselves later and play an active role in raising their own standard of living.阿拉维纳的公司“Elemental”曾经倡导一种分享式设计建筑程序,名为“半座好房子”,它令居民可以自行完成这栋建筑,发挥积极性,努力提高自己的生活水平。“We transform the lack of resources into a principle of incrementality,” Mr. Aravena said. “Let’s do now what is more difficult. Let families take care of the rest through their own means.”“我们把资源短缺变成了一种边际原则,”阿拉维纳说。“我们先做比较困难的部分,让家庭自己来按照自己的方法,做完剩下的部分。”The firm developed this approach in northern Chile in 2003, building housing for 100 families with just ,500 per family in government subsidies to cover the land and construction. For inspiration, Mr. Aravena drew on favelas and slums, building small housing units that can be easily expanded, while working closely with local residents.2003年,他的公司在智利北部推广了这种方式,靠着平均每个家庭7500美元的政府土地与建设津贴,为100个家庭建造了房屋。阿拉维纳从贫民区中寻找灵感,与本地居民密切合作,建造容易扩展的小型居住单元。He applied this same strategy in 2010, when, after Chile’s earthquake and tsunami, Elemental was given 100 days to come up with a master plan for the city of Constitución — including infrastructure, public space and buildings — by working with the population on solutions.2010年,智利地震与海啸灾害之后,有关部门就给了Elemental公司100天时间,为孔斯蒂图西翁市设计一项城市规划的专家方案,包括基础建设、公共空间和建筑。阿拉维纳也采取了同样的策略,与全体市民合作,完成解决方案。“We asked the community to identify not the answer, but what was the question,” Mr. Aravena said. This, it turned out, was how to manage rainfall, so the firm designed a forest that could help prevent flooding.“我们让人们寻找问题,而不是,”阿拉维纳说。最后,最大的问题就是如何应对暴雨,于是公司设计了一片森林,可以防止洪水。Elemental has also completed its share of public buildings, including several for Mr. Aravena’s alma mater, the Universidad Católica de Chile.Elemental公司还参与建造了许多公共建筑,包括阿拉维纳的母校,智利天主教大学。His office building for the health care company Novartis in Shanghai is under construction. And Mr. Aravena designed dormitories at St. Edward’s University in Austin, Tex.阿拉维纳为药企诺华(Novartis)在上海设计的办公楼正在建设之中。他还为得克萨斯州奥斯汀的圣爱德华大学设计了宿舍楼。For the Venice Biennale, Mr. Aravena plans to focus on the challenges ahead in the built environment, such as migration and climate change.在双年展上,阿拉维纳准备关注建筑环境所面临的挑战,包括移民和气候变迁。His buildings are often modest and understated. They do not necessarily command attention or grab headlines.他的建筑通常是平易近人、容易理解的。它们并不一定能够吸引关注或是登上报纸头条。“He understands materials and construction,” the Pritzker jury said in its citation, “but also the importance of poetry and the power of architecture to communicate on many levels.”“他理解材料与建设,”普利兹克奖评审团在颁奖词中说,“而且他理解诗歌的重要性,以及建筑在很多层面上所发挥的沟通力量。”Mr. Aravena’s unorthodox approach started with his unconventional introduction to the profession in the late 1980s, the final years of Augusto Pinochet’s repressive dictatorship, when information was limited.阿拉维纳非传统的工作方式始于20世纪80年代末,他亦是以非传统的方式进入这个行业,当时正值奥古斯托·皮诺切特(Augusto Pinochet)的压迫独裁统治末期,信息非常有限。Mr. Aravena said that he began by “looking at pictures of buildings that were supposed to be important,” and then went to Italy with a sketchbook and measuring tape “to learn from the buildings themselves.”阿拉维纳说,他靠着“研究那些可能非常重要的建筑的照片”起步,之后带着一个速写本和一个卷尺去了意大利,“向那些建筑本身学习”。“By drawing, you build the buildings again,” he said. “Measuring — you’re in front of a blank page again.”“通过素描,你可以重新搭建起那些建筑,”他说。“通过测量——你又要面对空白的纸页了。”Mr. Aravena graduated in 1992 and two years later established his own practice.1992年,阿拉维纳从学校毕业,两年后开始执业。In 2000, as a professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, Mr. Aravena examined how to redefine quality in social architecture, which made him realize, “we had to create a company to go beyond the academic realm.”2000年,作为哈佛设计学院的教授,阿拉维纳开始研究如何改进社会福利建筑的质量,他发现,“我们得开个公司,超出学术的范畴。”A year later, Mr. Aravena and Andrés Iacobelli — a transport engineer who has since gone his own way — started Elemental, a so-called do tank (rather than a think tank), with the mandate “Let’s make a company that is able to prove that things can be better.”一年后,阿拉维纳与交通工程师安德雷斯·亚科贝利斯(Andrés Iacobelli,他后来离开了)开创了Elemental公司,这是一个实干机构(do tank),而不是一个智库机构(think tank),他们的想法是,“让我们开个公司,明事情可以变得更好。”“If we believe we’re good designers, why not try to apply our skills to issues that matter?” Mr. Aravena said. “Social housing is a difficult question and it deserves professional quality, not professional charity.”“如果我们相信我们自己是好的设计师,为什么不试着把我们的本领施展到重要的事情上面?”阿拉维纳说。“社会福利房屋是一个棘手的问题,值得拥有专业品质,而不是依靠专业的慈善。”While such socially conscious work is often done in the margins of a firm, Mr. Aravena said he considered it the primary focus, worthy of top talent’s attention. “We need the best people in the entire chain of production, from the politicians to the social worker to the designer.” He added: “What we’ve been trying to do is communicate that architecture, instead of an extra cost, is an added value.”这类具有社会意识的设计在其他公司通常处于边缘地位,但阿拉维纳说,他把这类工作视为重点,认为它值得一流人才关注。“整个生产链上,都需要最好的人才,从政治家到社会工作者再到设计师。”他补充说:“我们努力表明,建筑是一种附加的价值,而不是额外的成本。”Mr. Arevena’s current partners in Elemental are all his former students: Gonzalo Arteaga, Juan Cerda, Víctor Oddó and Diego Torres. “Architecture is a collective discipline,” he said.目前,Elemental公司的其他合伙人都是阿拉维纳以前的学生,包括冈佐拉·阿特亚加(Gonzalo Arteaga)、胡安·瑟尔达(Juan Cerda)、维克多·奥多(Víctor Oddó)和迭戈·托雷斯(Diego Torres)。“建筑是一门合作的学问,”他说。He said he was particularly proud to be working in Chile at a time of critical mass in quality architecture, adding that he “could name maybe 10 architects — and 10 is quite a lot” of whose work he is “envious.”他说,目前智利有大量优秀建筑,让他感到特别骄傲,他还说,“我或许可以说出十个建筑师——这个数字可不小,”他们的作品让他感到“嫉妒”。And Mr. Aravena said he was content to continue working in the relative obscurity of Chile, with its population of about 18 million.阿拉维纳说,他满足于继续在相对偏僻的智利默默无闻地工作,这个国家的人口只有1800万。“We’re very O.K. to be here in the corner of the world,” he said. “We can concentrate and produce, and we’re not missing anything.”“我们安于呆在这里,呆在世界的角落,”他说。“我们可以集中精力,努力创作,我们什么也没错过。”With the Pritzker, however, Mr. Arevena is bound to become the subject of more attention.然而,获得普利兹克奖肯定会令阿拉维纳获得更多关注。But winning the prize does not come with pressure to produce, Mr. Aravena said; instead, it gives him the freedom to experiment. “I guess from now on, we don’t have to prove anything to anybody,” he said. “Now we feel more encouraged to enter fields with an even higher risk of failure.”但是,他说,获奖并没有给他带来创作上的压力,相反却给了他实验的自由。“我想,从现在开始,我们不用再向任何人明任何东西了,”他说。“现在我们觉得更受鼓舞,可以进入更有风险的领域。”“Rather than the responsibility or weight that such a prize could mean, I feel now lighter,” he added, “to be able to start running.”“我并没有被这样一个大奖所带来的责任或者沉甸甸的分量压住,而是感觉更轻盈了,”他补充说。“我可以开跑了。” /201601/423718The last ruler of the Xia Dynasty was Jie, a rare despot in history, who was blamed for the fall of the Xia.夏的最后一位国君桀是历史上少有的暴君,对夏朝的灭亡负有责任。He led a luxury and decayed life, a-bused his power and increased suppression, which resulted in the intensified contradiction.他生活奢侈腐朽,滥用权力,对人民进行残酷镇压,使得阶级矛盾尖锐。Filled with hatred for Jie, the people fled in large numbers, and even his court officials cursed him and hoped that he would die early.人们心中充满仇恨,纷纷逃离,甚至大臣都诅咒夏桀,希望他早点儿死。Shang Tang took this opportunity to revolt and dethroned Jie, who died in exile in Nanchao. The Xia Dynasty ended.商汤乘机 率兵伐夏,大败夏桀,桀逃到南巢死去。With the development of productivity and the increase of captures, the private ownership came into being gradually and doomed to be reflected in politics. That Oi abolished the Abdication and substituted it for the hereditary is the best illustration of it.由于生产力的进步和俘虏的增加,私有财产制度逐渐出现了。达到一定的限度,私有制度就要在政治上有所表现,夏后启废“禅让”为帝位世袭便是最好的说明。The hereditary monarchy is more advanced than Abdication, but as a new system it encountered various hindrances.帝位世袭是—种比“禅让”含有进步意义的新制度,但凡是一种新制度,总要遭到各种形式的阻碍。The feud among Xia, You Hu, Yi and Han Zhuo is a battle between the new system and the decayed power.夏后氏与有扈氏、夷羿、寒浞间长期战斗,正是新制度与社会腐朽力量间的斗争。It is in-evitable for the new system to win the battle by contending with the old one, for the growing force couldn’t be contained. The rule of Shao Kang is a good example of it.新制度经过斗争,必然要取得胜利,因为正在发展着的力量是不可遏止的,“少康中兴”就是很好的例子。 /201510/407417

  From 5. 房价从295美元起。 The 175-room, 20-story Ludlow is one of the latest arrivals to downtown Manhattan’s well-established chic hotel scene, which includes the Mercer, Sixty SoHo and Crosby Street hotels. The hoteliers Ira Drukier, Richard Born and Sean MacPherson, who own several other boutique hotels in New York City together, such as the Jane and the Bowery, bought the abandoned red-brick building from a real-estate developer and spent two years fashioning it into luxury accommodations with a contemporary design. The Ludlow, opened in June 2014, includes the hard-to-book restaurant Dirty French, which is from the same team as Carbone and Parm. The property also has a lovely garden with six tables and brick walls partly covered in ivy, as well as heating, allowing it to remain open year-round. 曼哈顿市中心的时髦酒店一向享有盛誉,比如Mercer酒店、Sixty SoHo酒店和Crosby Street酒店。最新登场的是拥有175间客房的20层高的勒德洛酒店(Ludlow)。酒店老板艾拉·德吕基耶(Ira Drukier)、理查德·恩(Richard Born)和肖恩·麦克弗森(Sean MacPherson)之前一起在纽约市开了几家精品酒店,比如Jane酒店和Bowery酒店。他们从一位地产开发商那里买下一座废弃的红砖建筑,花费两年时间把它打造成具有当代设计感的奢华酒店。勒德洛酒店2014年6月开业,设有Dirty French餐厅,餐饮团队来自Carbone餐厅和Parm餐厅,很难预订。这家酒店还有一个可爱的花园,设有6张桌子和部分被常春藤覆盖的砖墙,装有暖气,所以可以全年开放。 The Ludlow is in the heart of the Lower East Side, one of the city’s most desirable areas for the hip and youthful set. New York institutions like Katz’s Deli and Bowery Ballroom are within walking distance. And it is near hot-ticket restaurants and bars, bakeries and indie boutiques. Two subway lines, the F and the 6, are within a 10-minute walk. 勒德洛位于下东区中心地带,下东区是纽约的时尚和年轻人士最喜欢的地方。步行就可到达Katz’s Deli熟食店和Bowery Ballroom舞厅等纽约著名场所。附近还有很多热门餐厅、酒吧、面包房和独立精品店。步行10分钟即可到达F线和6号线地铁站。 There are 10 room categories ranging from a Studio Full to the Penthouse Suite. Our 235-square-foot Studio Queen had a large window overlooking lively Essex Street, which was great for people-watching. Its stylish décor included a black and cream silk rug, with a series of varied patterns, adorning the dark wood floors; cream-painted wood beams; an oversize round brass chandelier, handmade in Marrakesh; and a charming, tiny round white-marble table with two purple velvet chairs and a dark wood bed with a comfortable queen mattress. 这家酒店提供10种客房类型,从开间Studio Full到顶楼套房Penthouse Suite不等。235平方英尺的豪华开间Studio Queen有个大窗户,能俯瞰热闹的埃塞克斯街(Essex Street),很适合看人来人往。这间房装饰雅致,包括乌木地板上的一块镶饰着一系列不同图案的黑色和奶油色丝制小地毯;奶油色木横梁;马拉喀什手工制作的超大圆形黄铜枝形吊灯;配有两把紫色天鹅绒椅子的迷人的白色大理石小圆桌;以及配有超大舒适床垫的乌木床。 Snug but aesthetically fun, the bath had robes from the trendy Parisian fashion label Maison Margiela white tiled walls, black-and-white checked floors and a white marble sink with brass fixtures and a large brass mirror. The shower stall had a rain-shower head, and though the water pressure was moderate at best, the toiletries from the luxe brand Red Flower made up for it. 浴室小巧舒适,具有审美情趣,配备有巴黎时尚品牌Maison Margiela的浴袍,白瓷砖墙,黑白格地板,黄铜配件白色大理石盥洗池,以及一面大黄铜镜。淋浴隔间的喷头最多只能说水压适中,不过奢侈品牌Red Flower的卫浴用品弥补了这一点。 Besides the garden, there’s a lobby lounge with a limestone gas fireplace, oversize chandeliers, Moroccan rugs and vintage furniture. A small but airy gym is on the 20th floor. The intensely popular bistro Dirty French is on the entry level of the hotel, and hotel guests are given priority reservations. Guests can also order from the and have their meal served in the garden. 除了花园,还有一个大堂休息室,那里有石灰岩燃气壁炉、超大枝形吊灯、洛哥小地毯和古董家具。20层有一个小巧通风的健身房。很受欢迎的Dirty French餐厅在酒店一层,房客拥有优先预订权。房客们还可以按照菜单点餐,要求送到花园用餐。 A continental breakfast, part of the room rate, is offered at Dirty French starting at 7 a.m. seven days a week. The three choices are served à la carte, and include a plate of in-season fruit such as pluots and papayas, a pastry basket from the French bakery Balthazar and yogurt with granola. Additional items and room service are also available but for a charge. 房价包含欧式早餐,每周七天从早上7点起在Dirty French餐厅供应。菜单上的三道菜包括一盘应季水果,比如李子和木瓜;来自法式面包房Balthazar的面包篮,以及含有格兰诺拉燕麦片的酸奶。点其他菜或要求送餐务则需另外付费。 The Ludlow wins high marks for its neighborhood feel and is a smart choice for travelers looking for an authentic sense of place away from the crowds. 勒德洛酒店的街区感为它赢得了很高的评价,很适合那些寻找真正远离人群的酒店的旅行者。 /201603/430532It#39;s the latest bizarre photograph which has left the Internet baffled.近期一张匪夷所思的照片流传网络,让网友困惑不已。This holiday snap of a little girl has left thousands of people confused as to whether she is underwater, or jumping into a pool.这张小女孩的旅游快照让数千人备感困惑——她到底是一直在水中?还是刚刚跳进泳池?The picture was posted on photo-sharing website Imgur, where it has been viewed more than 1.4million times, and prompted fierce debate over what it actually shows.这张图片被发到图片分享网站Imgur后,已经有超过140万的浏览量,其内容引发了网友激烈的争论。The photo was uploaded last night by Imgur user Maskari, and is captioned: #39;This girl looks like she#39;s underwater and jumping into water at the same time.#39;昨晚,Imgur用户马斯克利(Maskari)上传了这张照片并附文字说明:这个女孩看上去既像在水中,同时又像在跳水。At first glance, the bright blue background of the water and the splashes around the child#39;s face makes it look like she is swimming underwater.乍一看,女孩周围天蓝色水的背景以及孩子脸上飞溅的水花,让她看上去是在水中游泳。However, on closer inspection her hair - which is tied up in a cute ponytail - is dry, meaning just must have jumped into a swimming pool.但是,仔细看她可爱的马尾辫就会发现——她的头发是干的!这就意味着她肯定是刚跳进泳池不久。But that hasn#39;t stopped Internet users from commenting on the image#39;s #39;mind blowing#39; powers, and speculating over whether it was created using photo manipulation software.这张照片引发的争议让不少网民觉得是“意念”的力量,也有人怀疑这张照片是用修图软件合成的。#39;The picture is taken upside down in water right?,#39; one web user wrote underneath the picture.有网友在图片底下道:“这张图片是在水中拍的吗”Another added: #39;Stop confusing me.#39;另一人追评道:“别再让我疑惑了。”While another commenter said: #39;Kids are waterbending younger and younger these days#39;.也有人道:“现在的孩子越来越会玩水了。”Other viewers described her as #39;Shr#246;dinger#39;s girl#39; - a reference to thought experiment Schr#246;dinger#39;s cat, and said the photo had left their #39;mind blown#39;.有人把这个女孩叫做“薛定谔的女孩”,是把她和思想实验“薛定谔的猫”联系起来,说这张照片让他们“观念爆炸”。However, several commenters explained how the girl must be above the water surface and was merely jumping into a pool.然而,也有几个人在中极力论女孩是在水面之上,是刚刚跳入水中的。#39;Her hair is dry,#39; one wrote. #39;She is just jumping in a shallow pool and little droplets have flown around her looking like air bubbles.#39;一位网友写道:“她的头发是干的,她刚刚跳入浅水池,周围飞溅的小水珠看上去像气泡。”The picture has echoes of viral phenomenon #39;The Dress#39;, a photograph which prompted online arguments as to whether a dress photographed by Scottish couple Cecilia Bleasdale and Paul Jinks was blue and black, or white and gold.这张图片是对热议文化现象“连衣裙”的回应。此前的连衣裙图片是苏格兰夫妇塞西莉亚布里斯代(Cecilia Bleasdale)和金克斯保罗(Paul Jinks)拍摄的,网友对图中的连衣裙是蓝黑色还是白金色争议颇大。 /201509/401604


  The Three Kingdoms三国Battle of Red Cliffs赤壁之战In 208, Zhou Yu and Liu Bei led their forces to fight Cao Cao.208年,周瑜和刘备领导他们的军队抗击曹操。Cao Cao led a force of 300 000 to attack Wu.曹操带领300000兵力攻击吴国。Zhou Yu led the Wu forces (30 000) with Liu Bei’s forces (20 000).周瑜带领吴国的30000人马和刘备的20000人马。Cao Cao had previously linked his ships together because his men were mainly composed of Northerners who were not accustomed to fighting on water;they were also sick after an epidemic.曹操在开战前就将他的船只都拴在了一起因为他的军队中大多是北方人,不习惯于水上作战,而且将士们还感染了风寒。In the mean time, Huang Gai faked himself a turncoat, seeking giving top secret of Wu’s army to Cao Cao.同时,黄盖装作吴国的叛徒,企图将吴军的顶级机密告诉曹操。At the night of the battle, Huang Gai fabricated his escape from the South side of the Yangtse River where Wu’s camp is to the North side where Wei’s base is.作战之夜,黄盖假装从扬子江南边的吴军营地溜到了北边的魏军营地。Near the Northern bank, Huang Gai set his tail boat on fire.他在北岸附近点燃了自己的长尾船。The Cao Cao’s armada, connected together, was caught fired in the bay and nearly totally destroyed.曹操联接在一起的舰队在河湾上着了火,几乎全军覆没。Zhou Yu, at this time, sent his whole army against Cao Cao’s army which lost all its morale.这时周瑜派出所有士兵袭击丧失斗志的曹操军队。Cao Cao decided it would be best to retreat.曹操决定最好先撤退。The result of the Battle of Red Clifk greatly hindered Cao Cao’s expension across Yangtse River into the Southern China.赤壁之战的结果极大地阻止了曹操跨过扬子江向中国南部的扩张。 /201510/398244。

  Historical background : The mid-Ming was faced with the political crisis beause the national defence power was weakening down except for the political corruption ,high centralization of the land, poverty of the people and the country and the rising seriousness of the class contradictions.历史背景:明朝中期面临着政治危机,当时除了统治腐朽、土地高度中、民贫财竭、阶级矛盾日益尖锐外,国防力量也逐渐削弱。The northern Tartars took the chance to aggress and the Japanese pirates troubled the southeast seacoast areas from time to time.北方鞑靼乘机侵扰,倭寇也不断人侵东南沿海。All of these made the governors consider the problem to save the country themselves.这些都迫使统治阶级不得不考虑改革自救的问题。Reform:In the year of 1573, Zhang Juzheng occupied the office of the Chief Minister of the cabinet.改革的内容:1573年,张居正任内阁首辅。He reformed by taking it as the core to strengthen the centralization.他以加强中央集权为中心进行政治改革。In politics, he advocated to bring order into the local administration and cut off the unnecessary officials. In the army, he improved the frontier defense and appointed the strategist Qi Jiguang to guard Jimen and the strategist Li Chengliang to guard Liaodong. He also agreed to trade tea and horses with the Tartars and has the peaceful coexistence. In economy, he measured the land again and clarified the private land that the despots had grabbed for. He invited the water conser-vancy expert Pan Jixun to harness the rivers. He reformed the tax system and advocated the one-whip system.政治方面,澄清吏治,裁减冗员;军事方面,整顿边防,任用军事家戚继光守卫蓟门,李成梁镇守辽东,并与鞑靼进行茶马互市,和平相处;经济方面,丈量土地,清查豪强地主的隐田,聘请水利专家潘季驯主持治河,改革赋役制度,推行鞭法。The importance of the Reform Zhang : Juzheng Reform had improved the financial state of the Ming government and strengthened the frontier defense. The military power had been strengthened as well.改革的作用:张居正改革,改善了明政府的财政状况,明朝北方边防得到巩固,军事力量也有所增强。But the reform annoyed the present interests of the bureaucrats and the landlords and was against seriously by them.由于这次改革触犯了大官僚地主的一些眼前利益,遭到他们的强烈反对。In 1582, Zhang Juzheng died and the reform was stopped at the same time. But the way to collect tax in silver was maintained.1582年,张居正逝世,改革也随之终止,但用银两收税的办法却保留了下来。 /201603/428560

  Xiangru Returned the Jade Intact to the Zhao State完璧归赵[qh]This story is set during China’s Warring States Period (475-221 ), a time when seven states are pitting their military might in a protracted contest for political hegemony.“完璧归赵”这个故事发生在七国争霸的战国时代(公元前475年-公元前221年)。Of these states, Qin is the strongest, while Zhao is relatively small and weak.赵惠文王得到了一件宝贝——和氏璧,The King of the State of Qin learns that the State of Zhao possesses a priceless piece of jade known as the “He Family Tablet,” and be-comes determined to acquire it.秦昭王听说后就像得到它,He sends a messenger to Zhao, saying that he is willing to offer fifteen exchange for this treasure.他派人送给赵王一封信,称愿意以15座城池交换和氏璧。The King of Zhao,well aware of the King of Qin’s reputation for craftiness, fears that he will renege on the bargain once the tablet is in his possession.当时秦国强大,赵国弱小。赵王既怕上当受骗,又怕秦兵来攻。He dispatches Lin Xiangru, a counselor of humble background, to take the treasure to Qin and uphold the dignity of Zhao.正在一筹莫展之际,缪贤向赵王推荐了蔺相如。于是,赵王就派遣蔺相如带着和氏璧前往秦国。The King of Qin is ecstatic when he lays eyes on the snow-white, glittering jade tablet.秦王在章台接见了蔺相如。蔺相如将和氏璧敬献给秦王,秦王非常高兴,并将璧传给侍列左右的美人和大臣观看。He clasps it possessively to his breast, but refuses to broach the subject of the fifteen cities he has promised in exchange.蔺相如见秦王丝毫没有给赵国城池的意思,Lin Xiangru manages to retrieve the treasure from the King’s grasp by pointing out a pretended flaw in the jade.便机智地走向前去对秦王说:“璧上有处瑕疵,请指给大王看。”Once he has the tablet in his hands, he sternly proclaims that the King of Qin’s word is meaningless, and that he, Lin Xiangru, will smash the treasure and defy the King, even if it means his own death.蔺相如拿到璧后,后退了一步站在一根柱子旁边,怒斥秦王不讲信义,并警告秦王:“如果你一定要来抢璧的话,那么,我的头和这块璧, 今天就都撞碎在这根柱子上。”并拿着璧瞅着柱子,做出要击碎璧的样子。Unable to justify himself, the King has no choice but to allow Lin Xiangru to depart, and the “He Family Tablet” is returned to the State of Zhao intact and unharmed.秦王为了兑现承诺,只好让蔺相如离开,蔺相如不辱使命,和氏璧完壁归赵。 /201509/395363

  With the Spring Festival around the corner, many have prepared for the family reunion dinner on the Chinese New Year#39;s Eve beforehand. This year, some high-end choices, which are usually served to state leaders, are on offer for the all-important Spring Festival, reported thepaper.cn.随着中国春节的日益临近,许多人已经开始为除夕夜的全家团圆饭做准备了。今年,我们有了更加高端的选择。据澎湃新闻报道,那些经常出现在国家领导人宴会上的产品,今年将会为中国最重要的节日--春节而提供。Diaoyutai Food and Biotechnology, a business set up by Diaoyutai State Guest House which entertains visiting foreign state leaders, announced on Dec 22 that it will sell state banquet dishes as Chinese New Year#39;s Eve dinner on Tmall, a Chinese B2C online retail website. This is the first time that the provider of state banquet has gone into business.22日,隶属于钓鱼台国宾馆的钓鱼台食品生物科技有限公司宣布,将在在线零售平台天猫上开卖;国宴到家;系列年夜饭产品。这也是第一次将国宴置于商业当中。On the of the state-level New Year package meal, there are famous dishes such as Buddha Jumps Over the Wall, Lion#39;s Head and Braised Prawns. And unsurprisingly, the state-level delicacy is not cheap: a set meal comprising of four dishes and one soup is priced at up to around 4,000 yuan (7).此次开卖的;国宴;年夜饭套餐中包括佛跳墙、狮子头和油焖大虾等名菜。毫无疑问,这种国家级的美食并不便宜:四菜一汤的套餐价格约为4000元。Because the state banquet meal features half-finished products and is delivered via refrigerated trucks, it is only available for customers in Beijing and Tianjin.因为国宴的产品大多是半成品,只能由冷链配送到顾客家里,所以目前配送区域仅限北京和天津。The frozen food will be delivered from January 20 to February 20, 2016, including Spring Festival Eve on February 7, when Chinese families usually dine together to ring in the traditional new year.这些经冷冻后的食物将从2016年1月开始派送至2月20号,包括2月7号的除夕夜,这个时候中国家庭通常都在一起吃年夜饭,等待农历新年的来临。 /201512/417948

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