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2018年12月15日 06:56:16来源:周社区

  • Scientists want to be able to genetically engineer humans so that they do not get diseases.科学家们希望能够改造人类基因从而使他们免于病痛。That is the conclusion of a new report from two of the worlds most elite scientific institutions, which calls for people to be allowed to make modifications to inherited human DNA so that diseases are edited out or treatments are edited in.这是两家世界顶尖科学机构最新发布的一份报告得出的结论。报告要求允许对人类的遗传DNA进行修改,从而删掉疾病基因或者通过基因编辑治疗遗传病。Such controversial changes could allow scientists to stop diseases from being passed on to future generations.科学家可以通过这种备受争议的改变阻止疾病遗传给后代。The report is a landmark because it in effect amounts to an official sanctioning by the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine of medical research that looks to edit, remove or add DNA in human eggs cells, sperm or embryos.该报告具有里程碑式的意义,因为这相当于美国国家科学院和国家医学院正式认可对人类卵子、精子或胚胎进行基因编辑、删除、添加的医学研究。But opponents have argued that editing for specific problems could begin a trend for making other changes, like adding selected physical features or optimising children so that they are strong or fast.但反对者认为,针对具体问题进行基因编辑可能引发其他更改的趋势,比如添加选定的生理特征或者优化儿童的基因,从而让他们更强壮或成长得更快。Gene editing, which effectively allows the precise ;cutting and pasting; of DNA, is aly used in basic research and clinical studies that involve non-heritable ;somatic; cells.基因编辑可以对DNA进行有效且精准的“剪切复制”,该技术已经应用于非遗传“体细胞”的基础研究和临床研究。Now the two elite organisations have ruled that gene editing of the human ;germline; - inherited DNA - should not be seen as a red line in medical research.如今,这两家一流机构已经认定不应将对人类“生殖细胞”——遗传DNA——进行基因编辑视为医学研究中的红线。Future use of germline gene editing to treat or prevent disease and disability is a ;realistic possibility that deserves serious consideration;, the report says.报告称,未来利用生殖细胞基因编辑技术治疗或预防疾病和残疾是“切实可行的,值得人们认真考虑”。However, the two academies point out that the technology is not yet safe enough to justify testing it on the inherited DNA of human patients.然而,两家机构指出,目前还不足以明可以运用该技术对人类患者的遗传DNA进行安全的试验。They add that gene editing for enhancement should not be allowed ;at this time; - but do not rule it out completely.他们还称,“现在”不应允许以优化为目的的基因编辑——但并不完全将其排除在外。A broad public debate should be held before permitting clinical trials, even those involving non-inherited DNA, for any purpose other than treating or preventing disease, the report says.该报告称,除了治疗或预防疾病,在允许进行临床试验前应该对所有存在其他目的的基因编辑进行广泛的公开辩论,包括对非遗传细胞的基因编辑在内。Professor Alta Charo, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US, who co-chaired a study committee appointed by the academies to investigate the wider implications of gene editing, said: ;Human genome editing holds tremendous promise for understanding, treating or preventing many devastating genetic diseases, and for improving treatment of many other illnesses.;美国国家科学院与国家医学院机构任命美国威斯康星麦迪逊大学教授阿尔塔沙罗担任一研究委员会的联合主席,以调查基因编辑技术产生的深远影响。阿尔塔沙罗称,“人类基因组编辑技术在了解、治疗或预防许多致命性遗传疾病、提高多种其他疾病的治疗水平方面存在巨大潜力。”Research that involves modifying inherited genes in human embryos is currently not allowed in the US, and a number of other countries have signed an international convention that prohibits it.目前,美国还不允许对人类胚胎中的遗传基因进行修改,而其他一些国家已经签署了禁止该行为的国际公约。Altering germline DNA is also banned in the UK, with one important exception. Parliament has ruled that inherited DNA in the mitochondria can be replaced if they are defective and the cause of devastating diseases that are passed down from mothers to their children.英国也禁止修改生殖细胞DNA,但存在一项特例。英国议会已经认定,如果线粒体DNA存在缺陷并且会导致母体将致命性疾病遗传给孩子,那么可以将其替换。Mitochondrial DNA makes up only about 0.1 percent of all the inherited genetic material in a human cell and does not affect key characteristics such as hair and eye colour or personality.线粒体DNA仅占人类细胞所有遗传物质的0.1%,且不会影响头发、眼睛颜色或性格等关键特征。来 /201703/495567。
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently added information about the families of 12 officials to its website, which experts say is an effort to emphasize the central governments focus on cracking down on corruption through familial networks.外交部近日在其网站上添加2位部领导的家庭情况信息,专家称,此举旨在强调中央政府集中打击官员的家庭成员参与腐败的行为。The Ministry of Foreign Affairs added the biographical and family details of Xie Hangsheng, who was appointed as chief inspector of the Inspectors Office of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September.外交部添加了谢杭生的个人传记和家庭信息,于今年九月被任命为中共中央纪律检查委员会驻外交部纪检组组长。It is reportedly the only one of the 25 departments under the State Council that has posted its officials family status online.据报道,外交部是国务5个组成部门中唯一在网上公开部内领导家庭情况的单位。The ministry has been making officials family information public since 2013 when current Foreign Minister Wang Yi took office.013年王毅担任外交部长以来,外交部一直对部领导的家庭信息进行公开。Wang Yi is married and has a daughter, according to the website.网站显示,王毅部长已婚,育有1个女儿。The move comes after the central governments decision to strengthen its supervision of officials families in 2010, Ren Jin, a law professor at the Chinese Academy of Governance, told the Legal Daily.国家行政学院的法学教授任进在接受《法制日报》采访时表示,此举是在中央政府于2010年决定加强对官员家庭监督之后开展的。Zhu Lijia, a professor of public management at the Chinese Academy of Governance, told people.com that making information public, especially the disclosure of officials family information, is a fundamental way to uproot so-called ;naked officials.;国家行政学院的公共管理学教授竹立家在接受《人民网》采访时表示,信息公开,尤其是官员的家庭信息对外披露,是根除所谓的“裸官”的根本途径。来 /201611/479569。
  • A U.N. human rights working group has ruled that WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange has been ;arbitrarily detained; at the Ecuadorian embassy in London, but the group has no authority over British police seeking to arrest him.联合国一个人权工作小组判定,维基揭秘创办者阿桑奇在厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆被强制拘禁,但该小组无权向寻求逮捕阿桑奇的英国警方发布指示。The working group announced its findings Friday, some three-and-a-half years after Assange took refuge in the embassy to avoid arrest and extradition to Sweden on rape charges.这个联合国工作小组星期五宣布了上述判定结果。为避免因强奸指控被逮捕并引渡到瑞典,阿桑奇在厄瓜多尔驻英大使馆避难已长年半左右。British authorities have not yet responded to the ruling.英国当局还没有对联合国工作小组的这一判定做出反应。On Thursday, Swedish prosecutors predicted the U.N. ruling and said Assanges confinement has no impact on the rape case against him in Sweden.瑞典检察官星期四预料到了联合国工作小组会做出这一判定,并表示,阿桑奇受困不会对他在瑞典被控强奸一案有任何影响。Assange, who is Australian, published on WikiLeaks a number of leaked diplomatic cables and other sensitive documents the ed States considers classified information. It was one of the largest information leaks in U.S. history.阿桑奇是澳大利亚人,他在维基解密网站上发表了很多泄露的外交密电和美国认为属于机密的其他敏感文件。这是美国历史上最大规模的泄密事件之一。来 /201602/425846。
  • A total of 196,947 Party and government staff had been punished for violating austerity rules since late 2012, Chinas top anti-graft body announced.中国最高反腐机关近日宣布,012年年底以来,共有196947名党政机关人员因违反相关规定受到处理。The Communist Party of China (CPC) central leadership launched a frugality campaign in December 2012, adopting the ;eight-point rules,; which aimed to curb extravagance and improve officials work style.20122月,中共中央政治局推出了厉行节约,旨在抑制奢靡之风、改进官员工作作风的“八项规定”运动。The disciplined people were involved in more than 146,400 cases in the past four years, about a quarter of which involved use of public vehicles and eating and drinking with public funds, the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI) said.中央纪律检查委员会称,过去4年中,这些被查处人员涉嫌参与违规案件4.64万起,其中约1/4的案件涉及公车使用和公款吃喝问题。Lavish weddings and funerals, public money spent on travel and gift-giving were also included in the violations.其他违规行为还包括大操大办婚丧事宜、公款旅游和送礼。CCDI statistics showed that 33,532 violations were reported from January to October in 2016, nearing the number of violations dealt with in 2015.中纪委的数据显示016年前10个月,被上报的违规行为共3532起,这一数字015年全年处置的违规行为数量相近。来 /201612/482779。
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