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2019年10月21日 12:26:56来源:知道报

栏目简介:《造物小百科How it#39;s made》介绍了许多东西的制作或者说发明方法,非常实用。其中的英语视频发音地道,内容浅显易懂,过程形象生动,是提高英语听力水平,积累英语知识和一些简单生活常识的好素材。 Article/201508/391053。

  • What kind of room was this mosaic in? We just don#39;t know. In grand Roman villas the room with the best mosaic was usually the dining room, but in this case that seems unlikely. There was no under-floor heating in this room and it faced north, so it would have been far too cold for Dorset dining. Normally the walls, as well as the floor, would indicate a room#39;s purpose, but the walls of this room are long gone. There#39;s one intriguing possibility: the figure of Christ faces east, and there would be just enough space for an altar between it and the wall. So this room might have been an early house church.我们不知道这样的马赛克图案曾出现在一个怎样的房间里。在豪华的罗马别墅,铺设着最美丽的马赛克图案的房间通常是餐厅。但这间屋子似乎并不是。屋里没有地暖,而且朝北,就多塞特的气候而言,在这里用餐未免太冷了。通常,房间的墙壁也能表现出它的用途,但这间屋子的墙壁早已消失。一种有趣的可能性是:鉴于基督肖像面朝东方,而图案与墙壁间的空间刚好可以摆放一个圣坛,因此这里也许是早期的家庭教堂。People have often worried about the idea of Christ being shown on a floor, and eventually this worried the Romans too. In 427 the emperor specifically banned the making of images of Christ on mosaic floors, and he ordered all existing ones to be removed. But by the date of this proclamation Britain had of course ceased to be a part of the Roman Empire. The villa at Hinton St Mary had probably long been abandoned, and so its floor remained untouched. On the whole the withdrawal of Roman power spelt cultural catastrophe, but in this instance we should be grateful, because it#39;s that which allowed this astonishing survival.人们逐渐开始对将基督像装饰在地板上感到不安,最终罗马人也对此顾虑重重。四二七年,罗马帝王最终禁止用马赛克制作基督图像装饰地板,并下令毁掉一切业已存在于地板上的基督像。但禁令颁布时,不列颠已脱离了罗马的统治。亨顿圣玛丽的这座别墅很可能遭到废弃,因此地板完好地保存了下来。从整体而言,罗马人的撤离给英国带来了巨大的文化灾难,但在这件事上,我们应感到庆幸。 Article/201507/384408。
  • Arabian aromatics had powered the religious life of the pagan Roman Empire,but when that empire converted to Christianity and no longer needed frankincense for worship, the incense trade was dealt a massive blow, contributing to a collapse in the Yemen economy.阿拉伯的香料曾极广泛地应用于信仰异教 的罗马帝国的宗教生活。但当罗马帝国转而信仰基督教时,他们便不再需要焚烧乳香了。香料贸易的大幅下滑导致了也门的经济衰落。Local gods, like Ta#39;lab, disappeared, perhaps because they were no longer delivering the promised prosperity.塔拉布等本土神消失了,也许是因为他们不能再给人民带来富足。Suddenly, in the 370s, offerings to traditional gods just stop, and their place is taken by other gods with a wider, universal reach-these are the religions of today.公元370年左右,也门人对本土神的敬拜戛然而止,取而代之的是在全世界都有信徒的大宗教,也就是那些延续至今的教派。Within the next couple of centuries the rulers of Yemen shift from Judaism to Christianity to Zoroastrianism and finally, in 628, to Islam, which has remained the dominant religion of Yemen ever since.在接下来的数百年间,也门统治者从犹太教转向基督教,又转向祆教,最后在628年改信伊斯兰教,直至今日,伊斯兰教仍是也门占配地位的宗教信仰。Gods like Ta#39;lab no longer stood a chance.在这些超越国境的大宗教面前,塔拉布等本土神再也没有任何机会。But some elements of Ta#39;lab#39;s world did live on. We know for example that, like many Arabian gods, he was venerated through pilgrimages to his shrine.但塔拉布信仰的一些元素仍保留了下来。比如人们仍会前往他和其他一些阿拉伯神的神庙朝圣。The religious historian Philip Jenkins, of Pennsylvania State University, is fascinated by elusive survivals like this:宾夕法尼亚州立大学的宗教历史学家菲 利普?詹金斯教授对这种残存的信仰元素很感兴趣:;There are aspects of the old pagan Arabian religion which do live on into Islam, and into Muslim times.阿拉伯的这些古老宗教确实有一些元素延续到了伊斯兰和穆斯林时期,Especially in the practice of the pilgrimage, the Hajj-what goes on at Mecca.其中影响最大的便是到圣地麦加的朝覲仪式。Muslims would absolutely reject any pagan context, obviously-they frame it in terms of Abraham and his story,but probably the events of the Hajj closely recall what would have happened in pagan times at that centre.穆斯林排斥一切异教教义,因此将这种观念融入了易卜拉欣的故事里。但其实这种朝觐行为很可能曾受到发生在这一宗教中心的古代异教信仰仪式的影响。 Article/201508/390650。
  • TED此次请来John Legend坐在钢琴前边弹边唱他的"真正的色",令人心醉。"请勇敢地\让它闪耀吧\你那色\很美\美如虹"这首歌的歌词留给孩子和老师们特别的意义。 Article/201412/346782。
  • In one study published in 2009 Asian American women一个2009年公布的研究采访了who had previously been diagnosed with breast cancer曾被诊断为乳腺癌的were interviewed and questioned on race,美国亚裔女性 问及的问题有种族residential history, menstrual and reproductive history住宅史 月经和生育史medical and family history, anthropometrics and病历及家庭历史 身体指标cultural and religious practices.文化及宗教信仰Researchers also collected information about研究者还收集每个受访者each participant#39;s dietary intake of soy during在儿童时期 青春期 和成年时期childhood, adolescence and adulthood.饮食中对豆类的摄入To gather the most accurate information about为了收集到每个受访者the participant#39;s childhood intake of soy mothers儿童时期豆类摄入的最准确信息of participants were also questioned.他们还采访了这些受访者的母亲们In many cases mothers could not be reached,很多情况下受访者的母亲们没法联系上refused participation or had aly passed away.拒绝参加 或者已经去世In these cases only the participant#39;s data was used.这些情况下只能使用受访者自己提供的资料This chart shows the levels of intake, low, medium这张表格显示了人们在不同的and high for each stage of life;生命阶段(童年 青春期和成年后)childhood, adolescence and adulthood.对豆类不同水平的摄入情况The second column describes the ratio of participants第二栏显示了参与调查的人群中who had breast cancer cases to the controls or women乳腺癌患者人数与未患who did not have breast cancer.乳腺癌人数(即对照组)的比例The relative risk or RR for the lowest intake at each生命中每个阶段最低摄入量的stage of life is set at 1.0 and相对风险值(RR)设在1.0used as the reference value.并被当做参考值Intakes of medium or high amounts of soy are then中等量或大量豆类的摄入会和compared to 1.0. A decrease from 1.0 represents1.0相比较 低于1.0表示患病几率降低a decreased risk so the smaller the decimal in所以第三栏里的小数越小the third column the lower the risk.患癌几率越低As the chart shows increasing amounts of soy如表格显示的 在所有生命阶段里at all stages of life resulted in a decreased risk.增加豆类摄入量会使患病几率降低But the most significant decrease is seen in medium to但患病几率降低最显著的是童年时期high intakes during childhood.中等量至大量的豆类摄入This suggests that the most important time to increase这表明为了降低乳腺癌患病几率intake of soy in order to reduce risk of breast cancer而增加豆类摄入量的最重要时期is during childhood years.是童年阶段In an article published by Dr. Helferich, an associate赫尔弗里希士是伊利诺伊大学professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois and营养学副教授 研究大豆和癌症who researches soy and cancer expressed his concern他在发表的一篇文章里 表达了他对about some negative impacts大豆异黄酮在患癌几率上of soy isoflavones on cancer risk负面作用的担忧His research suggests that他的研究表明women who have estrogen sensitive breast患有雌激素敏感性乳腺癌的女性cancer or breast cancer in which estrogen encourages在雌激素的作用下 她们growth may experience increased growth of their tumors.乳腺内的肿瘤可能继续增长This is thought to be due to the fact that the这是因为异黄酮染料木素isoflavones genistein mimics the effects of estrogen和雌激素的作用相似and high levels of estrogen are associated with而且高水平的雌激素increased cancer proliferation.与癌扩散的增加有关Dr. Helferich states ;over 90% of soy consumption is赫尔弗里希士说 ;90%以上的大豆摄入likely to be a health benefit to Americans.很可能对美国人的健康有益But I am concerned about the woman with但我担心的是雌激素依赖性an estrogen-dependent cancer.乳腺癌患者She needs to be very careful about the amount她需要对她摄入的大豆异黄酮of soy isoflavones she consumes.;的量非常小心;An important note is that this study was only performed重要的一点是这项研究仅仅in animals and not in humans so it can only raise在动物身上做过 而没在人身上做过awareness of the issue not provide proof of所以这只能提高对这一问题的意识 不能negative effects of soy on cancer risk.明大豆是否对癌症患病几率有负面影响 Article/201507/386881。
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