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2019年06月20日 18:02:43 | 作者:周咨询 | 来源:新华社
Around the world many cities are aly taking action to adapt to the future impacts of climate change. 世界各地的许多城市开始采取行动,以适应未来气候变化的影响。Some of these efforts include energy efficiency, new drainage systems, and improved transportation infrastructure. 这些努力包括能源效率、新的排水系统以及改进的交通基础设施。C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is a global network for cities committed to addressing climate change. C40城市气候变化领导小组是一个致力于应对气候变化的全球城市网络。One of the biggest issues facing major cities, is that not all cities have the same resources to address the issues. 大城市面临的最大问题之一,就是并不是所有的城市都有同样的资源来解决问题。New studies show that in general, cities in developed nations, such as London or New York, all spend around 0.22 percent of their total GDP on climate adaptation, 新的研究表明一般情况下,发达国家的城市如伦敦或纽约,花费约占生产总值的百分之0.22应对气候适应,whereas cities in developing nations, such as Jakarta and Lagos, all spend about 0.15 percent.而在发展中国家城市,如雅加达和拉各斯,花费约百分之0.15。译文属。201603/428949The SNPs new leader苏格兰国民党的新领袖Queen of Scots苏格兰女王Alex Salmonds unflashy successor could yet outshine him亚历克斯·萨蒙德的接班人朴实无华,却更胜一筹ALEX SALMOND, Scotlands most famous secessionist, is prone to displays of grandeur. During the campaign for independence over the summer the first minister took to comparing himself to Robert the Bruce, the Scots leader in their 14th-century wars against the English. However, when the secessionists lost the referendum in September he promptly announced his resignation.苏格兰最著名的分裂主义者亚历克斯·萨蒙德很容易表现出显赫之感。在今年夏季的苏独运动中,这位首席部长将自己比作了罗伯特·布鲁斯,曾在十四世纪领导对抗英格兰人的战争苏格兰国王。然而,分裂主义者们于9月在公投中失利后,他很快就宣告了自己的辞职。His successor as first minister and leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) is humbler in style. Nicola Sturgeons speech at her partys conference in Perth on November 15th lacked the bombast of MrSalmonds valedictory address the day before. Ms Sturgeon grew up in modest circumstances and owes her smooth rise through the political ranks to judicious alliance building (specifically, a decade-long collaboration with MrSalmond).他的继任者,作为首届首席部长和苏格兰国民党(SNP)的领袖,相比而言行事谦逊。11月15号,SNP于帕斯召开会议,尼古拉·斯特金在会上的发言并没有像前一天萨尔蒙德的离职演讲那样天花乱坠。斯特金出身平凡,通过明智的联盟建设而在政治头衔上步步升并赢得了今天的政治地位(明确地说,是与萨尔蒙德长达十年的合作)。MrSalmond bequeaths a strikingly upbeat party. Although the secessionists lost Septembers referendum by 45% to 55%, the SNP has, since then, welcomed pro-independence activists keen to continue the struggle. In under three months its membership has grown from 25,000 to over 85,000 (almost one in 50 Scottish adults is now in the party). One poll of voting intentions by Survation for the Daily Record on November 18th put it on 46% there, largely at the expense of the Labour Party. If repeated in next Mays general election, that would give the SNP 52 of Scotlands 59 seats in the House of Commons.萨尔蒙德留下的是一个欣欣向荣的政党。尽管分裂主义者在九月的公投中以45%比55%的票数落败了,但SNP自那以后为仍热心于继续抗争的持独立者敞开着大门。在三个月内,它的成员就从25,000人上升到了85,000人(约每50个苏格兰成年人中就有一人为该党成员)。11月18号,民调机构Survation为每日纪事报所做的舆论调查显示SNP现有46%的持率,大部分从工党转投而来。如果明年五月大选情景再现,这将使SNP获得苏格兰下议院59个席位中的52个。Ms Sturgeon, who was sworn in as first minister on November 20th, wants to convert this fleeting surge into lasting power. Her conference speech revealed glimpses of a three-step plan. The first task is to squash her partys social democratic rival, the Labour Party, by shifting to the left. Ms Sturgeon has aly moved into Labour territory by pledging to extend free child care, pay government cleaners more and increase spending on health care.斯特金于11月20号宣誓成为首席部长,她希望将这短期的激增转化为持久的战斗力。她的会议演讲透露了三步计划。第一个任务是通过转向左翼,干掉SNP的社会民主党对手工党。斯特金已通过承诺扩大儿童福利范围、提高政府清洁工薪资和增加医疗出成功打入工党领域。Thus she plans to win enough seats in next years Westminster election to hold the balance of power in the event of a hung parliament.In her speech in Perth, Ms Sturgeon explained the second pillar of her plan: that she would never support a Conservative-led government. The condition for a deal with Labour, she added, would be the removal of Britains nuclear deterrent from Scottish waters and the transfer of extensive new powers from London to Edinburgh.因此她计划在明年的议会选举中赢得足够多的席位,因为万一出现悬浮议会,可以掌控权力平衡体系。斯特金在帕斯的演讲中解释了计划的第二个柱:她绝不会持由保守党领导的政府。她补充说,与工党合作的条件是将英国的核威慑力量从苏格兰水域移除,并要将广泛的新权力由伦敦转向爱丁堡。The final part of Ms Sturgeons plan is to bring about a new referendum on independence. Having ruled out any further vote for a generationafter Septembers plebiscite, in her conference speech she suggested that events—and in particular the risk of England pulling Britain out of the EU—could make it essential. At the very least, that gambit increases her bargaining power in ongoing discussions about further devolution to Scotland.斯图尔金计划的最后一步是进行新一轮的独立公投。在九月的公投后,再进行更新换代的投票已无望,她表示各类事态—尤其是英格兰将英国从欧盟中挤出的风险—可能使得新一轮独立公投十分有必要。起码,在进一步将权力下放到苏格兰的讨论中,这张牌给了她讨价还价的筹码。The signs suggest that the first minister could find herself in a position of remarkable power. Next years general election will probably produce a hung parliament. If Labour is the largest party, it may rely on the SNP. If the Tories lead, the risk of Britains exit from the EU could trigger a new independence referendum. In either case, the modest Ms Sturgeon might just achieve more in power than the flashy MrSalmond ever did.这些迹象表明,这位首席大臣能察觉自己处在一个权高位重的位置。明年的大选也许会产生一个悬浮议会。如果工党是最大党,它也许会依靠SNP。如果托利党领先,英国退出欧盟带来的风险也许会触发新一轮独立公投。不论是哪种情况,谦逊的斯图尔金都可能比光鲜亮丽的萨尔蒙德获得更多权力。译者:王颖 校对:徐珍 译文属译生译世 /201412/346635

Nuts, botanically speaking, are made up of both the seed itself and a hard outer layer that is the fruit, which does not split open when ripe.从植物学角度上讲,坚果是由坚硬果皮和内含种子组成的果实。成熟时外壳也不会开裂。Some examples of true nuts are acorns, hazelnuts and chestnuts.比如橡果,榛子和栗子等就是这样的坚果。Walnuts, pecans and almonds, in contrast, are edible seeds from a bigger fruit.相比之下,核桃、胡桃和杏仁则是种子可以食用更大一点的水果。Most of the inedible fruit is removed at harvest so when you buy walnuts and almonds in the shell, youre buying the seeds enclosed in woody endocarp, which is the remaining layer of the fruit wall.大多数不宜食用的水果会在收获时被剔除,因此当你购买到带壳的核桃和杏仁,你实际上买的是仍然在果皮层,封装在木质、坚硬内果皮里面的种子。Brazil nuts are also seeds.同样巴西坚果也是种子。They come from a capsule like fruit, in which several of the triangular seeds grow inside, arranged like the segments of an orange.巴西坚果有类似水果的荚,内部是三角形形状的种子,就像橙子瓣一样排列。Peanuts are the seeds of a legume, or member of the bean family.花生是豆类的种子,或者豆家族的成员。Pistachios, cashews, macadamias and pine nuts are all seeds rather than nuts.开心果、腰果、夏威夷果、松子都是种子,而非坚果。 201411/343414

Conscripts in South Korea韩国兵役Blood, sweat and tears血,汗,泪A string of egregious abuses fuels fresh calls to reform the army一系列虐待丑闻骇人听闻,掀起了军队改革的新呼声EVERY Sunday, one in five families in South Korea settles down to “Real Men”, a reality television show that thrusts pop stars, comedians and actors into the countrys armed forces. It has proved wildly popular in a country that is still technically at war with North Korea and that requires all able-bodied men to complete at least 21 months of military service. Women, who do not serve, say it is a peek into their sons and brothers transition to manhood. What they see is rigorous training, pride and plenty of brotherhood.在韩国,每逢周日,有五分之一的家庭会专心致志地观看电视真人秀《真男人》。这档节目会把明星和演员送进军队。这个国家理论上仍处于与朝鲜的战争状态,需要该国每位身体达标的男子役21个月,因此这档节目确实广受欢迎。女子不用役,她们说,这档节目使她们得以一瞥儿子兄弟成长为男子汉的过程。在节目里,她们看到的是严格的训练,荣誉精神,兄弟情谊。Yet the camaraderie of the show is in stark contrast to a more bruising reality for some conscripts. In recent months reports have trickled out of South Koreas barracks of beatings, humiliation and verbal abuse. News of a young conscripts death surfaced in August. Yoons alleged abusers (his full name has not been divulged) were fellow conscripts who had themselves been abused by a sergeant. They are said to have force-fed Yoon toothpaste, rubbed an irritant onto his genitals and made him lick their spit off the ground. After beatings, they revived him with an intravenous drip. Then they beat him again.但节目中表现的战友情谊与某些士兵经历的残酷现实截然相反。近几月来,一些报道揭露了韩国军营中的殴打,羞辱,辱骂现象。八月,一位士兵死亡的新闻浮出水面。被控实施虐待(未透露死亡士兵的全名)的士兵是尹某的战友,他们自己也被军官虐待过。据说他们让尹某吞牙膏,给他的下身擦上刺激性药品,强迫他舔光他们吐在地上的痰。在殴打过后,他们利用静脉注射让他苏醒。然后再次殴打。The case has shocked South Koreans—as did an incident in 2011 when a badly bullied conscript went on a shooting rampage, killing four people; and another in 2005 when a soldier killed eight others with a grenade after being tormented by them. That year, an army captain was arrested for forcing 200 conscripts to eat turds as punishment for dirty latrines. Since January around 350 cases of abuse have been put to the National Human Rights Commission, a state outfit. Many more, say activists, go unreported.此案震惊韩国——轰动性不亚于2011年一位受尽欺辱的士兵疯狂扫射杀死四人,以及2005年另一位士兵受折磨后用手榴弹炸死八人。那年还有一位军官以厕所打扫不净为由强迫200位士兵食粪,他因此被捕。自一月起有大约350起虐待案件被提交到了国家机关——国家人权委员会。人权活动家说,还有更多被掩盖起来了。Yoons case of hazing was uncovered by a civic group, the Centre for Military Human Rights Korea. Its director, Lim Tae-hoon, decries a “systematic attempt at a cover-up”. The armys chief of staff has resigned. The defence ministry has called for a permanent human-rights commission for the armed forces to help prevent further abuse. And the entire army suspended duties recently for a daylong session on human rights. This month military prosecutors changed the charge against four of the soldiers alleged to have killed Yoon from manslaughter to murder.尹某受虐案是由民间组织韩国军人权益中心所揭露的。中心主任李泰勋谴责了韩国军方「有组织地掩盖真相」。韩国陆军总参谋长已为此辞职。国防部要求军方成立永久的人权委员会,以防未来仍有虐待事件发生。全军上下停止执行任务,参加为期一天的人权培训。本月军方的检察官把对四名被控害死尹某的士兵的指控从过失杀人提高到了谋杀。Calls for sweeping reform to barrack-room culture are all too familiar. Physical abuse in South Koreas 650,000-strong conscript army has long been tolerated as a means to toughen troops against a northern army thought to be twice as large. Two military coups and a long period of martial law (under the current presidents late father, Park Chung-hee) have given the army exceptional leeway in how it conducts its affairs. It is largely immune from democratic oversight.对军营文化进行广泛改革的呼吁是人们再熟悉不过的了。韩国65万多人的部队中,身体虐待长久以来受到容忍,为了能抗衡人数两倍于其的朝鲜部队,这是一种锻炼士兵的方法。历史上的两次军事政变以及长期实施戒严法(正是在现任总统朴槿惠的父亲朴正熙治下)也给军方留下了特别的行事余地。军队很大程度上是免收民主监督的。That means tormentors are not properly punished. Around 150 bodies remain in the armys morgue. Their cause of death is given as “failure to adjust to military life”. But relatives refuse to collect the bodies because they want an independent investigation to confirm the cause of death. Military courts, says Choe Kang-wook, a former lawyer in the army, are the “shame of South Korea”. High-ranking generals without legal knowledge preside over court proceedings.这就意味着施暴者并未真正得到惩治。军队的停尸间里还留着150具尸体。军方给出的死亡原因是「没能适应军营生活」。但亲属们要求进行独立调查确认死因,所以拒绝下葬。曾在军队中任律师的Choe Kang-wook说,军事法庭就是「韩国的耻辱」。毫无司法常识的高级将军掌握着审判程序。As more rich countries drop conscription, South Korea has become an outlier, says Kim Du-kwan, a former minister who is now fighting to end it in his country, too. He takes the North Korean threat seriously. But what good, he asks, is “wielding a gun and not much more” when military strength is now based on sophisticated technology? He frets that abusers foment internal division, too. The armed forces have long used national security as a reason for keeping conscription and fending off civilian oversight. Proponents of a standing army, like Mr Kim, argue that South Koreas security would be better served by just the opposite.曾经的部长金斗官如今正致力于结束韩国的义务征兵制,他说越来越多的富裕国家抛弃了义务征兵,韩国已经成为异类。他严肃对待来自朝鲜的威胁。但他反问说,在军事实力以高新科技为基础的今天,「用好一杆是不是比数量堆积更好呢?」他也为军中施虐者造成的内部分裂烦恼。军方一直以国家安全为由维持义务征兵制不动,并避开民间的监督。而金斗官等建设常备军的持者认为,反军方之道行之,才能更好地守护国家安全。译者:周鼎烨译文属译生译世 /201410/335140

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