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2019年06月20日 10:10:41 | 作者:365生活 | 来源:新华社
The real Jane Austen一个真实的简奥斯汀As vital as her stories生气勃勃,人如其著She still fascinates 200 years after the publication of ;Pride and Prejudice;《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人The Real Jane Austen: A Life in Small Things. By Paula Byrne.《真实的简奥斯汀:细微之物,足见平生》 宝拉伯恩著“A LIFE of usefulness, literature, and religion, was not by any means a life of event,” wrote Henry Austen of his spinster sister Jane. This image of the sequestered author persisted for years. But contemporary scholars have reappraised “dear Aunt Jane” as an independent and worldly-wise woman who wielded a sardonic pen. She continues to fascinate, 200 years after the publication of “Pride and Prejudice”. This is the charm of a new biography from Paula Byrne, a British author, who breathes yet more life into Austen and her works by considering the objects that populated her days.“她的一生虽裨益他人,与文学与宗教为伴,却并无白云苍,大起大伏。”简的哥哥亨利曾这样写道。多年以来,简的形象一直是终生未嫁,隐僻幽居。然而,当代学者开始重新审视这名“亲爱的奥斯汀姑姑”,把她看作一个深谙尘世智慧的独立女性,舞动着手中的讥讽之笔。《傲慢与偏见》问世两百年后,她依然神秘撩人——这份魅力同样延续到英国作家宝拉伯恩为奥斯汀所著的传记之中。在宝拉笔下,那个时代的流行物件,是通向奥斯汀生平及著作神秘之门的钥匙,展示出一个更加生气勃勃的简。Each chapter is organised around a single thing. Some are Austens possessions, such as a topaz cross she received from her brother. Others are simply from the period, such as a barouche (an upmarket carriage), which helps to illustrate how well-travelled she was and how transport indicates status in her novels. In “Northanger Abbey” Catherine Morland finds a trip in Henry Tilneys curricle erotic, whereas she is nonplussed by John Thorpes gig. Broadly chronological, this thematic approach offers a revealing picture of Austen and a lively social history.这本传记的每一章都围绕着一个单独的物件展开。有些是奥斯汀的私人收藏,例如她从哥哥那儿得到的一个托帕石十字架。其余的则是那个时代的流行品,例如四轮马车(一驾上等马车),足现她游历之广以及在她的作品中,交通工具对于身份的烘托。在《诺桑觉寺》里,凯瑟琳.莫兰觉得享利.蒂尔尼的二轮马车新奇诱人,面对约翰.索普的马车时却不知所措。这种主题式的记传方式,按时序徐徐展开一幅奥斯汀生平及其活跃的社会活动的长卷。Austens formative years are the most interesting. Three vellum notebooks contain her “Juvenilia”—the stories and poems she wrote as a teenager. Her “greatest gifts are here in embryo”, writes Ms Byrne, clearly relishing Austens satire and lack of restraint. The young author lampooned famous figures and offered parodies of sentimental novels. But she reserved her choicest words of wit for her sister Cassandra. When they were not living together they corresponded frequently, and Austen often tried out different voices—“gossipy, jokey, affectionate”—to make her laugh.奥斯汀写作的成型期最耐人寻味。有三本羊皮纸笔记记录了她的“少女之作”——她在青少年时期写的故事与诗歌。宝拉很享受此时奥斯汀式的讥讽语调和无拘无束,她写道,她“无与伦比的天赋在此酝酿成型”。此时年轻的奥斯汀嘲讽当时鼎鼎有名的人物,戏仿那些多愁善感的小说。但是她最具智慧锋芒的字字珠玑却是散落在与其姊卡桑德拉的信件中。两人不住在一处时便频繁通信,而奥斯汀常常尝试不同的腔调——漫谈式的,玩笑式的,或是浪漫式的——来逗她发笑。During this time the movements of family followed the flows of inheritance; a vexatious matter that drives Austens narratives. Old maids and mothers were often housed by rich cousins; a child might be made heir to childless relatives. An East Indian shawl introduces Aunt Phila—who at 21 sailed to Bengal in order to find a husband—and her daughter, Eliza. A romantic figure, and presumably illegitimate, Eliza first married a man who fell under the guillotine in the French Revolution, and later married Austens brother Henry. This coquettish cousin is fictionalised as Mary Crawford in “Mansfield Park”. Austen also drew on Henrys militia experience for her depiction of flirtatious redcoats in “Pride and Prejudice”. Her midshipman brothers helped inform references to the navy.在这段时期,因为继承的缘故,她不得不经常搬迁—这类烦心事反倒丰富了她的叙述内容。老姑娘和母亲总是寄居在有钱的侄子家中;孩子会成为膝下无子的亲戚的继承人。一条来自东印度的披肩引出了费拉阿姨—她在二十一岁时乘船到孟加拉寻找结婚对象——和她的女儿伊莱莎的故事。伊莱莎是个天性浪漫的私生女,她的先夫死于法国大革命的断头台上;后来她嫁给了奥斯汀的哥哥亨利。这个轻佻娇纵的嫂子后来成了她在《曼斯菲尔德庄园》里玛丽.克劳福德的原型。亨利本人的军旅生涯也为她在《傲慢与偏见》中浮夸的“红制”军人形象提供了素材。而她作做海军的兄弟们则提供了海军生活的第一手材料。The books liveliest passages are about city life and romance. Austen frequently visited London and lived in Bath for years. She was probably not a beauty—only one authenticated portrait exists (although Ms Byrne makes a strong case for another with uncertain provenance). But her wit and intelligence lured many a suitor. None of them stuck, but many are recalled with mirth in her letters. Austen was no prude. Her novels feature illicit liaisons and she gives Mary Crawford a sexually loaded naval joke about “Rears and Vices”. But she had high standards and a mortal fear of childbirth. She was all too aware of the way women either died during labour or “grew old by confinements and nursing”.这本传记最轻快活泼的篇章描述了城市生活和浪漫故事。奥斯汀频繁造访伦敦并在巴斯寓居多年。她可能算不得一个美人—她的画像中只有一幅真迹存世(尽管宝拉坚信另一幅来历不明的画像也是真迹),但是她的机锋和智慧却吸引了许多追求者。无人获其芳心,成就美眷;然而在她的信件中,关于他们的回忆大多充满欢乐。奥斯汀并非严肃拘谨之人,她的小说写到过男女私通;玛丽.克劳福德就曾开过一个下流的海军玩笑“臀部与罪恶”。不过她的确道德自律,且畏惧生产。她十分明白:有些女性会死于生产,或是在不断怀和持续哺乳中年华逝去。Ms Byrne has an obvious affection for her subject. This book may offer few revelations, but it paints a fresh and vivid picture of an inimitable woman.显而易见,宝拉对其传记对象—简奥斯汀—充满喜爱之情。这本书可能并无多少“惊人内幕”,但它无疑描绘出了这名独一无二的女性—血肉丰满,栩栩如生。 /201406/304652Science and technology科学技术Navigation航海Crystal gazing水晶球观海术A mineral found in a shipwreck was an ancient form of compass在沉船里发现的矿石是古代的一种指南针THIS may look like a nondescript lump of rock, but it is, in fact, a sunstone.很难形容这块石头的外观,其实它是一块日长石,至少法国法国雷恩大学的Guy Ropars和他的同事是这么看的。That, at least, is the opinion of Guy Ropars of Rennes University, in France, and his colleagues.磁罗盘出现之前,维京水手使用这种被视为神物的石头。Sunstones are legendary items supposed to have been used by Viking sailors in the days before magnetic compasses.据说即使阴天或者那个炽热的星球还没有高出地平线的时候,Looking at the sky through one, it is said, would reveal the suns direction even on a cloudy day or when that fiery orb was below the horizon.透过日长石观看天空,就能显示太阳的方向。Dr Ropars thinks sunstones were real, and were actually crystals of Iceland spar, a form of calcite that polarises light.士Ropars认为日长石真的有这种作用,它实际上是冰洲石的晶体,是可以将光极化的一种方解石。Light from the sky is polarised and, as he discovered in 2011, looking through a piece of Iceland spar reveals the direction of polarisation, and thus the direction of the sun, to within 5.来自天空的光线被极化,他在2011年发现,透过冰洲石能观察到偏振方向,太阳方向和这个方向的夹角小于5度。Dr Ropars also believes the use of sunstones persisted until at least the 16th century.Ropars士还相信直到16世纪,人们还在使用日长石。Their existence is mentioned in church records, and they would have been useful because although magnetic compasses were known by then, they were unreliable for reasons not then understood, such as proximity to the large amounts of iron in ships cannons.教会档案中有使用日长石的记录,尽管磁罗盘已经出现,但有些原因当时的人们还不了解,比如接近船上铁铸加农炮,罗盘会失灵,所以大家认为它靠不住,就继续使用日长石。He thinks this block of mineral is such a stone.他认为这块矿石就有这些用途。It was found in a wreck believed to be that of an unnamed English warship which an admirals report from November 29th 1592 says was lost off the coast of Alderney, in the English Channel.1592年11月29日,一位海军上将报告说有一艘未命名的英国战舰在英吉利海峡里靠近奥尔德尼岛海岸的地方沉没,这块石头就是在失事船只里面发现的。Four centuries underwater have rendered it opaque, but it is the right shape and density to be Iceland spar, and it was discovered within a metre of a pair of navigational dividers of the sort used to measure distances on charts.四百年的水下岁月磨灭了它的透光性,但是它的形状和密度和冰洲石不差分毫。在冰洲石一米之内还发现了一副两脚规,用它可以在海图上测量距离。Dr Roparss latest research, just published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, used spectroscopy to confirm the stones composition as calcite.Ropars士的最新研究成果刚刚发表于《英国皇家学会学报》,他使用光谱学分析了这块石头的成分,确认这是一块方解石。He also did further experiments with a recently mined Iceland-spar crystal of the same size.他还用最近开采的冰洲石晶体做进一步的试验,试验用的石头和原来那块大小一样。He and his colleagues found they could locate the direction of the sun even more accurately than before: to within 1°.他和同事们发现用这块石头更能准确定位太阳的方向,偏差不到1°。The Alderney crystal, as it is known, is thus almost certainly a sunstone.几乎可以确定这块所谓的奥尔德尼水晶是日长石。It didnt save the ship, though.尽管它没能挽救这艘船的命运。 /201312/268333Commerzbank德国商业Das slog步履维艰The second-biggest bank in Europes strongest economy still faces an uphill task欧洲最强经济体的第二大仍然面对提高业绩任务。Jul 27th 2013 | Berlin |From the print editionCOMMERZBANKS marketing materials show a woman running in a grey, hooded jumper, headphones in her ears. Her eyes are locked on the path ahead in determination to finish her workout. This is probably meant to flatter the banks customers as gritty and hard-working. But it is a better metaphor for the bank itself. It is on a long, hard road back to health, a journey that exemplifies the painful reshaping of Europes troubled banking system to be smaller, safer and more domestic.德国商业的营销材料上画着一名女子,身穿灰色衣跑步,带着连衣帽,耳朵里塞着耳机。眼神坚毅,死死盯着前方的路,志在完成自己的锻炼计划。这可能是在讨好自己的客户,暗指他们都是坚韧不拔,工作勤奋。但是这个隐喻或许更贴合自身的实际。德国商业离回到良性发展还有很长的路。这是欧洲陷入危机的体系转向更小,更安全和更本土化的痛苦转型的很好的例。Commerzbanks initial trajectory through the crisis resembles that of another European lender, Britains Lloyds Banking Group (LBG). Like LBG, it was a big bank but not the biggest in the country—Deutsche Bank is Germanys colossus. Like Lloyds, it undertook a disastrous domestic transaction at the worst possible time, buying Dresdner Bank in the summer of 2008 just weeks before LBG gobbled up HBOS. And like the British bank, it quickly ended up tapping state coffers to survive.德国商业度过危机的初始轨迹很想另一家欧洲,英国的劳埃德斯集团。跟劳埃德斯一样,德国商业是本国的一家大型,但却不是最大的,德国最大的是德意志。德国商业同样经历了一次灾难性的国内收购。它在2008年夏天买下了德累斯顿,这是在劳埃德斯吞并苏格兰哈利法斯克几周之后。同样的,很快以向国库求救自保结束。The parallels between the two are less obvious now. LBGs shares have risen by 33% in the past three months, and by 133% in the past year. The banks share price hovers just below the price the British government paid to buy its 39% stake, which will soon be sold. Things look far less fizzy at Commerzbank. At the time of the rescue deal the banks boss, Martin Blessing, declared that state ownership should last a maximum of 36 months. More than four years on, its shares still lag the broader index of European banks; its price-to-book ratio is one of the lowest on the continent (see chart). Its 2012 net profit came in at a mere 6m euros(7.7m dollars).两者现在的处境有所不同。劳埃德斯的股价在过去的三个月中上涨了33%,在去年上涨了133%。该的股价稍稍低于英国政府购买其39%股份时的价格,英国政府很快就会将这笔股份卖掉。德国商业的处境则要惨得多。德国政府救助与其交易的时候,老板Martin Blessing说,国有权最多持续36个月。而现在,四年过去了,其股价仍旧低于欧洲的大盘指数。其市净率在欧洲处于最低水平。而在2012年的净利润也只有600万欧(770万美元)。Rumours that the German government might sell its 17% stake to a foreign bank were scotched this week. Newspapers speculate whether the bank might exit the DAX, the countrys benchmark stockmarket index, leaving Deutsche as the only member bank. Deutsche itself still labours to plump up its own thin capital cushion.本周,德国政府出售其控股的17%给一家外国的谣言四起。媒体纷纷推测德国商业会不会退出德国DAX指数,这样该指数就只剩德意志一家股了。德意志也忙着增加其缓冲资金。Commerzbank can point to several forces beyond its control. The euro-zone crisis weighs heavily. The restructuring of Greek government debt handed it a big loss. Historically low interest rates have depressed income. Competition from Germanys many small savings banks and co-operatives puts pressure on fees; online banks are adding to the pressure. A downturn in shipbuilding has hit Commerzbanks big portfolio of loans in that industry. The Basel 3 rules have prompted the bank to retain capital rather than dole it out to shareholders. (The bank estimates that its Tier-1 core capital ratio under Basel 3 is 8.4% after a May capital-raising.)德国商业能将原因归咎于几个它无法控制的因素。欧元区危机无疑是最大的因素。希腊政府债务重组给其造成了重大损失。史上最低的利率也减少了其收入。来自德国的许多小型储蓄的竞争也使其降低自身费用,网上也增加了其压力。造船业的衰退也使得其在造船业德组合贷款业务受到沉重打击。巴塞尔3资本规定使得德国商业只能保留资本,而不能发放给股东。(估计,在巴塞尔3规定下,其一级核心资本比率在五月融资之后达到8.4%)For one bank to have had so much bad luck prompts the question of just how much carelessness, not misfortune, is to blame. Like many European banks, both Commerzbank and Dresdner invested in subprime-mortgage-backed assets before the crisis. And like many of its continental peers, the bank was also a big international lender against chunky assets in areas like shipping, aviation and property. About a quarter of its 18.3 billion euros shipping portfolio is non-performing; it is expected to take a charge against lending in Detroit when it next reports results.对于一家来说,这么多倒霉事儿遇到一起,只能怪其太粗心,而不能说太不幸了。跟许多其他欧洲一样,德国商业和德累斯顿在危机之前都投资了次贷资产。这个也借贷给船舶业,航空业和房地产业。其在船舶业投资达183亿欧,其中有四分之一毫无收益,等下次报告出来该行有可能向底特律的借贷提起指控。Analysts want Commerzbank to keep shedding these “non-core” assets, which stood at 151 billion euros at the end of 2012. Some are easier to offload than others. Holdings of peripheral euro-zone government bonds can be gently unwound by letting them run off. But shipping and property loans are longer-term and less liquid, which is why they are now being treated more harshly under the Basel 3 rules. Commerzbank did this month at last manage to sell the British operations of EuroHypo, its commercial-property arm.分析员希望德国商业能放弃非核心资产,这些在2012年底占到1510亿欧。有些很容易脱手。所持欧元区其他国家政府的债券会轻微受损。但是船舶业和房地产业的贷款是长期的,流动性也差,这也是在巴塞尔3规则下更严厉的原因。德国商业这个月末最终准备卖掉欧洲抵押的英国公司,其商业地产分。As Commerzbank slims down these parts of its balance-sheet, a more Germanic lender is slowly emerging. The strategy is plausible. The combination with Dresdner gave Commerzbank an enviably big retail-branch network and customer base in Europes strongest economy. The Mittelstandsbank, the division lending to Germanys small and medium-sized, mostly family-owned businesses, is in decent health: 30% of Mittelstand companies are customers, and the pre-tax return on equity in this unit was 28.6% in 2012, against 3.1% for the group overall. As these firms go into global markets, where savings banks cannot follow, Commerzbank has a shot at boosting its business with them. Expansion in Poland looks sensible.随着德国商业将这些从资产负债表中除去,一个更德国的借贷者出现了。这个战略看起来是有效的。跟德累斯顿的合并会使得德国商业在欧洲最强经济体拥有一个令人羡慕的大型零售网络和顾客基础。中小企业掌管德国的中小企业贷款业务,这些中小企业中很多都是家族企业,2012年,这一业务的税前回报为28.6%,整体业务只有3.1%的回报。随着这些企业的国际化,储蓄就无能为力了。德国商业有意拓展跟他们的业务。在波兰的扩张看起来很有用。Yet the bank is still some way from turning this vision into reality. A banking consultant quips that the maths of the Dresdner deal amount to “one plus one equals one”. And a domestic focus has its downsides. Fierce local competition from the savings banks and co-operatives will not go away. Nor will the drag from the euro zones economic prospects: interest rates will remain low as long as inflation stays subdued.然而,德国商业还是应该回到现实。一个业顾问指出,这次的德累斯顿交易是一次亏本买卖。国内的重点业务呈下降趋势。来自储蓄的激烈的本地竞争不会停止。欧元区的经济预期是只要通货膨胀得到抑制,利率将会持续走低。这也会拖累复兴。So Mr Blessing and his team have little choice but to concentrate on the nuts and bolts. That includes making more cuts in branches and staff (branches have aly fallen from about 1,500 to 1,200), controlling their tempo so that the bank can reap savings without battering its franchise. One part of this is greater flexibility in the offerings at each branch. Not every location needs an expert in everything; more advice can be given online or over the phone. Another is growth in its online division, comdirect. Commerzbank has the scale to build a sophisticated offering; savings banks and co-operatives may not.因此,Blessing先生跟他的团队没有多大选择,只能是集中精力做好细节工作。包括减少分机构,裁员(分机构已经从1500个减少到1200个了),控制好节奏,只有这样才能从存款中获利,并且不影响其经营。这在各分有很大的灵活性。不是每个地方都需要专家,可以通过电话或者网络提供建议。还有一个是网上分的增加。德国商业能提供各种复杂的务,但是储蓄则不能。Such strengths should eventually return Commerzbank to fitness. But the miserable share price suggests that investors expect a period of plodding before it is back to running at full tilt.这些措施应该最终能使得德国商业回到正轨。但是其可怜的股价意味着投资者期望其走出困境之前有一段时间的辛勤工作。 /201308/250788Marmosets are small primates.绒猴是很小的灵长类。Think of a monkey with huge fuzzy ears.试想一下,猴子长者一对大大的毛绒绒的耳朵。Primatologists have oftenwondered whether nonhuman males evaluated their potential mates, or whether their sex drivewas more like an on/off switch.动物学家时常有这样的疑惑:雄性动物选择“另一半”或者控制性欲是否更像是一个开关键。We may think of animals as just responding to sexual invitations without thinking, but a studyconducted in both the U.S. and Germany shows this isnt necessarily so.我们也许会认为动物对于性邀请基本是不假思索的,但最近美国和德国有研究称事实并非如此。Male marmosets havingtheir brains scanned were given sniffs of genital-gland secretions from ovulating females.雄性绒猴用它们的大脑扫描,闻正在排卵的磁性动物生殖腺的分泌物。Thats a scent that should trigger a mating response in the brain, and it did!有一种气味会引起大脑里的交配反应,这样它们才会进行交配。But guess what elsehappened?但你猜还会发生什么情况?Many other brain areas lit up as well, such as memory formation, informationintegration–in other words, areas associated with decision-making.很多其它的大脑叶都会被“激活”,像信息形成,信息整合,也就是说,所有和决策相关的区域。Researchers are still studying the effect, but apparently a lot more happens in a marmoset brainthan a simple “have sex now” program.研究人员还在观察其影响,但很显然,绒猴的脑部有很多活动而不是一个简单的“性行为”指定。The specific areas of brain activity suggest that the malesare evaluating potential mates before agreeing to a sexual union.特定区域的大脑活动暗示雄性绒猴在性结合之前会评估潜在的交配对象。This makes special sense for marmosets, because they are monogamous and both partners raise the offspring.这对于绒猴有特殊的意义,因为它们是单配制,并且共同抚养后代。Under those circumstances you wouldnt want to enter into a relationship without any thought.在这种情况下,就不会不假思索地介入这段关系了。 201405/296632

Today ,this is all the remains of Guge.现如今,这全部是古格的遗迹。It is capital city....The grand vision of the first kings of Guge is reflected this an extraodinary city,这里是首都....古格第一任国王的宏伟蓝图反映这个城市的不平凡,literally carved into the side of the mountain.从字面上讲成为了山的一侧。Saw into the heavens,the height of more than 8000 stories skyscaraper.看这8000多层高的天大楼直冲入云霄。It is even today one of the largest structures in Tibet.甚至今天它也是西藏最大的建筑之一。Along its narrow lanes,you can almost hear the echoes of the many people who toil to gorge city from this impenetrable mount of clay.沿着狭窄的小巷,你几乎可以听到许多人辛劳的回声在这个密不透风的粘土山峡谷城市回荡。A labyrinth with tunnels and stairs leads vertically 300 metres to the very top of the structure.这是一座通道和楼梯通往垂直300米建筑顶端的迷宫。201312/270630

Gun control管制Bullets to the head射向脑袋的子弹Why James Bradys shooting led to gun control, but Gabby Giffordss did not为什么James Brady的矛头直指管制而Gabby Gifford的却没有WHEN James Brady, who at the time was Ronald Reagans press secretary, was shot in the head during a failed assassination attempt on the president in 1981, newscasts reported that he was dead. This proved premature: Mr Brady died on August 4th. After the shooting, he went on to become the countrys most successful advocate for gun control. Under a law that bears his name, over 2m applications for firearm purchases have been turned down after background checks revealed that their owners were not the sorts of people to be trusted with a Glock. Since Gabby Giffords, a congresswoman fromArizona, was shot in the head in 2011, no federal gun-control laws have passed. The different responses reveal much about what has changed in the triangular relationship between Americans, guns and politicians between the two shootings.时任里根总统新闻秘书的James Brady在1981年一次针对总统的失败刺杀中头部中弹,新闻报道说他死了。这份报道后被实有点早“Brady8月4日才死亡。在击事件后,他接着成为了全国最成功的管制拥护者。在一份以他的姓名起草的法令下,超过两百万申请军火购买许可的申请被拒绝,原因是他们的背景审查揭露他们这些买家不是那些值得信赖的持有者。自从2011年亚利桑那州的国会女议员Gabby Giffords被击头部后,再也没有通过的联邦管制法案。不同的回应声反映出了美国国民,制造商以及政客们针对两起击事件的三角关系变化。Congress has passed laws that make it impossible to know for sure how many Americans own guns, but polling data suggest that the number who do has decreased since Mr Brady was shot. Rather than make it easier to pass laws, this has made it harder: small, energetic groups have more sway over Congress than ones that are larger and more diffuse. It took 12 years from the shooting of Mr Brady to the passing of background checks, so it is too early to conclude that Mrs Giffordss wounds will not eventually result in something similar, such as a ban on the kind of oversized magazines that her shooter used. But the chances of that look remote.国会已通过法令,这也就不可能确切查明有多少美国人持,但是民意调查显示自从Brady被击后持人数已经下滑。与更简单的通过法案相比,这种做法更难:小型的,有能力的各个社团对国会的影响盖过那些更大型,更广泛的社团。通过背景审查法案从Brady击事件后算起花了12年时间,因此得出Glifford的伤不会最终开出类似果实的结论还为时过早,比如禁止射击她的凶手所使用的那种大口径子弹。但是可能性看起来很低。One reason is the pattern that follows high-profile shootings. After the murder of 20 children and six adults at a school inNewtown,Connecticutin 2012, the National Rifle Association (NRA), the biggest group representing gun owners, claims that its membership increased. This is not as strange as it seems. Shootings that make headlines lead to calls for gun control. Though these mostly fail, they provoke a pushback from pro-gun groups, which warn their members of federal plots to take their guns away. Though some states passed gun-control measures in the year after theNewtownmassacre, many others ended up with more permissive laws than before. Gun enthusiasts have had particular success with laws that allow people to carry concealed weapons, leading to a boom in sales of specially-made shirts that allow their wearers to draw quickly.一方面原因是紧跟这种模式的是高知名度的击事件。位于纽镇一所学校的20名孩子与6名成年人被谋杀后,2012年康乃狄克州的国家步协会作为代表持有者的最大社团,宣称它的会员数量上涨。这并不像它看起来那样奇怪。击事件使得头条新闻趋向于呼吁管制。尽管这些很有可能无效,他们还是使得持械的社团退让,警告联邦其他州,正计划取消他们的械持有权。尽管一些州在纽镇屠杀案那年通过了一些管制措施,很多州相对于以前停用了更多的许可法。信徒们则对法律许可人们携带隐藏武器有着特殊的成就,这也导致能快速拔出武器的特制上衣销量大增。Polling by Pew suggests that three-quarters of NRA members support the expansion of background checks to cover purchases made at gun shows or online, a loophole in the Brady law. The organisations bosses, however, take any measure that restricts access to guns to be a small step towards a final destination of anAmericadisarmed. Its scorecards are the most popular way for voters to assess a candidates soundness on guns, so congressmen often vote with them in mind, even if that means voting against laws that most NRA members support. Such was the case with a modest bipartisan attempt at federal gun control in the wake ofNewtown. Like so many before, it failed.根据皮尤民调显示四分之三的步协会会员持扩大背景调查以涵盖展览或是网上购,这也是Brady法案的漏洞。然而,协会的老大们采取了一切手段去限制那些缩小许可范围的举措,以防他们最终导致美国无化。选民评价候选人对于械公正性最流行的方法就是看计分板,因此国会议员们经常时刻记住给他们投票,甚至即使这意味着投票反对大部分步协会会员们持的法律。紧随纽镇案,这种两党间的对于联邦械管制温和举动就是这样的例子。如同之前诸多案例一样,它失败了。 /201408/319949

Don:Heres a simple demonstration you can do with cool implications.唐:这是一个你可以做的具有很酷含义的简单演示。Find a large object that is brightly colored--lets make it a green door.找一个色鲜艳的大物件—让我们使它摇身一变成为一道绿色门。Stand with that door to your side but dont look directly at it; you want it to be in your peripheral vision.站在那扇门身边,但不要直视,你要想它是在你的周边视觉中。Now, without shifting your gaze, examine the door in the edge of your field of vision.现在,不用转移你的目光,仔细审视在你视野边缘的这扇门。What color is it? Answer? Its still green.它是什么颜色的?回答?它仍然是绿色的。Yael:Its still green? What kind of experiment is that?雅艾尔:它仍然是绿色的吗?这个实验到底想说明什么?I thought you were going to say something happens to the color.我以为你会说颜色发生了某些变化。Don:Thats exactly right!唐:完全正确!The color stays green, which means something has happened-- because nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color at all.之所以仍然是绿色,这意味着发生了一些事情—因为在你的周边视觉里应该应该没有任何颜色。Yael:Nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color? Why not?雅艾尔:在你的周边视觉内应该没有任何颜色?为什么没有呢?Don:Because color is what we perceive when light of a particular frequency meets cones-special cells in your retina.唐:因为颜色是特定频率光线投射到视网膜锥细胞上我们的感知。But the light being reflected off the door is only landing on the outside edge of your retina.但被反射到门的光只是在你的视网膜外边缘。And there are almost no cones on the edges.而且在边缘几乎没有视锥细胞。Everything we see roughly seventy-five degrees away from the point were fixed on should be black and white.从这一个固定的点大约七十五度我们看到的一切事物都应该是黑白两色。Yael:Thats fascinating! But why is the door still green?雅艾尔:太神奇了!但为什么门还是绿色的?Don:Presumably the door remains green because vision isnt a simple matter of retinal cells.唐:大概门仍然是绿色的是因为视觉不是简单的视网膜细胞。All the data your eyes send is interpreted by the brain.你眼中的所有数据发送给大脑解读。Your brain knows that the door is green, so it supplies information that isnt really there to keep the image stable.你的大脑知道门是绿色的,所以它提供信息,并不是真的在那里保持图像稳定。This is just one of the many ways your brain saves time and energy by making reasonably safe assumptions about the world around you.这只是你的大脑通过对你周围环境合理安全的假设节省时间和精力的其中一种方式。 201311/264414

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