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Science and Technolgy科技Metal fatigue in old aircraft老旧飞机的金属疲劳Flying rivets飞行侦查兵A new technique that listens for cracks in ageing aircraft一项侦听老化飞机断裂的新技术WHEN they were built, no one thought they would fly for so long.建造飞机的时候,没人认为它们会飞行这么久。But fitted with new engines and avionics, aircraft can be kept going for a very long time.但是装有新式引擎和航空电子设备的飞机能持续飞行很长一段时间。The average age of the worlds airliners is more than ten years, with some passenger jets 25 years old or more.全世界飞机的平均机龄超过10年,有些客机的机龄超过了25年。Military planes are more geriatric: the Sikorsky Black Hawk helicopter entered service 31 years ago and the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy 40 years back.军用飞机更是超龄:西科斯基公司的黑鹰直升机31年前开始役,洛克希德公司的C-5(运输机)早用到40年了。Both are still going strong.这两款飞机还都强劲地飞行着。Some Boeing KC-135 aerial-refuelling planes, which are based on the venerable 707, have been flying for over 50 years.波音707原型机上发展起来的波音KC-135空中加油机有些已经飞行50多年了。Engineers reckon they could still be in the air when they are 80.工程师们测算80机龄时它们仍然能飞上蓝天。One thing that does ground old aircraft is the impending failure of their aluminium structure from metal fatigue.让老旧飞机搁浅的一件事就是飞机铝构造因为金属疲劳产生的故障隐患。This begins in parts that are subjected to repeated strains, such as where the wings join the fuselage.这种故障始于承受反复拉紧的部位,象机翼与机身的连接处。Constant flexing of the structure concentrates stress, which leads to microscopic cracks.这些构造部位的频繁伸缩使应力集中,导致微裂纹的产生。These cracks become more numerous and eventually large enough for the structure to fail.这些微裂纹越来越多,最后多到足以使这些部位的构造断裂。Aircraft engineers know a lot about how these cracks progress and keep an eye on them in routine overhauls.飞机工程师们对这些裂纹如何发展以及在例行检修中如何注意这些裂纹所知甚详。Nevertheless, they can be difficult and costly to find.不过发现这些裂纹可能很难且费用高昂。Apart from careful visual inspection, techniques like X-rays and ultrasonic probes are also used.除了仔细地目视检查外,也使用象X射线和超声探头这样的技术。Now a British company has come up with a low-cost way of monitoring cracks in aircraft, even while they are airborne.目前一家英国公司提出了一种成本低廉的监测飞机裂纹方法,即使飞机在飞行中(也可进行监测)。The trick that Ultra Electronics uses is to listen for them with a system called Asis.超级电子公司采用的诀窍是侦听带有自动语音识别系统(Asis)的飞机。It does this by fitting small piezoelectric acoustic sensors to parts of the structure to detect the particular frequency of noise caused by a crack in aircraft-grade aluminium.把小型压电声传感器安装到这种构造部位上,检测由航空级铝材裂纹所致的特定频率的噪音,靠这样就能监测飞机裂纹。When first set up, Asis is calibrated to the acoustic signature of the aircraft.安装之初,Asis就按飞机的声波标记图进行了校准。The system can point engineers to where cracks are occurring because the sensors also record the precise moment it is ;heard;.这个系统能向工程师指明哪里正在出现裂纹,因为传感器也记录裂纹噪音被;听到;的精确时刻。As the sound ripples through the structure it arrives at different sensors at different times, which can be used to work out the location and severity of the crack.因为声音呈波形在飞机构造中传播,它在不同的时间到达不同的传感器,这点能用来算出裂纹的位置和严重程度。Once on the ground, a touch-screen device a bit like an iPad is plugged into the system and shows where any cracks are on a three-dimensional image of the aircraft.一经在地面上把有点象iPad的触摸屏设备用插头插入系统中,它就会在飞机的三维图像上显示所有裂纹。Asis will be tried out later this year by Americas Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency.Asis将由美国国防高级研究计划局在今年晚些时候进行试验。A basic set-up to monitor the boom on a small helicopter (a particularly stress-prone part) starts at around ,000, says Rob McDonald, Ultra Electronics marketing director.超级电子公司的营销总监罗伯?麦克唐纳说,监测小型直升机(特别是易受压力的部位)嗡嗡声的基本设备起价大约6.5万美元。As to the future, he expects the company will explore how Asis might also monitor carbon-composite materials, which are being used increasingly in new aircraft.至于未来,他期待公司会探究怎么让Asis也能监测碳复合材料,碳复合材料在新式飞机中的应用渐增。Less is known about the long-term structural integrity of carbon fibre, but it is not prone to corrosion and is extremely tough, so with a bit of care and attention it might allow aircraft to fly even longer.虽然对碳纤维的长期结构完整性所知甚少,但是它不易腐蚀且极为坚硬,因此稍加关注它就可能让飞机飞行得更久。 /201210/206218

In a country not so very far away, a 2.5-billion-pound contract has been signed. It will see Darth Vader working alongside Mickey Mouse after George Lucas signed away his empire to Disney.在一个并非很遥远的国家,一份达25亿英磅的合同业已签署。在乔治#8226;卢卡斯将其电影帝国售于迪斯尼之后,人们将看到黑武士达斯#8226;维德将与米老鼠并肩战斗。The saga began in 1977 and went on to become a global phenomenon. But despite his success, many fans believed George Lucas went over to the dark side with the prequels. The deal will make him Disneys second biggest individual shareholder with 2.2%.这一科幻电影始于1977年,逐渐成为风靡全球的奇迹。但是尽管他的巨大成功,许多粉丝认为乔治#8226;卢卡斯随着《星球大战前转》正在走向衰退。不过这笔交易将使他成为迪斯尼第二大单个股东,拥有股份2.2%。For me, its a retirement plan which is I have taken my company, bought stock in the best entertainment company in the world. And that will hold me for the rest of my life.对我来说,这是一个退休计划,我将公司卖给了世界上最好的公司,并得到了它的股份,足够我的余生了。Disney paid just under 2.5 billion pounds for Lucasfilm. It has announced the first of three new films will come out in 2015. Since 1977, the movies have earned 2.73 billion pounds at the box office, but including merchandise it’s close up to 14 billion.迪斯尼只付了卢卡斯影业公司不到25英磅,宣布首批三部新电影将于2015出品。自1977年,电影的票房收入已达27.3英磅,不过这里面包括高达14亿英磅的电影成本。This is the original mold from 1976.这是1976年电影的一套装原型。Andrew Ainsworth has made many of the original Star Wars costumes. Hes still a fan of George Lucas despite once being sued by him for over 12 million pounds for breach of copyright.安德鲁#8226;安斯沃思设计了第一部星球大战的许多装。尽管他曾控告卢卡斯侵犯版权,要求超过1200万英磅的赔偿,安斯沃思仍然是卢卡斯的星球大战迷。Hes been the saga of the film business, so the fact that hes had enough lot of people that admire him. I dont think he deserves it quite honestly. I mean I wouldnt have a business unless it was for him. So, you know, the selling-out to Disney and Disney can carry it on. I think its the best thing for him. I hope hes happy with money he earns from it.他曾经创造了电影界的奇迹,因此事实上有很多人崇拜他。我认为,坦率地说,他并非当之无愧。我的意思是,除非是自己的公司,不然就没有自己的事业。你知道,公司卖给了迪斯尼,由迪斯尼来经营。我想,对他来说,这是最好的事情了。我希望,他会因为从中挣了这么多钱而感到高兴。Its been 35 years since the first film came out. And over the years, fans of the franchise have been very critical of George Lucas and the direction in which hes taken the films. But will Disney fare any better?自从第一部星球大战上映已经35年了。过去的这些年里,其授权放映商都对卢卡斯以及他对这些电影的未来发展方向非常不满。迪斯尼的授权放映费是否会优惠些?I think Lucas is over the moment. He touched the original 3 Star Wars films.我认为卢卡斯已经过时了,他曾指导过前三部星球大战电影的拍摄。Figures are interesting. New people might be a bit different. Less cartoon, you may be less aimed at young kids.电影中的人物很吸引人。不过,现在的年轻人可能会有些不同。少一点卡通成份,减少一些对小孩子的针对性。I think there are pretty good hands as they like a lot transit chemise from Hannah Montana or something like that.我认为现在有很多出色的帮手,他们喜欢大幅度转型,比如从汉娜#8226;蒙塔娜或其他类似的转型。So although some fans have a bad feeling about the future, but others eager for more. The deal offers a new hope.因此,尽管有些影迷对星球大战的未来感觉不佳,但是其他人则期待得更多。毕竟这笔交易带来了新的希望。 201211/210725

The Yakut are an ancient people, thought to have migrated north to Yukutia around 700 years ago.雅库特是古代人, 大约700年前想要向北迁移。And while most have become urbanized, 400,000 still live as traditional nomadic herders. 虽然大部份的人已经变得城市化,但400000人仍然以传统的游牧民族的方式生活。The herdsmen must get the animals to new grazing before the snow melts and they are trapped by water-logged land. 牧民们必须在积雪融化前把动物们迁到新的牧场,他们正被土地束缚着。They need to grow fat in the warm weather if they are to endure the winter freeze. 他们需要在温暖的天气变胖,这样他们才能忍受冬天的冰冻天气。The elder of the tribe feeds them salt, a rare delicacy that makes him very popular. 年长的部落用盐补充自己,这是一种罕见的很受欢迎的美味。But walking in a forest of reindeer antlers is a dangerous business. 但走在一群驯鹿中可是个危险的主意。As soon as they secure the reindeer, itrsquo;s time to celebrate by eating one, starting with the tongue. 只要他们制驯鹿,就是可以吃掉一头用来庆祝,借此一饱口福。Like cattle in other parts of the world, reindeer form the lifeline of these Yakut people. 像在世界其他地方的牛一样,这些驯鹿的生命也和雅库特联系在了一起。Everyone depends on them. 每个人都依赖于它们。The animals provide food, clothing, leather, and more. 动物提供食物,衣,皮革及更多。Left on their own, reindeer can wander farther than any other terrestrial mammal, about 5000 kilometers a year, and reach speeds about to 80 kilometers per hour.而它们依靠自己而活,驯鹿远比其他任何陆地哺乳动物都会跋涉,它们一年大约行进5000公里,最高时速大约每小时80公里。In the summer, they can form herds in the tens of thousands. 在夏天,他们会形成成百上千万的队伍。But for the Yakuts, this little herd will do just fine.但对于雅库特来说,这个小群体会做得很好。注:听力文本来源于普特 201203/175153

Don: Yael,can you help me with this crossword puzzle? I need a four letters word that had something to do with good table manners.唐:雅艾尔,你能帮我解这道填字游戏吗?我需要一个四个字母的单词,是关于保持良好的饭桌礼仪和举止。Yael: OK, but why are you jogging in place?雅艾尔:好的,但是你为什么原地慢跑呢?Don: Because Im trying to solve the puzzle.唐:因为我想解出这道字谜。Yael: Right. But what does jogging have to do with it?雅艾尔:对呀。但这与慢跑有什么关系吗?Don: Its what scientists call embodied cognition—how the body affects the mind, and vice versa. The idea is that moving your body in certain ways can help you solve problems. For example, in one study, participants were presented with a puzzle: they had to figure out how to tie together strings hanging from rafters spaced far enough apart that they couldnt grasp both at the same time. While they were trying to solve the puzzle, about half the participants were told to swing their arms back and forth. The others were told to stretch their arms.唐:这就是科学家所说的具体认知——身体是如何影响大脑的,反之亦然。这个观点是指以某种方式移动身体能帮助你解决问题。例如在一项研究中,给所有参与者一道难题:他们必须弄清楚怎样将挂在房橼上的绳子系在一起,并且房橼之间相隔足够远,不能同时用手抓住绳子。在他们试图解决难题的时候,让其中一半的参与者来回摇摆胳膊,其余一半则伸展胳膊。Yael: So,what happend?雅艾尔:那么,发生了什么?Don: The arm swingers were forty-percent more likely to solve the problem. It involved tying an object to one string and swinging it so they could grab it while holding the other string.唐:摇摆胳膊的参与者解决问题的概率要高出40%。办法就是将一个物体系在一根绳子上,然后摇晃绳子,这样他们就能在抓着另一根绳子的时候抓住它。Yael: So the physical act of arm swinging led to a similar mental solution.雅艾尔:所以摆臂的物理动作给予了他们相似的思维方式。Don: Right.The larger point is that the mind isnt separate from the body. How we move and behave in physical ways can affect, and enhance, how we think.唐:正确。更重要的一点是心理并不独立于身体。我们身理上的运动和行为会影响或加强我们的思维方式。Yael: Cool, and by the way, the word youre looking for is ;mind;, as an ;mind your manners;.雅艾尔:好吧。但是顺便说一说,你要找的单词是“mind”,意思是“注意你的举止”。Don: Thanks.唐:谢谢。原文译文属!201212/215103

Business.商业。Nightclubs.夜店。Getting down globally.全球来袭。Western nightclubs eye Asia, and clever technology.西方国家的夜店在盯上亚洲的同时,也在完善相关技术。FEW businesses are as local as nightclubs. Or so you might think. But a few hardy entrepreneurs are trying change that. In 2010 Matt Hermer, the owner of Boujis, a trendy London nightspot, opened a pop-up club (a temporary one) for three days in Hong Kong. Something clicked. Fun-seekers thronged through his doors. Mr Hermer will open a permanent venue in Hong Kong in September.少有企业会像夜店一样具有地方特色。或许你也可能会这么想。不过一小撮坚韧的企业家正试图改变这一局面。2010年,Matt Hermer,伦敦时髦夜店波吉斯的老板,在香港开了一家临时性(不在专门场子,临时租一个地方办几场派对)夜店。虽然该店的营业仅维期三天,但它引起了极大反响,寻求快乐的人们蜂拥而至。这便使得Hermer计划9月在香港开一家永久性的夜店。No big Western club has cracked Asia, but Pangaea and Avalon, two American brands, recently launched spin-offs in Singapore. Marquee, another American chain, just opened in Sydney. ;There are only so many opportunities to grow,; says Marquees co-founder, Noah Tepperberg.尽管西方国家的大型夜店尚未成功打入亚洲市场,但来自美国的夜店潘吉亚和阿法伦最近就在新加坡开了分店。另一家美国连锁夜店马奎也刚好在悉尼开了分店。;这里的市场就只有这么些发展机会了,;马奎的合伙创办人Noah Tepperberg说。Global data on the nightclub industry are patchy. Clubs tend to be privately owned and deal a lot in cash. Many last little longer than a pint of lager at a stag party. IBISWorld, a research group, estimates that bars and nightclubs make profits of 0m on takings of billion-25 billion a year in America, where data are most reliable.全球范围内关于夜店的资料零星不齐。夜店常为私人所有,大多以现钞交易。不少人在夜店的单身派对上喝完一品脱淡啤酒后,呆不了多久就离开了。研究机构IBISWorld估计,美国的酒吧和夜店一年200亿~250亿美元的营业额中,利润有8亿美元,而且美国酒吧和夜店提供的资料其可信度相当高。Asia could offer equally rich pickings. Pangaeas Singapore venue, for instance, is aly claiming receipts of 0,000 a night. Michael Ault, Pangaeas owner, says that the key in Asia is to have ;the most expensive of everything;.在亚洲市场也能轻轻松松地赚那么多钱。举例来说,位于新加坡的潘吉亚分店表示,其一晚的营业额已达16万美元。潘吉亚的老板Michael Ault说,在亚洲开夜店的秘诀在于提供的;一切东西都要是最贵的;。Otherwise, the operating model is much the same as in the West. Raise money, find a dramatic space, befriend celebrities, promote, promote and promote. ;First you go for the A crowd,; says Mr Ault. ;You spend all your money on DJs and celebrities to build the brand. Then the A crowd moves on. So you go from the A crowd to the B crowd. Then you have to ask yourself: do you want the C crowd?;除此以外,亚洲夜店的经营模式与西方的大同小异。募集资金,装修豪华,与名流交朋友,然后推广,推广,再推广。;首先你要争取到A类人,;Ault说,;你得在DJ和名流身上下重金,从而打造夜店的品牌。那么这些A类人便会成为常客。之后你的目标会从A类人转向B类人,接着你得问问自己:你还想要C类人成为你的消费群吗?;Nightclubs are a risky business. Sping your bets across regions ought to mitigate that risk. But venturing into unfamiliar cities can mean dealing with unfamiliar undesirables. As one nightclub owner puts it: ;Anyone can walk in and say: ‘Get out, or your head is in the trunk of a car.;开夜店存在着风险。不过在各个地区全面撒网应该能够降低这种风险,但冒险在不熟悉的城市开夜店便意味着需和不速之客打交道。正如一位夜店老板所说:;任何人都能进来说:滚出去,否则让你脑袋搬家。;Anita Elberse of Harvard Business School predicts that more clubs will do deals with hotels to penetrate emerging markets. A rooftop club can make more money for a hotel than its rooms. Morgans Hotel Group, a luxury chain, last year bought the Light Group, a big American nightclub operator, for this reason. Andy Masi, the Light Groups boss, says that working with a hotel helps him meet the right people as he expands abroad.哈佛商学院的Anita Elberse预计,会有更多的夜店与酒店联手打入新兴市场。酒店内的顶层夜店为其带来的利润远超其客房利润。正因如此,奢华连锁酒店根酒店集团去年买下了美国大型夜店莱特集团,该集团董事Andy Masi说,在他寻求海外扩张之际,与酒店联手能帮助他认识需要认识的人。Some bars and clubs are using a novel technology to help partygoers decide where to party. SceneTap, an American start-up, uses cameras to scan the faces of those who enter and leave participating establishments. Its software then guesses each persons age and sex. Aggregated data are streamed to a website and mobile app. This allows punters to see which bars are busy, the average age of revellers and the all-important male-to-female ratio.一些酒吧和夜店正运用新技术来帮助派对参加者决定去哪儿参加派对。美国软件新贵SceneTap使用摄像头扫描进出派对者的面部表情。随后,该软件便会分析猜测每个被扫描者的年龄及性别。数据汇总后会传输到网站和手机应用软件上。这便能使顾客了解哪家酒吧热闹,去酒吧的人的平均年龄以及最重要的男女比例。Bar owners gain publicity and intelligence about their customers. Did a promotion aimed at women attract many? Since drinks are often paid for in cash and by men, it used to be hard to tell.酒吧老板在为酒吧宣传的同时也获得了顾客的信息。针对女性做的宣传会吸引来更多的人吗?这很难说,因为饮品由男性以现金付。SceneTaps cameras are watching more than 100 American watering holes. But they are controversial. The app could make life irksome for large groups of women, by summoning hordes of predatory males. So SceneTap has fixed its software to mask extreme sex imbalances. That will please bar owners, who would prefer not to admit when they are packed with men. But it will disappoint precisely the people most likely to use the app.美国有超过100家酒吧都安装了SceneTap的摄像头。但这些摄像头也引起了一些争议。因为该款软件会引来大批寻求伴侣的男性,这会令不少女性感到厌烦。因此SceneTap已对其软件作了改动,从而掩盖极端的性别失衡。这会受到酒吧老板的欢迎,因为酒吧老板们往往不会承认自己的店里都是男人。但是改动后的软件也会让最有可能使用该软件的人失望。 /201209/202230


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