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2019年11月17日 16:53:30 | 作者:千龙频道 | 来源:新华社
There are 12 toxic hot spots in Michigan called Areas of Concern.These are places in the Great Lakes basin where pollution and development have damaged the ecosystems.The Detroit River is on this list. Before the Clean Water Act, industries on the river treated it as a dumping ground – think waste in the billions of gallons.Rose Ellison is with the Environmental Protection Agencys Great Lakes National Program Office.;In years gone by, billions and billions [of gallons] of untreated industrial and municipal waste went into the Detroit River,; she says.Over the years, a lot of people have been working to clean up the river.;Its in really good shape, but there are pockets,; Ellison says. ;No place is perfect, and its an industrial river, so there are pockets that still need attention.;She says the contaminated sediments at the bottom of the river are one of the major things they still have to tackle. At the same time, people are working to improve habitat for the creatures that live here.A big pot of federal money has given this cleanup a kick in the pants. Its called the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative.A two million dollar chunk of that money is going to a special construction project in the river near Ecorse.You have to get on a boat to see it.The boat takes us upstream of Grassy Island. Here, two barges are parked side by side and a crane operator is using a GPS-guided system to carefully drop buckets of broken limestone into the water.Theyre building a reef.Jennifer Read is with the University of Michigan Water Center.;On the bottom of the river were going to have a four acre reef,; she says. ;Its actually lots of space there for fish to lay eggs and for the eggs to be incubated and hatch out and protect the fry.;She says theyre making a better home for native fish. Especially the lake sturgeon. Its listed as a threatened species in Michigan.;Kids love them,; she says. ;Theyve been around since the dinosaurs unchanged, and I think thats what makes them really exciting. Theyre big fish — they can be up to 6 feet. Theyre huge.;She says the reefs also meant to help out whitefish and walleye.And that makes Terry Pickard pretty happy. Hes with the Downriver Walleye Federation.;I get to see where this reef really is, so if I come in the springtime I know where its at,; he says, laughing. ;All the other guys have to find it now!;He says he gets out here as soon as he can, every year.;Since the early 90s, I started fishing out here,; Pickard says. ;Jigging in the springtime, well be out here fishing when the ice flows are coming through, and youre dodging icebergs. You know, it feels like a mini Titanic out here. Its cold, you have ice on the eyes of your fishing rod, on your line, and youre like, Why am I out here? and then you get a walleye on — and its like, This is why Im here.;He says hed like to see more of these projects go in around the Great Lakes.And in fact, there are aly three reefs in the St. Clair River, and two reefs in the Detroit River, with another two planned for the future. The people who are doing this work say it looks simple, dropping some rocks in the river. But its a massive effort — 15 years in the making — with federal and state agencies and universities involved.Jim Boase is with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Boase is a biologist, but he says he feels more like a salesperson telling people why they should care about cleaning up the Detroit River.;I get this question from the public a lot: the So what? Why are you doing this?; he says.He says he has two main points to his sales pitch for the river.;Some of the best fishing in the world is right here,; Boase says. ;Theres also the migratory fly-way for ducks for people that hunt.;And he says when you create these opportunities it can have a ripple effect on the economy.;Folks that come here to fish, they stop at the bar possibly to celebrate the great things that theyre catching out here in the waterways,; Boase says. ;So the guy that owns the restaurant along Jefferson Avenue, its important to him, I betcha.;The reef projects are part of a bigger effort to improve fish and wildlife habitat. So that one day, the Detroit River can get off the toxic hot spot list.201510/404818Shale gas页岩气Raise the pressure增加了开采压力Government dithering keeps frackers above ground政府仍就是否批准开采页岩气犹豫不决Inflated concerns担心通胀FOR all the debate about it, Britains shale-gas industry is minuscule. Whereas roughnecks in America have sunk many thousands of wells since a boom began more than a decade ago, Britain has fracked at only one test site, in Lancashire, and not since 2011. In a report published on May 8th, an all-party group from the House of Lords said that speeding shale-gas exploration should be an “urgent national priority”. So far, so familiar—and entirely in tune with the position of the coalition government. But the authors go on to blame the government, not green campaigners, for holding the frackers up.在所有对于页岩气的争议中,英国的页岩气企业发展最为迟缓。一百年前天然气开始发展时,美国的油井工人已经下探了数千油井了,而直到2011年,英国才在兰开夏郡一处试点进行油井开采。在一份发表于3月8日的报告中,上议院的一个全党组织称,加快页岩气勘探应成为“国家的紧急首要任务”。至今,这句话非常熟悉-与联合政府的处境非常一致。但是报告的撰写者旨在批评政府暂停油井开采,并非环保主义者。The Lords economic-affairs committee argues that shale gas could boost Britains economy while reducing its dependence on imports. It says that proper oversight can limit the environmental and health risks associated with fracking. And it recognises that burning more gas instead of coal—which is still used to generate more than one-third of Britains electricity—could be a cheap and sustainable way to lower the countrys carbon emissions while waiting for pricey renewable technologies to mature.上议院经济事务委员会称,页岩气会促进英国的经济发展,减少国家对进口天然气的依赖。委员会还称,适当的监管会控制油井开采对环境和健康方面的危害。该委员会还认为,燃烧更多的天然气以取代煤-目前仍为英国提供超过三分之一的电力-价格低廉,而且是降低整个国家碳排放更加可持续的方法,同时还可以等待造价高昂的可再生能源技术成熟。But a thicket of regulation has slowed progress to a crawl. Although dozens of test wells are needed even to calculate the extent of Britains shale-gas reserves, Cuadrilla, an oil and gas firm, reckons it could take more than a year to get clearance for each site. Part of the problem is that several government agencies share responsibility for approving fracking applications. The Lords worry that unwieldy rules will not make the business much safer but could prod shale-gas firms into seeking far richer pickings abroad.但繁琐复杂的管制拖累了进程以致发展缓慢。虽然仍需要数十个试验井以计算英国页岩气的储量的范围,据石油天然气公司Cuadrilla推测,要想开采每个试验井需要超过一年的时间。之所以出现这个问题,有部分原因是因为有几个政府部门同时监管批准油井的开采。上议院担心,庞杂的条条框框并不能使企业更加的安全,反而会刺激页岩气企业寻找国外富产油气田投资。Complaints about bureaucracy are embarrassing to a government that has promised to go “all out for shale”, and which is busily finding ways to stop critics beyond Westminster from holding up the industry. It has persuaded shale-gas firms to put £100,000 (0,000) into a fund for local causes each time they drill a test site. In January it promised to let local councils keep all the money frackers pay in business rates, up from half at present. Next month it will probably announce plans to make it easier for fracking firms to drill tunnels deep beneath peoples homes.关于官僚主义的抱怨使得政府颜面尽失,政府之前承诺“全力以赴页岩气”,而现在却忙于想方设法要平息议会关于阻碍产业发展的批评。政府曾建议页岩企业为每次钻探试验井投入10万英镑(约合17万美元)用以地方政府的补贴。今年一月,以市场价付补偿,目前只有市场价的一半。下个月,政府很可能宣布新计划,使钻探公司从居民屋子下钻隧道更为简单。Pushing through that proposal will mean fending off noisy opposition from environmental lobbies such as Greenpeace, which had hoped its supporters could use Britains aged trespass laws to make life difficult for shale-gas boosters. Such campaigns carry weight while most Britons are still making up their minds about the industry. The proportion in favour of fracking has shrunk since lively protests erupted at a drill site near Balcombe in Sussex last summer; it may keep sliding until a few pioneers prove it can be safe and unobtrusive. All the more reason to get cracking.推行这样的提案,意味着要抵挡来自环境保护游说团体,如绿色环保组织嘈杂的反对意见,这类团体希望,其持者能够利用英国行之有年的入侵法,使得那些持开采页岩气的人举步维艰。在大多数英国人构思自己对于工业看法的时候,这样的活动有举足轻重的作用。持开采的比例在去年一次发生在靠近苏塞克斯郡Balcombe市爆发的激烈抗议后有所缩小;而且还有可能继续下滑,直到有先驱者能够明,开采可以安全无害、不事张扬。所有的理由都是为了能够开采。翻译 周雨晴 校对 王化起 译文属译生译世 /201508/394938

French reforms法国改革Taxi wars出租车战争A case study of vested interests trying to fight off new competitors既得利益者排斥新竞争者的个案分析“PARIS is the only city in the world where it is hard to find a taxi.” So in 2008 said an embarrassed Nicolas Sarkozy, then Frances president, exasperated by the near-impossibility of hailing a cab on the capitals streets. He vowed to fix the problem, but backed down after cabbies blocked the streets during days of protest. Six years on, his Socialist successor, Fran?ois Hollande, is again facing up to taxi drivers, this time as incumbents try to keep out smartphone-enabled private cabs.“巴黎是世界上唯一一个很难打到的城市。”2008年时任法国总统的萨科齐尴尬地说。他被在首都的街道上几乎不可能拦到的士这一状况给激怒了。 他发誓要解决这个问题,然而的士司机们连日的抗议罢工让其打消了这个念头。六年后,他的社会党接班人奥朗德,再次直面出租车司机。这次是站在的士司机的角度,抵制带有智能操控功能的私人出租车。In rolling strikes this week, scores of licensed taxi drivers jammed the traffic by blocking intermittently the ring-road or périphérique, access to airports and the Place de la Concorde. Their gripe The emergence of new private cab services, known as voitures de tourisme avec chauffeur, which can be ordered via a mobile app. With 17,600 licensed taxis, the Paris region is not far off Londons total of 22,000 black cabs. But the French capital has a dearth of minicabs: just a few thousand, against 50,000 in London. Until recently, it has been all but impossible in Paris to pre-book reasonably priced, fixed-fare trips.在这周持续罢工中,大量持有执照的出租车司机堵塞了交通,他们间歇性地堵住了通往机场和协和广场的环城公路或环城大道。 他们对被称为voitures de tourisme avec chauffeur(司机驾驶汽车)这一新型私人出租车务的出现满腹牢骚,这一务可以帮助人们通过一个移动应用程序预定出租车。 巴黎地区拥有17,600辆具备牌照的出租车,这个数目离拥有22,000辆黑色出租车的伦敦已经不远了。 但法国首都严重缺乏“小巴”:数量只有几千,而在伦敦,其数量却多达50000辆。直至最近,人们在巴黎都几乎不可能预订到价格合理,票价固定的车辆务。The arrival of start-ups such as SnapCar, AlloCab or Uber, a San Francisco-based operator, which supply a clean car and a friendly ride at a click, has been a revelation. Their growth was unleashed by a law, originally meant to deregulate the chauffeured-car tourist market. This was far from the wholesale liberalisation of the taxi industry Mr Sarkozy had once sought: his adviser, Jacques Attali, wanted up to 60,000 taxis and cabs on the Paris streets. And taxis still have a monopoly on kerbside hailing. Yet the new operators have shaken up the market and enraged taxi drivers. Incumbents licences, the numbers of which are limited, now trade for around 200,000 (0,000). The taxi lobby argues that drivers livelihoods are under threat from the competition. Last month the protests turned nasty when some of Ubers cars were smashed up.一些新兴公司的出现为解决这一问题提供了新的思路,比如SnapCar,AlloCab及总部位于旧金山的运营商Uber,只需点击一下,它们就可提供一辆干净的汽车和令人满意的乘车务。 这些公司的成长得益于一项年通过的法律,该法律原意是放开旅游市场,提供配备司机的旅游车。 而此后出现的情形与萨科齐曾经试图大规模自由化的士市场的想法相距甚远:他的顾问,雅克·阿塔利,想让巴黎街头的士总数达到60,000,并且的士仍在街头拦车上保持垄断。 然而,新的运营商已经动摇了市场并激怒了的士司机。限量的的士执照现在叫价为约200,000($ 270,000)。 的士游说团体认为,在此竞争中司机们的生计正面临着威胁。 上个月,一些Uber的车被砸,这使得抗议局面变得棘手。Despite his new pro-reform image, Mr Hollandes approach has scarcely been start-up-friendly. Beginning in January the government imposed on private cabs a 15-minute wait before picking up passengers, but this decree has been suspended by the State Council, the highest administrative court. In response to the protests, the government has appointed a Socialist deputy as a mediator. He accused the Sarkozy government of “lighting a powder keg” by starting deregulation in the first place.尽管树立起了持改革的新形象,但奥朗德的做法对新兴公司们可不怎么友好。 从一月份开始,政府强制规定,私人出租车在载客前等待15分钟。不过这项法令已经被最高行政法院——国务委员会叫停。 为应对抗议活动,政府已经另选一名社会党议员作为调解人。 该调解人指责萨科齐政府从一开始放松管制就是“玩火自焚”的行为。For their part, the start-ups want the decree outlawed. The competition authority was against it on the grounds that it would make consumers worse off. This is a novel argument in a country where producer lobbies are powerful and the state is uncomfortable about technology disrupting markets. Now that Parisians have begun to see how nice and convenient cabs can be, attitudes may change. “People in France are fed up with monopolies,” argues Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty, head of Uber in France. “The French now realise that in real life more competition brings innovation and improves the level of service.”对于新兴公司而言,它们希望奥朗德的法令被取缔。 竞争管理机构对此法令也持反对态度,理由是这将使消费者消费状况更糟。 在一个生产者游说团强大,政府对于技术扰乱市场感到无所适从的国家里,这是一个新奇的争论。 既然已经逐渐看到了出租车的好处和便利之处,态度可能会改变。 “法国人民已经受够了垄断,”Uber在法国的负责人Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty认为,“法国人已经认识到,在生活中,更多的竞争会带来创新,而这种创新会提高务水平。”译者:王颖 校对:周晓婷 译文属译生译世 /201510/405942

听力参考文本(文本与听力不全一致,敬请谅解):Any parent can tell you that child care is one of the biggest challenges a family can face. A new report finds that Michigan can do better in helping families who need day care. A LOT better.Michigans missed out on tens of millions of federal dollars that could help more parents and kids access quality child care. In fact, if state lawmakers dont commit another .5 million to child care by the end of this month, Michigan will lose .5 million in matching federal funds.The report comes from Public Sector Consultants (PSC), which did the study on behalf of the Michigan Department of Education Office of Great Start.Jeff Guilfoyle, the vice president of PSC, joined Stateside to talk about the report. One of the many revelations in the report, entitled Building a Better Child Care System, is that the state of Michigans spending on child care saw a massive drop from 2003 to 2013.In 2003, Michigan spent about ,500 per low-income child in a working household. Ten years later, the per-child spending dropped to 6.Listen to the full interview above to hear more about the report and Guilfoyles five most important improvements that can be made to improve Michigans child care funding system.201609/467209

On Thursday, Kentucky authorities said more than a dozen people were trapped by flash floods in Hidden River Cave. 周四肯塔基当局称,超过12人因山洪暴发被困在隐藏河洞。The cave is part of Horse Cave in south central Kentucky. 洞穴位于肯塔基州南部霍斯凯夫。Hart County Emergency Management spokesperson Kerry McDaniel told local news that 21 explorers entered Hidden River Cave in the town of Horse Cave around 10 oclock Thursday morning. 哈特县急救管理发言人凯利·麦克丹尼尔告诉当地新闻,21位探险者周四上午约10点进入霍斯凯夫镇隐藏河洞。But an afternoon thunderstorm brought flash flooding to the region, trapping the explorers in the cave. 但下午的雷暴造成该地区山洪暴发,探险者被困在洞内。Dive teams are headed to the scene, but it could be more than 12 hours before the water recedes enough to remove the students from the cave.潜水队前往现场,但需要超过12小时水位退却才能从洞穴转移这些学生。译文属。201605/446162

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