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2019年09月18日 09:41:29 | 作者:华中文 | 来源:新华社
Women who gain more than 40 pounds (18 kg ) during pregnancy have nearly twice the risk of delivering a heavy baby as those who gain less, US researchers said on Friday.The study of more than 40,000 U.S. women and their babies found as many as one in five women gains too much weight during pregnancy, doubling the chances her baby will weigh 9 pounds (4 kg) or more.And they found women who gain more than 40 pounds during pregnancy are more likely to have a heavy baby even if they do not have gestational diabetes, a short-term form of diabetes linked with pregnancy that is known to increase the risk of having a big baby."Because there are so many women who are gaining more than 40 pounds during pregnancy, it's an important health message for most women to avoid excessive weight during pregnancy," Dr. Teresa Hillier of Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon, whose study appears in the journal Obstetrics amp; Gynecology, said in a telephone interview.Hillier said gaining extra weight during pregnancy increases the risk for having heavy babies, and studies suggest these babies are programed to become overweight or obese later in life.According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, babies who weigh more than 9 pounds at birth are considered heavy.A large baby can pose risks for a difficult delivery -- increasing the chances of vaginal tearing, bleeding, and Caesarian-sections for the mother and the risk of stuck shoulders and broken collar bones for the baby.In the study, Hillier and colleagues examined the medical records of 41,540 women who gave birth in Washington, Oregon and Hawaii from 1995-2003. All had been tested for gestational diabetes and 5.4 percent were treated for it with a program of diet, exercise and insulin, if needed, to control blood sugar.Overall, 20 percent of the women in the study who gained more than 40 pounds -- the upper limit of pregnancy weight gain recommendations in the ed States -- gave birth to heavy babies.Fewer than 12 percent of women in the study with normal weight gain delivered heavy babies, she said.The group at greatest risk were those who gained more than 40 pounds and had gestational diabetes. Nearly 30 percent of these women had heavy babies, compared with 13.5 percent of women with gestational diabetes who had normal weight gains during pregnancy.The researchers said the findings suggest all women should avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy. And women who are being treated for gestational diabetes should also strive to keep weight gain below 40 pounds."You can't treat the glucose and ignore the weight gain issue," Hillier said.Weight gain during pregnancy has been rising over the past two decades, and some researchers suspect this may be fueling an epidemic of childhood obesity. 美国研究人员于上周五称,怀期间体重增幅超过40磅(18公斤)的女性生出超重婴儿的几率几乎是增重较少女性的两倍。该研究共对美国4万多个女性和她们的宝宝进行了调查。调查结果显示,其中多达五分之一的女性怀期间体重增长过多,这使她们的孩子出生体重达或超过9磅(4公斤)的几率增加了一倍。此外,研究人员发现,期体重增加超过40磅的女性即使没有患妊娠糖尿病,也更易生出体重超标的婴儿。妊娠糖尿病是妇在妊娠期间易患的一种临时性的糖尿病,该病会增加妇生出超重婴儿的风险。位于俄勒冈州波特兰市的凯萨健康研究中心的特里萨#8226; 希利尔士在电话采访中说:“现在有很多妇期体重增幅超过40磅,所以对于大多数女性来说,避免期增重过度是一个很重要的健康信息。”该研究结果在《产科和妇科医学》上发表。希利尔称,期增重过多会增加生出超重婴儿的风险。此外,研究表明,这些孩子日后体重超标或肥胖的可能性也较大。根据美国妇产科医师协会的标准,婴儿出生时体重超过9磅即为超重。胎儿过大会增加难产的风险——产道撕裂、大出血、剖腹产以及婴儿肩难产和锁骨骨折的几率增大。在研究过程中,希利尔及其同事对华盛顿、俄勒冈和夏威夷1995年至2003年间的41540名妇的病历进行了研究。这些妇都接受了妊娠糖尿病检测,其中5.4%的人通过饮食、运动或注射胰岛素(如果需要的话)控制血糖,治疗糖尿病。总体来看,在期体重增幅超过40磅的女性中,有20%的人生下了超重婴儿。在美国,期增重建议最高上限为40磅。她说,期体重增幅在正常范围内的女性中,生下了超重婴儿的不到12%。其中最危险的群体是期增重超过40磅且患有妊娠糖尿病的人,她们当中近30%的人生出了超重婴儿,而这一数字在体重增幅正常、患妊娠糖尿病的妇中仅为13.5%。研究者称,该结果表明,所有女性都要避免期增重过度,而且正在接受妊娠糖尿病治疗的妇也要尽量将体重增幅控制在40磅以内。希利尔说:“妇不能只顾控制血糖,而忽视体重增加的危险。”在过去20年中,女性期增重过度的问题越来越严重。一些研究者认为,这可能会导致儿童肥胖的流行。 /200811/55022七夕节马上就到了,七夕节到来时,我们该对心爱的人说些什么呢?十二星座各有各的"七夕节情话"  水瓶座(1.21-2.19)  You are the one I have been looking for。  你就是我一直在追寻的人。(好直白哦)  双鱼座(2.20-3.20)  Okay. Let us try to be the luckiest couple on earth。  好!让我们试着成为世上最幸运的一对。(比较“西式”)  牡羊座(3.21-4.20)Baby, will you be my valentine ? I will make you the happiest girl on earth。  宝贝,当我的情人吧?我将使你成为世上最快乐的女孩。 (强势示爱) /201008/111440Figuring out why people procrastinate is simple, it’s figuring out how to get over it that’s difficult. Overcoming procrastination is at the top of many people’s lists for bettering themselves. If you keep procrastination to a minimum you’ll lead a productive and efficient and likely happy life. Who wouldn’t want this for themselves?In order to stop procrastinating now, consider the following procrastination tips:1. Deal with Your Stress. Many people find themselves procrastinating because they lead stressful lives. You can solve many problems by dealing with your stress in a healthy way. Start getting enough sleep. Take plenty of time to relax. Ask for help when you need it. Find something that works for you.减轻自己的压力。很多人拖沓是因为自己压力太大,健康合理地处理自己的压力也是摆脱拖沓的一条很好的途径。保足够的睡眠,适当地休息。 /200912/92589为什么喝酒时要碰杯?喝酒碰杯的习俗有很多种解释。一种是早期欧洲人认为碰杯的声音可以驱逐恶灵。另一种解释坚持认为碰杯时双方各将自己的酒向对方的酒杯中倾注一些,从而明酒中无毒。这么多选择里尼选择相信哪一种?Claim: The ritual of clinking glasses evolved from efforts to prove that the drinks contained therein were not poisoned.声称:碰杯的仪式起源于确认杯中有无毒药  False错误  Q: Why do people clink their glasses before drinking a toast?Q:为什么喝酒时要碰杯?  A: It used to be common for someone to try to kill an enemy by offering him a poisoned drink. To prove to a guest that a drink was safe, it became customary for a guest to pour a small amount of his drink into the glass of the host. Both men would drink it simultaneously. When a guest trusted his host, he would then just touch or clink the host's glass with his own.A:过去常常有人认为在酒杯里放毒来谋杀敌人,为了实酒是安全的,宾客会把杯中一部分酒倒进主人杯中已成为一种习俗,然后主宾同时喝下去以明无毒。当宾客信认主人时,两人就只是碰一下杯子。  Origins: Many explanations have been advanced to explain our custom of clinking glasses when participating in toasts. One is that early Europeans felt the sound helped to drive off evil spirits. Another holds that by clanking the glasses into one another, wine could be sloshed from glass to glass, thereby serving as a proof the beverages had not been poisoned. Yet another claim asserts that the "clink" served as a symbolic acknowledgment of trust among imbibers who did not feel the need to sample each others' drinks to prove them unadulterated.起源:喝酒碰杯的习俗有很多种解释。一种是早期欧洲人认为碰杯的声音可以驱逐恶灵。另一种解释坚持认为碰杯时双方各将自己的酒向对方的酒杯中倾注一些,从而明酒中无毒。然而还有另一种则认为:碰杯是一种象征性的相信酒是干净的,不需明有没有放毒。 /201008/110628

Without realizing it, people will perceive things according to how they want to see them, a new study suggests."There is an age old hypothesis(1) in psychology that a person's wishes, hopes and desires can influence what they see," said David Dunning, Cornell University psychologist and co-author of the study. "This theory had lay dormant(2) for about 40 years, though, without any supporting evidence. We wanted to test the murky(3) waters again."In five separate tests conducted by Dunning and a graduate student, Emily Balcetis, 412 volunteers from Cornell were presented with an ambiguous(4) picture that could be interpreted as two distinct(5) figures,either a horse's head or the body of a seal, for example. They were told they would be assigned to a taste test of either fresh-squeezed orange juice or a gelatinous(6), clumpy(7) and rather unappealing(8) veggie(9) smoothie(10), depending on whether they saw a farm animal or sea creature.More often than not(11) the participants chose the figure that would lead them to the juice.The trick to making the study meaningful was making sure the test subjects didn't know what was going on, Dunning said, noting that the generally high IQ of Cornell students made cheating a real possibility."The figures we used were chosen so we knew the people weren't just lying or tricking us," Dunning said. "We also tracked automatic, unconscious eye movements which were out of their control."Not only did participants routinely(12) see the figure that produced favorable results, their eye motions indicated that they were never aware of the alternate option being available."Determining whether a person walking towards you is smiling or smirking(13), how close the finish line seems in a race or how loud a partner,a wife, husband, lover is yelling during an argument," Dunning gave as examples that could arise in life. "Could we interpret ambiguous situations towards our expectations and hopes and away from our fears? That is the ultimate question." 一项研究表明,人们看待事物时,有意无意地把它们理解成为自己事先想象的样子。本研究合著者、科内尔 大学心理学家大卫·达宁说:“长久以来,心理学界有一个假设,认为人的愿望、希望和欲望会影响他对事物的判断。由于没有确凿的据,这个理论被弃置了大约40年。这次我们希望能再探深渊。”达宁和研究生艾米丽·巴尔塞迪斯从科内尔大学选出412名志愿者,对他们进行五次单独测试。他们选择了一些模棱两可的图片,这些图像可以被看成是两种截然不同的东西,例如看起来既像马头又像海豹。受测者被告知正在进行品味测试,如果从图片中看到农场动物,就说明你喜欢鲜榨果汁,如果看到海洋生物就说明你喜欢果冻样、块状、毫无吸引力的蔬菜冰砂。通常受测者会选择和果汁对应的图像。达宁说使研究结果有意义的关键是保受测者不知道测试的真正目的,尤其科内尔学生们的智商普遍较高,欺骗研究人员的可能性不是没有。达宁说:“我们精心挑选图片,以免学生们对我们撒谎或者欺骗,我们还观察他们无意识的眼部运动,这是他们无法控制的。”不仅受测者不假思索地选择会导致理想结果的图像,他们的眼部运动也显示出他们从来没有意识到对图片还可能有别的理解方式。达宁说:“当我们判断迎面走来的人是在微笑还是在假笑、田径赛场的终点线离我们有多远、或者搭档、妻子、丈夫、情人在争吵过程中的声音有多大的时候,我们能否说我们对这些含糊的状况的理解更贴近于我们期待和希望的样子,同时远离我们害怕的样子?这是最终问题所在。” /200805/39977

Bathing babies too often may cause skin problems such as eczema and rashes, experts warn.Bathing babies too often may cause skin problems such as eczema and rashes, experts warn.Today's infants are twice as likely to suffer from skin problems than their parents, a British survey of 2000 parents has found. And scientists in Europe have found infants who swim regularly in chlorinated indoor pools are more at risk of developing asthma and bronchitis.Child-care experts say parents are ignoring advice to limit baths to two to three times a week due to concerns about keeping babies clean and germ free.The British Mother And Baby magazine survey found six out of 10 babies were bathed every day, 20 per cent were bathed every other day and only 19 per cent were bathed the recommended two to three times a week.In addition, 60 per cent of mothers usedantiseptic wipeson their children's faces and hands, some more than five times a day.Mother And Baby editor Elena Dalrymple said a baby's skin was five times thinner than an adult's and required very gentle treatment."It's not a good idea to bath baby every day. Two or three times a week is plenty," she said.Anne O'Neill, a dermatologist at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, said babies did not get dirty until they began crawling."We really don't have to be quite as fastidious unless the child has an immune deficiency," she said.The survey found 37 per cent of baby boys and 33 per cent of baby girls had skin problems - more than double that of their parents' generation.Meanwhile, a European study published in the journal Pediatrics this month found exposure to chemicals in indoor swimming pools might alter the lining of the lungs, predisposing infants to airway disease in later years.The lead author, Alfred Bernard of Belgium's National Fund for Scientific Research, said a possible culprit was the chemical trichloramine, a by-product of the chlorine used to clean public pools. 专家提醒,宝宝洗澡过于频繁可能会导致湿疹和皮疹等皮肤问题。英国一项对两千名家长的调查发现,现在的婴儿出现皮肤问题的几率是他们父辈的两倍。欧洲科学家发现,经常在室内氯化泳池游泳的婴儿更容易患哮喘和气管炎。儿童护理专家称,宝宝每周的洗澡次数应控制在两至三次,但由于父母生怕宝宝身上不干净,染上细菌,因此忽视了这个建议。英国《妈咪宝贝》杂志的此项调查发现,60%的宝宝每天都洗澡,20%的宝宝每隔一天洗一次,仅有19%的宝宝是按照专家建议,每周洗两至三次。此外,60%的妈妈用消毒巾给宝宝擦脸擦手,有的一天甚至要擦五次以上。《妈咪宝贝》杂志编辑艾莉娜·戴尔里姆普说,婴儿皮肤的厚度仅是成人的五分之一,需要十分温和的呵护。她说:“每天给宝宝洗澡并不好。一周洗两至三次就足够了。”威斯特米德儿童医院的皮肤科医生安妮·奥尼尔说,宝宝到了开始会爬的阶段才会容易变成小脏孩。她说:“除非宝宝存在免疫缺陷,否则我们真的没有必要过于认真。”调查发现,有皮肤问题的男婴和女婴比例分别为37%和33%,是他们父辈的两倍以上。此外,本月在《儿科》期刊上公布的一项欧洲研究发现,婴儿与室内氯化泳池中的化学物质接触可能会导致肺部纹理发生变化,这会使孩子日后易患呼吸道疾病。研究报告的主要撰写者、比利时国家科研基金会的埃尔弗莱德·伯纳德说,罪魁祸首可能是清洁公共浴池所用的氯产生的一种化学物质--三氯胺。 /200809/49000

Sleeping with the light on could leave you feeling low the next day, scientists have warned. They say that a night-light – however dim – may affect the structure of the brain, raising the odds of depression. The eerie glow emitted by a TV or the seemingly reassuring presence of a night-light could be enough to impact on mental health.   科学家发现,睡觉开灯会导致第二天心情“跌到谷底”,他们解释,无论“夜灯”多么昏暗,再微弱的光源都会对大脑产生影响,并制造情绪低落消沉(也就是咱们说的抑郁哦)。即使睡觉不开灯换电视取代,或者开其他光源,都会影响人的精神健康。   It is the latest in a long line of warnings about the potential dangers of disrupting the body’s natural sleep-wake cycle. There are concerns that shift workers are at higher risk of breast cancer and, only last month, a study linked night-time light with weight gain. With complete darkness being hard to achieve in the modern world, experts say the findings could have serious implications for health.   调查指出,亮光会干扰人类的“醒周期”会影响人类自然睡眠,产生潜在危险。此外,常上夜班或者经常从事“倒班”职业的人更容易患上乳腺癌。睡眠不好的人还会“虚胖”,专家指出,人在睡眠中应该处于一个完全黑暗的环境。   In the latest study, presented at an American conference, researchers from Ohio State University looked at the effect of exposing rodents to dim light in the eight hours or so they would usually be asleep. At the equivalent of having a television on in a darkened room, the lamp used was not bright, but it was enough to affect the animals’ behaviour, the Society for Neuroscience’s annual conference heard.   美国俄亥俄州的专家通过做实验,还发现即使是很微弱的灯光也能影响小动物(啮齿类)的睡眠,专家发现啮齿类动物的行为和举动受灯光影响相当大。   Researcher Tracy Bedrosian said: ‘The hippocampus plays a key role in depressive disorders, so finding changes there is significant. ‘Even dim light at night is sufficient to provoke depressive behaviour.’Neuroscientist Dr Randy Nelson said: ‘The light was a very low level. Something that most people could easily encounter every night.   专家说,海马体在控制人类情绪上有重要作用,据悉,海马体位于左右脑之间,它虽然很小,但却是收发信息的门户站。它将信息转化为记忆,发送、储存到大脑不同部位,任何微弱的灯光都能作用海马体。 /201011/118819

Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who's the ugliest of us all?Wall-to-wall mirrors in gyms and dance studios might stop women getting the exercise they need because women who work out in front of a mirror get discouraged and feel tired, Canadian researchers said.The study, published in the journal Health Psychology, focused on young women who exercised less than 15 minutes a week. It found that, regardless of how they viewed their bodies, women who worked out in front of a mirror felt worse, or no better, and less at peace after 20 minutes of activity."The mirrors make women more self-aware, they think of their shortcomings. Things like: 'I look fat, I should be more active'," said Kathleen Martin Ginis, lead author of the study, and a professor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario."When women are more introspective, they might feel 'I'm not that great' unfortunately."The survey questioned 58 women with an average age of 22--young enough to be concerned about body image.Participants took turns on stationary bicycles, working out either in front of a mirror or with the mirror curtained over.And whether the participant felt comfortable about her body or not, the outcome was the same--women who did not have to watch themselves exercise felt calmer, more positive and more revitalized at the end of their session.Still, Martin Ginis stressed that mirrors can be positive and functional. "I don't want to convey the idea that we should rip out gym mirrors," she said, noting that exercisers often needed to see their form, or assess if they are using the correct muscles groups during strength training.But things were different for beginners. "For beginner exercisers, mirrors can be daunting," she said.”Martin Ginis suggested gyms provide areas without mirrors to encourage novice exercisers."Women don't need to exercise in a gym," she said. "Thirty minutes of walking, or hiking is good too. There are other ways to get your exercise." /200812/58541

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