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2019年09月22日 14:41:54 | 作者:同城资讯 | 来源:新华社
A Thai airline will allow passengers to buy seats for life-like dolls their owners treat as real children because they believe they possess supernatural powers.一家泰国航空公司将允许乘客为他们视作自己真正的孩子的玩偶;娃娃神;买票。这些人认为娃娃神具有超能力。Thai Smile Airways, which is a part of national carrier Thai Airways International, said in an internal memo that dolls with tickets will be served snacks and drinks, although they will be barred from sitting in exit rows. Owners who take dolls on the plane without tickets will have them treated as carry-on luggage.泰国国际航空公司旗下的泰国微笑航空公司在一次内部通知中提到,除了不得坐在紧急出口一排的座位,该公司也会为这些娃娃提供零食和饮料。而在飞机上没有为娃娃购票的主人,公司方面也会把这些娃娃当作随身携带的行李。The dolls known as Luk Thep, or Child Angels, have become increasingly popular in Thailand after several celebrities extolled their benefits.这些娃娃被称为Luk Thep或是天使娃娃,在泰国经过几个名人歌颂他们的好处之后,已经越来越受到欢迎。The dolls, which can sell for hundreds of dollars, are thought to possess the spirits of child angels and their owners pamper them with brand-name clothes and accessories due to the belief that a well-cared-for doll will bring good fortune.这些娃娃价格大约数百美元,被认为拥有天使的灵魂。此外,它们的主人因为相信一个受到很好照顾娃娃会带来好运,经常会给它们装扮上名牌衣和配饰。The memo from Thai Smile explains to staff that the Luk Thep dolls can be treated as children because they have undergone a ;spiritualization; process. In addition to being barred from exit rows, the dolls must also buckle up during take off and landing.泰国微笑航空公司的通告中向员工解释道,;娃娃神;要被当做小孩子一样务,因为它们已经经历了一次“精神化”的过程。除了被禁止坐在紧急出口,这些娃娃还必须在起飞和降落的过程中系上安全带。 /201602/425026Chinese online bookstores Amazon, Dangdang and Jingdong have released their best-seller lists for 2015, showing that The Secret Garden, an all the rage coloring book with only 264 characters, is the book most people spent money on in the past year.近日,中国网上书店亚马逊、当当和京东均发布了2015年畅销书排行榜。根据数据显示,《秘密花园》,这本仅有264个字但风靡一时的图画书,是过去一年里卖的最火的一本书。;Sales of The Secret Garden reached a million copies three months since it hit the shelves, and total sales in 2015 are more than 1.5 million,; Chen Lijun, manager at Dangdang#39;s publications devision, told Huaxi Metropolis Daily.当当网出版物事业部经理陈丽君告诉华西都市报记者,“《秘密花园》在上架后三个月内售出了一百万本,2015年的销售总额超过了150万。”;I think coloring is a good way to relax,; said Xiong Xin, a 27-year-old staff worker at a state-owned enterprise in Beijing who bought the book soon after it came out.《秘密花园》刚一出版,北京某国企27岁的职工熊信就购买了本书,他表示,“我觉得涂色是一种很好的放松方式。”The sold out popularity of the book, while not surprising, is quite accidental to some cultural critics - it is a byproduct of the growing young middle class#39;s endeavor to escape from work and life pressures.这本书的畅销不足为奇,但却意外的遭到了文化界的批评--这本书被认为是越来越多年轻的中产阶级努力想要逃避工作和生活压力的副产品。;The book is more about participation and recreation. Its popularity suggests that the book is becoming an alternative for the young middle class Chinese to let out pressure,; Peking University professor and cultural critic Zhang Yiwu told China Daily Website.北京大学教授、文化家张颐武在接受中国日报采访时表示,“这本书,更多的是参与和。其受欢迎程度表明,涂色书正在成为年轻一代中产阶级释放压力的选择之一。”Books concerning children, as last year, did not miss out among the top 10 - only that the focus shifted from children#39;s literature to children#39;s education. Such demands, came as no surprise as the country is encouraging more babies and the middle class Chinese#39;s interests in cultivating their children is on the rise.和去年一样,有关儿童的书籍在畅销书前十也榜上有名,只是重点从儿童文学转移到了儿童教育。随着国家鼓励生育,以及中国的中产阶级对孩子教育的兴趣上升,这类需求上升也在意料之中。Other trending books include those spurred by same name movies or dramas, such as Wolf Totem written by Chinese writer Jiang Rong, The Little Prince by French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and Ordinary World by Chinese writer Lu Yao.其他具有上升趋势的书籍包括那些受同名影视剧所推动的作品,比如中国作家姜戎所著的《狼图腾》,法国作家安东尼·德·圣艾修伯里的《小王子》和中国作家路遥的《平凡的世界》。The only economics and management book on the list is Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future, ranked second and fourth in Jingdong and Amazon#39;s selling lists respectively. The book, recommended by many worldwide CEOs including Facebook#39;s Mark Zuckerberg.名单上唯一的经济管理类书籍--《从0到1:开启商业与未来的秘密》,分别在京东和亚马逊的畅销书单中名列第二名和第四名。这本书,被包括Facebook 的CEO马克·扎克伯格在内的国内外众多高管所推荐。 /201601/422303If you don#39;t smoke or do drugs you may think you#39;re clear of bad habits. But what if you bite your nails or pop gum repeatedly? Bad habits aren#39;t addictions. They#39;re repetitive, negative behaviors that often start as coping mechanisms -- ways to reduce stress, relax and generally feel better. They aren#39;t generally dangerous, just annoying to those around you.也许你会认为,自己不抽烟不吸毒,就与不良习惯丝毫不沾边。但如果你没事就爱啃自己的指甲或者嚼口香糖吹泡泡呢?不良习惯并不是指对事物着迷上瘾, 而是一系列重复而负面的行为。它们起初是作为一种减轻压力、放松身心和提高个人舒适度的方式而存在。一般情况下,这些不良习惯并不会危害你的健康,只是会让你周围的人觉得很反感而已。So, how do you stop doing them? It#39;s not so easy. Habits can trigger the release of dopamine, a chemical that#39;s part of the brain#39;s reward system. You get positive reinforcement from your brain for performing these habits, so that compels you to keep going. In addition, researchers have found that habits form familiar neural pathways in your brain. If a behavior is routine, this frees your brain to concentrate on other things. That#39;s great if you#39;ve gotten into the practice of meditating each evening, but it can be bad news if you#39;re downing a pint of ice cream in front of the TV instead. We#39;ve got a list of 10 really hard habits to break and ways you might overcome them. And speaking of ice cream, let#39;s kick off our look with one that plagues most of us.那么,究竟如何才能改掉这些不良习惯呢?这真的很困难。这些习惯可以触发人体释放一种名叫多巴胺的化学物质,它是大脑“回报机制”的组成部分。在做这些习惯性动作时,你体验到快感增强,这又反过来促使你继续保持这一习惯。此外,研究人员发现习惯可以在大脑内构建熟悉的神经通道。当行为成为习惯之时,大脑就可以被解放出来去专注于其他事务了。如果你已经形成了每晚都要冥想的习惯,那太棒了;反之,如果你每晚在看电视时能不知不觉吞下一品脱(约0.58升)的冰淇淋,那可就太糟了。本文列举了10个最难改变的恶习以及可能克它们的方法。既然已经谈到了冰淇淋,那么我们就先来看看这个使绝大多数人都深受困扰的不良习惯。10.Snacking10.吃零食I mentioned eating ice cream at night because snacking is not only one of my bad habits; it#39;s my hardest one to break. If I chose to snack on nutritious foods like fruits and vegetables, it#39;d be one thing. But chips and ice cream call my name. So why do we snack, and why do we reach for the high-fat, high-sugar, high-calorie foods?在上文中我已经提到了晚上吃冰淇淋这一例子,这是因为吃零食不仅是我的众多不良习惯之一,更是最难改变的一个。如果我进食的是诸如水果和蔬菜这类有营养的食物,那便罢了;但问题是,薯条和冰淇淋总是在向我招手。那么,究竟我们为什么会吃零食?又为什么非要选择那些高脂,高糖,高热量的食物呢?One simple reason: Our brains tell us to because they make us feel good. Foods high in fat and carbohydrates raise our mood by producing neurotransmitters like serotonin and anandamide. Back in prehistoric times, when eating was all about survival, it made sense for your brain to reward you for seeking out high-caloric foods. These brain chemicals work with others like opioids that can relieve stress and even physical pain. But these are temporary effects; the negatives, like feeling sluggish and guilty or even gaining weight, aren#39;t worth it. For those times when you#39;re legitimately hungry between meals, the solution is to make sure you have satisfying foods on hand that will fill you up, like small amounts of nuts. If you find yourself mindlessly snacking in front of the TV, make a rule only to eat when you#39;re focused on your food. Look for other ways to make yourself feel better -- hanging out with a friend, going for a walk or watching your favorite show on TV. If only carbs will do, keep the serving as small as you can.其实原因很简单:大脑指挥我们如此,因为吃零食的感觉实在是太棒了!富含脂肪和碳水化合物的食物可以产生诸如五羟色胺和大麻素等神经递质,从而使我们的情绪高涨。回望史前时期,在饮食与生存息息相关的情况下,大脑自然会激励你寻找高热量的食物。这些脑神经化学物质与类鸦片活性肽等其他物质共同作用,可以起到缓解压力,甚至减轻生理性疼痛的作用。然而这些好处都只是一时的;若是因为吃零食使人萎靡不振,内疚不已,甚至引发体重增加等负面效果,那就得不偿失了。当然,在两餐之间会产生饥饿感是人之常情,解决方法就是保你手边有可以使你产生饱腹感的食物,比如少量的坚果。如果你发现自己有时百无聊赖地坐在电视机前,不假思索地吃着零食,你该考虑养成一个习惯:只有注意力放在食物上时,才吃东西。此外,你还可以寻找其他替代方法来使自己更加惬意——比如与朋友共度美好时光,出去散散步,或者看你最喜欢的电视节目。但如果只有碳水化合物才可以解你心忧,那么请尽可能地控制摄入量吧!9.Nail Biting9.啃指甲Biting your nails isn#39;t as unhealthy a habit as snacking, but it#39;s still a bad one. It#39;s embarrassing to have ragged, chewed nails. And since it#39;s a habit associated with anxiety, it can feel like people learn all about your mental state just by glancing at your hands.啃指甲并非像吃零食一样不健康,但这仍然是个坏习惯。被啃过的指甲周边参差不齐,看起来很不得体,试想如果在某个重要场合被人看到这样的指甲,将会多么难为情啊!而且由于啃指甲一般是焦虑所致,似乎人们只要扫一眼你的双手便能了解你的精神状态。Interestingly, the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association#39;s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifies nail biting as a body-focused repetitive behavior disorder, along with hair twirling and skin picking and relates them all to behaviors characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One big difference is that most people with OCD want to stop their practices because they don#39;t get any pleasure from obsessively lining up their shoes or washing their hands. Nail biters, on the other hand, usually find gnawing on their tips pleasurable and stress-relieving. While nail biting is not generally harmful, if you attack the cuticles you can risk bleeding and bacterial infection. One way to stop the habit is to keep your nails impeccably manicured, so you won#39;t want to ruin them. Some people put bitter-tasting polish or even a bandage on a finger to remind themselves to stop the biting and find something else to do.有趣的是,美国精神病学会出版的第五版《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》将啃指甲、抓头发和抠皮肤归为一种聚焦于躯体的重复性行为障碍症,并且认为这些症状都与强迫症的典型行为相互关联。二者最大的一个区别是,大部分强迫症患者都希望自己不再受那些习惯的困扰,因为他们无法从把鞋子排列得过度整齐或者过度清洁双手的过程中得到一丝一毫的快感。而恰恰相反,咬甲癖患者却常常很享受这个在指尖上啃咬的过程,这能让他们舒缓压力,心情愉悦。虽然啃咬指甲通常不会使人受伤,但如果你咬伤了指甲周围的皮肤,仍然会导致出血并可能造成细菌感染。戒掉这一恶习的一种方法就是定期精心修剪指甲,保持其整洁美观的状态,这样你就舍不得毁掉它们了。有些人会涂上苦涩的指甲油,甚至在手指头上绑上绷带,以此提醒自己停止啃指甲,并找些其他事情来忙活。8.Procrastinating8.拖延症I#39;ve put off this article because I work best under pressure! OK, not really. Although we often joke about procrastinating, it can be a really bad habit. Procrastinators sabotage themselves to avoid doing something that they don#39;t want to do. They#39;re the ones who cram all night for a test, routinely pay late fees for bills and buy gifts on the way to the party. The outcome is often poor test marks, wasted money and a late arrival at the event. It#39;s not about running out of time; it#39;s about failing to regulate behavior. It#39;s difficult to understand the motivation behind procrastination but here are some common reasons.“我之所以延期完成这篇文章,是因为在高压下我能做得更好”——拖延症患者常常这样安慰自己,但事实并非如此。虽然我们经常拿拖延症来调笑,但它确实是一个坏习惯。拖延症患者总会找出一些借口来避免做自己不想做的事情。他们往往会临阵磨,到了最后关头才为了应付考试通宵达旦;常常会因为拖延而缴付滞纳金罚单,抑或是在参加聚会的路上才开始准备礼物。这样做的结果往往就是考试成绩不如人意,浪费金钱,参加聚会迟到。造成这种局面的原因往往不是时间不够,而是拖延症患者无法规制自己的行为。人们很难弄懂拖延症背后的动机因素,但这里列举一些常见的原因:Fear of failure or success; Fear of making a bad decision; Seeking a pressure-fueled adrenaline rush; Rebelling against controlling parents or other authority figures. No matter what the reason, if procrastinating is a problem in your life, you have to be proactive. Set clear goals, with rewards if necessary, and imagine how great you#39;ll feel when you finally complete that project with time to spare. You might even consider enlisting somebody to keep you honest and check in with you on your progress. And you have to do it right now.对成败得失的恐惧;害怕做出错误的决定;寻求高压下肾上腺素激增的快感;反抗父母或者其他权威人士的控制;无论出于什么原因,如果你有拖延症,那就必须同时具有前瞻性。设定清晰的目标,有必要的话,也可以在自己达成目标后给予一定奖励,试想一下自己提前达成既定目标的满足感,那时你一定会如沐春风吧!你甚至可以考虑召唤小伙伴来监督你如实完成任务,同时记录你的进展情况。那么,还犹豫什么!此时此刻就开始行动吧!7.Swearing7.爆粗口When a character starts swearing on TV or in a movie, it can be pretty funny. But it#39;s often not so funny in real life. Many people consider swearing vulgar, low class and unprofessional. They see the swearer as lacking in self-control and unable to express himself properly.电视或者电影中的人物爆粗口是一件看似很有趣的事情,但这要是发生在现实生活中,就绝不是那么有趣了。很多人觉得讲脏话是一件低俗、没品且不道德的事情,他们认为那些随意爆粗的人缺乏基本的自控能力,不会用合适的方式来表达自己。On the positive side, swearing has been shown to calm a person down and let her express anger without hurting anybody. A British researcher found that swearing helped his subjects to bear pain better than those who said a neutral word. Swearing turned on the subjects#39; fight-or-flight responses, allowing surges in adrenaline. However, the researcher cautioned that swearing loses its emotional potency the more it#39;s done, lessening its ability to dull pain. That#39;s probably true of swearing in general – it has less potency the more you do it. One way to stop is through using a ;swear jar.; Put in a set amount of money every time you swear when you shouldn#39;t, and make it enough to hurt. Decide what you#39;re going to do with the money, and make it something that#39;s not fun, like putting it into your retirement account or paying off a debt. (Otherwise you#39;ve just given yourself a good reason to keep on swearing). You could also try substituting innocent words. Everyone will be laughing for real when you yell ;Suffering Succotash!; next time something goes wrong at work.从积极的层面来看,一个人爆粗时表明他想要冷静下来,他想在不伤害任何人的情况下通过咒骂来释放自己的怒气。一位英国的研究人员发现,爆粗的人比不爆粗的人能承受更多的痛苦,这是因为人在说脏话时会触发开启“还击——逃跑”反应机制,使得肾上腺素的分泌激增。但同时,研究人员也告诫人们:说脏话的次数越多,其调节情绪的功能就越差,减轻痛苦的功效也就会越弱。一般来说这多半是正确的——你咒骂的次数越多就越无济于事。停止说脏话的方式之一就是使用“爆粗处罚罐”,在你每次不该爆粗而爆粗时,就放入一笔数额不少、足够让你肉疼的钱。你还要考虑一下怎样使用这些钱,最好用它们来做一些无趣的事情,比如存入你的退休金账户或者用来偿还债务(否则你只是为自己可以继续爆粗找了一个绝好的理由)。你也可以尝试用委婉无害的语言替换掉爆粗时常说的一些话,当你下次在工作中遇到麻烦而大喊“苦难的豆煮玉米”时,同事都会被你逗乐的。6.Gum Snapping6.嚼口香糖Learning how to blow bubbles is one of those childhood rites of passage, like whistling or riding a bike. But by the time we reach adulthood, we#39;re not normally chewing bubble gum, but the kind that freshens breath. That gum isn#39;t ideal for blowing bubbles, so some people resort to snapping, or popping it instead. Much like nail biting or hair twisting, gum snapping can become an unconscious behavior used to relieve stress or boredom. However, there are some positives of gum chewing. Researchers found that it made people focus better on tests of mental agility for about 20 minutes. Maybe that#39;s why some people do it at work. The problem is, the endless popping sound can be so distracting for the people around you that they may be tearing their hair out or even complaining to their human resources manager.像吹口哨、骑自行车一样,学吹泡泡是童年时代必做的事。但长大之后,我们却不嚼泡泡糖,转而喜欢可以清新口气的口香糖。如果想要吹泡泡,口香糖并不十分理想,因此有些人就使劲嚼,让它们发出“嘣嘣”的声音。就像啃指甲、拧头发一样,嚼口香糖也会成为人们在释放压力或者打发无聊时光时的一种无意识行为。然而,嚼口香糖也并非一无是处。研究人员发现,这种行为在思维敏捷度测试中有助于人们提高注意力达20分钟以上。也许这就是为什么有些人在工作时喜欢嚼口香糖的原因吧。但问题在于,嚼口香糖带来的噪音很容易使你周围的人分心,会让他们抓狂甚至向人力资源经理投诉你。If you#39;re a gum-snapper, think about why you#39;re doing it and find a quieter way to deal with that emotion. If you#39;re worried about bad breath, stock up on mints or keep a toothbrush at work.如果你喜欢嚼口香糖,也许应该认真思考一下自己为什么会这样,然后最好找一个安静点儿的方式来处理你的情绪。如果你很担心自己口臭,那就在办公室放一把牙刷或放点儿薄荷糖吧。审校:落月 旭旭 前十网 /201602/424857

The Sima family were a celebrated, old-established, and wide-ranging family from Henei (now Wen County in Henan) commandery.三国时期,司马家族来自河内(今河南温县)封地,也是古老、有名望的大家族。Sima Yi’s elder brother Sima Lang had joined Cao Cao early in the civil war, and Sima Yi, who first held office at the puppet court of Han, followed his brother in 208 and served on the staff of Cao Cao* s headquarters.司马懿之兄司马朗早年跟随曹操东征西战,司马懿在汉朝供职,公元208年跟随曹操,作为曹操的军师与吴、蜀交战。In 217 Sima Yi became a member of the suite of Cao Pi , an Heir Apparent, and he was also evidently a personal friend of Cao Pi.公元217年成为太子曹丕的幕僚和私人好友。When Cao Pi came to the throne, Sima Yi received steadily higher appointments.曹丕就位后,司马懿官就高位。A few months after Cao Pi ’s death in 226,Sima Yi took command in the field for the first time, driving back a secondary attack of Wu against Xiangy-ang, and in the following year he was given responsibility for military affairs on the Han River.公元226年曹丕死后,由司马懿指挥前线战役,在襄阳打败了东吴军队。次年,独领军权督战汉水流域。Sima Yi proved to be an energetic and competent general. And during the rules of Cao Pi, Cao Rui and Cao Fang he held command in the south against Wu, against in the west Shu-Han and controlled the power of Wei government.因其卓越的军事政治指挥才能,连续辅佐曹丕、曹敷、曹芳三帝,对抗东吴和蜀汉。成为魏国的实权人物。In 251, Sima Yi left his position to his eldest son Sima Shi, then forty years old. Sirria Shi embarked on a series of raids and campaigns against Wu and the non-Chinese people of the north, but he achieved no breakthrough.魏嘉平三年(251)司马懿卒,其子司马师掌权,司马师当时40岁,他率兵开展了一系列的伐吴和北方的少数民族的的战役,但没有很大突破。By 254 the emperor Cao Fang and supporters of the Cao family were threatening Sima Shi. Sima Shi, however, struck first, deposed Cao Fang, and set his cousin Cao Mao on the thro-neinstead.公元254年,魏帝曹芳及其持者危及了司马师的地位,司马师先发制人,废曹芳,立其侄曹髦为帝。In 260, there was one further conspiracy to preserve the dynasty, in which the twenty-four-year-old Emperor took a leading role, but it was defeated in a short skirmish, and Cao Mao was killed in the fighting. He was replaced by the last in the line of puppets, Cao Huan, and Sima Zhao could now concentrate upon the conquest of Shu-Han.公元260年,24岁的魏帝曹髦发起了一场维权的斗争,经过短暂的激斗,曹髦被杀,由曹奂即位。By 264 victory in the west was complete, and Sima Zhao took title as King of Jin. In the autumn of the year Sima Zhao died, he was succeeded by his eldest son Sima Yan, then thirty years old.司马昭放心南下征伐蜀汉,公元264年,打败蜀后,自封为晋王,同年秋司马昭死,其子司马炎时年30岁即位。That winter, on 4th of February 266, Sima Yan received the abdication of Cao Huan and took the imperial title for himself and remained Luoyang as capital which was the Western Jin Dynasty in Chinese history.公元266年2月4日,司马炎废魏帝曹奂,改国号为晋,都于洛阳,这就是中国历史上的西晋王朝。So the final triumph of Wei over Shu-Han was also the occasion for the overthrow of the Cao’ s family and replacement by the Jin Dynasty of Sima Yan.蜀汉战争的胜利也是推翻曹氏家族、开始司马家族统治的历史。At an early stage of the civil war, the warlords were concentrated on establishing efficient governing system and recovering the development of agriculture.三国初期,各国主要致力于整顿吏治,恢复社会秩序和发展经济。A-mong them Wei, in the north, especially gained excellent results.其中以曹魏的成就比较突出。In about 196, Cao Cao established a number of “agricultural garrisons” (tuntian) in the neighbourhood of Xu Chang city, his chief headquarters. There was arable land nearby which had been abandoned by refugees and was available to the government. Therefore it was sensible and appropriate that surplus people should be allocated the empty fields.公元196年,从曹操统一北方、在许昌(魏都)推广屯田制,当时 有大量的土地因战乱而荒废,同时又有许多没有土地的流民,用这些人来开垦闲散的土地是明智之举。The distinctive point about the new system, however, was that the farmers maintained a direct relationship with the government, namely, they were granted supplies and material assistance, and that they returned a regular share of produce to the imperial granaries and treasury. This practice progressively recovered the agricultural development.这一制度的好处在于农民和政府有了直接的联系,政府补贴和持农民种地,农民向国家交粮、纳税,生产逐渐恢复。Meanwhile, Cao Cao reformed the bureaucratic practice since the Eastern Han, for example, he promoted people to important position on their merit#39; s rather than on their family background.同时曹操又改革了东汉以来的许多弊政,推举有能力的人来朝中做官而不是依靠家庭背景。As the chief minister of Kingdom of Shu, Zhuge Liang adhered to clear and strict laws and be fair and hard in meeting out rewards and punishment. He also worked hard to develop agricultural production in Sichuan. He appointed special officials in charge of the ancient Dujiang Weir and had many more water works built.蜀国丞相诸葛亮法治严格,纪律严明,赏罚分明,此外还派人负责都江堰和许多灌溉设施的修建。For years of these practices, the agriculture and handicraft industry were restored and thriving. The kingdom of Shu was strengthened.使蜀国农业和手工业逐步得到恢复和发展,国力增强。To secure a peaceful environment for the kingdom ,he took care to improve relations with the ethnic minorities inhabiting south west area(present-day Guizhou and Yunnan province) and therefore strengthened the ties between the Han people and these ethnic minorities.特别是诸葛亮招抚西南夷(今贵州、云南等地),使少数民族地区得到开发,加强了民族团结。The kingdom of Wu faced the most quick development of population after the land reclamation system and the building of irrigating works.吴国由于实行屯田和兴修水利,人口有很大增长。The Wu kingdom includes 43 cities and 313 counties which are far larger than that of in Han era and above all, Wu owned a powerful fleet and navy with the cultivating of farmland, the development of agriculture, Wu enjoyed a long period of tranquility.吴东南地区很快得到开发,共得43郡313县,比东汉时大大增强。吴国土地开辟,农业发展,政治稳定,航海业发达。The wars in Three Kingdoms period were different from the confusion wars at the end of the Han Dynasty in that the purpose of the war lied in the reunification of the imperial China .三国时期虽然仍有不断的战争,但已和东汉末期军阀混战的性质不同,是顺应民心所向的统一战争。Among the famous wars there are Jing battle between Shu and Wu, Hanzhong battle in which Shu and Wei counteracted each other, the battle of Wei vanquished Shu and Jin dethroned Wu.其中比较著名的有蜀、吴争夺荆州的战争,蜀、魏争夺汉中的战争,和魏灭蜀、晋灭吴的战争。Wei held the most formidable military strength among the three kingdoms, therefore committed the duty of reunification.三国的军事实力以魏国最强,因此统一战争的主要任务最后落在魏晋方面。In 280, when Sima Yan, the Emperor Wu of Jin, defeated Wu and unified China, three kingdoms eras ended.晋武帝太康元年(280),晋灭吴。至此,三国时代宣告终结。 /201512/415724

Imagine a time before the red carpet.想象一下红毯出现之前的世界。(Shock, horror, impossible — how did we ever get dressed in the morning? I know, it’s asking a lot to even contemplate, but bear with me.)(震惊,恐怖,不可思议——我们早上起来穿什么呢?我知道,光是想想就觉得很有压力,不过请允许我讲下去。)A time before paid brand ambassadors. A time when we were not schooled, every day, by social media and blogs and people pages and best-dressed lists to believe that how a celebrity looked while making a public and promotional appearance was the paradigm for how everyone should look. A time when fashion role models were not clothed by other people with agendas of their own and did not change their look with the change of a contract. A time when “street style” had not been co-opted by brands themselves, and people actually dressed in their own wardrobes, as opposed to a wardrobe lent to them for the express purpose of getting photographed in the course of their “real” staged lives.想想付费的品牌大使出现之前的那些年。那时,我们不是每天都接受社交媒体、客、名人主页和最佳着装榜的教育,认为名人公开亮相或进行宣传时的着装方式是每个人都应该效仿的典范。那时,时尚偶像们不是让其他人(他们有着自己的计划)来决定自己穿什么,在合同到期之前不敢改变自己的造型。那时,“街头时尚”还没有被品牌同化,人们真的是用自己衣橱里的装进行搭配,而不是用借来的衣在“真实的”舞台生活中让人拍照。A time when having your own style was an authentic and necessary goal, and the best way to achieve it was to study the women who had done it themselves. If you could find them.那时,拥有自己的风格是一个真实和必要的目标,而实现这一目标的最佳方式是研究那些已经实现目标的女人的做法——如果你能找到她们的话。As awards season looms, starting with the Gotham Independent Film Awards later this month and culminating more than 13 statuette ceremonies later with the Oscars, and we prepare to be inundated with a cascade of dress-like-this red carpet images, that time is worth revisiting.随着颁奖季的临近——先是本月底的哥谭独立电影奖(Gotham Independent Film Awards),高潮是将颁发超过13个小金人的奥斯卡奖颁奖礼(Oscars),我们已做好准备被一大堆“像这样着装”的红毯照片淹没——我们值得重温那个时代。How to do it, you ask? Get thee to a museum.你会问:怎么重温呢?去物馆喽。This month the Costume Institute at the Met and the Palais Galliera in Paris are unveiling shows dedicated to celebrating and showcasing the eyes and wardrobes of two different private women of extreme style: “La Robe Retrouvée: Les Robes-Trésors de la Comtesse Greffulhe” (“Fashion Regained: The Treasured Dresses of Countess Greffulhe”) at the Paris fashion museum, and “Jacqueline de Ribes: The Art of Style” at the Met.本月(11月),大都会艺术物馆(Met)时装学院(Costume Institute)和巴黎时尚物馆加列拉宫(Palais Galliera)正在举办两场展览,赞美和展示两位具有鲜明风格的不同女性的眼光和衣橱:巴黎时尚物馆举办的是“重新流行的时尚:女伯爵伊丽莎白·格雷菲勒的珍贵连衣裙”(Fashion Regained: The Treasured Dresses of Countess Greffulhe);大都会艺术物馆举办的是“杰奎琳·德里贝斯:时尚的艺术”(Jacqueline de Ribes: The Art of Style)。Is it a coincidence that two of the most important fashion institutions decided to curate directionally similar shows at about the same time? Possibly. Or perhaps it’s a reaction to the current ethos.这两家重要的时尚机构几乎在同一时间决定组织方向类似的展览,这是巧合吗?也许是。不过,这也可能是对当下社会风气的自然反应。“We always talk about the designers, but rarely about the clients,” said Olivier Saillard, director of the Galliera, explaining his choice. But, he said, “it is the clients that may have the most to teach us.”加列拉宫的馆长奥利维耶·萨亚尔(Olivier Saillard)在解释他的选择时说:“我们总是谈论设计师,但是很少谈论他们的客户,而最能教育我们的可能是那些客户。”About? “Not buying a lot, but filtering through fashion to find out what is right for you,” said Harold Koda, curator in charge at the Costume Institute. The two men were not speaking to each other (they weren’t even speaking the same language, and these statements are from entirely different discussions) but they were clearly on the same conceptual page.教育我们什么呢?“不要买很多衣,而是从时尚中筛选出适合自己的衣,”时装学院的策展主管哈罗德·科达(Harold Koda)说。他们俩不是在交谈(他们甚至说的不是同一种语言,他们的这些话来自毫无关联的对话),但他们的想法显然一致。The Met show, which has been in the works for eight years, since Mr. Koda and his fellow curator, Andrew Bolton, had lunch with Countess de Ribes in her Paris apartment, includes 60 outfits, primarily evening gowns, from the 1960s through the 1990s (before the ’60s, Mr. Koda said, Countess de Ribes gave most of her clothes to charity).大都会艺术物馆的展览已经筹划了八年,始于科达和策展同事安德鲁·尔顿(Andrew Bolton)在德里贝斯女伯爵的巴黎公寓里共进午餐之后。这场展览包括从20世纪60年代至90年代的60套装,以晚礼为主(科达说,德里贝斯女伯爵把60年代之前的大部分装捐给了慈善机构)。One of Truman Capote’s original swans, along with Gloria Vanderbilt and Marella Agnelli, Jacqueline de Ribes was famed for her Nefertiti-like profile, immortalized by Richard Avedon, and celebrated for her taste, often collaborating with the couturiers who dressed her so that her clothes would be, Mr. Koda said, labeled “Jacqueline de Ribes for Christian Dior under Marc Bohan.”杰奎琳·德里贝斯曾(和格洛丽亚·范德比尔特[Gloria Vanderbilt]和马雷拉·阿涅利[Marella Agnelli]一起)是杜鲁门·卡波特(Truman Capote)的灵感来源。她的侧脸酷似纳费提提(Nefertiti),理查德·埃夫登(Richard Avedon)为她拍摄的照片令她永垂不朽,她的品味得到人们的赞赏。她经常与为她设计装的设计师们合作,她的装因此被称为“马克·安(Marc Bohan)为迪奥(Christian Dior)设计的杰奎琳·德里贝斯牌装”。By 1982, she had her own eponymous clothing business (it closed in 1995), and as one of the first socialites-turned-designers, she paved the way for names like Carolina Herrera and Tory Burch. Her hallmark was, Mr. Koda said, a “kind of idiosyncratic exoticism” marked by saturated colors, rigorous lines, asymmetry and an appreciation for the power of a strategically placed ruffle.到1982年,德里贝斯已经拥有自己的同名装公司(1995年关门),作为第一批社会名流出身的设计师之一,她为Carolina Herrera和Tory Burch等品牌开辟了道路。科达说,德里贝斯的特点是“独特的异国风情”——饱满的色、精细的线条、不对称和设计巧妙的褶皱。The Galliera exhibition has 50 dresses from couturiers like Charles Frederick Worth, Fortuny and Jeanne Lanvin, which evolve from the lavishly embroidered and structured gowns of the turn of the century to looser, more flowing and feathered pieces, all of which once belonged to the woman who inspired the character of the Duchess of Guermantes in Marcel Proust’s “In Search of Lost Time.”加列拉宫的展览包括多位设计师设计的50件礼,比如查尔斯·弗雷德里克·沃思(Charles Frederick Worth)、福图尼(Fortuny)和让娜·朗万(Jeanne Lanvin),从20世纪初有着奢华刺绣和精致剪裁的礼发展为更宽松流畅轻盈的装——所有这些都曾经属于伊丽莎白·格雷菲勒。她是马塞尔·普鲁斯特(Marcel Proust)《追忆似水年华》(In Search of Lost Time)中盖尔芒特女公爵(Duchess of Guermantes)的原型。As to why … well, look to the clothes. Together the gowns are “about more than fashion,” Mr. Saillard said. “They are about a woman who built her own wardrobe to create an identity,” one that involved shaping not only the aesthetic tastes of her peers, but also their cultural and political values. The Comtesse de Greffulhe would “say to designers, ‘O.K., show me your whole collection — and now forget that, and do something else,’” Mr. Saillard said.至于为什么……呃,看看那些衣你就知道了。萨亚尔说,这些礼“不仅是关于时尚,而且是关于一个用自己的衣橱塑造身份的女人”,她不仅想塑造同龄人的审美品位,而且想塑造他们的文化和政治价值观。萨亚尔说,格雷菲勒女伯爵会“对设计师们说,‘好的,给我看看你的整个系列——现在忘了这个系列,做点别的’”。Pointedly, though the Comtesse de Greffulhe made sartorial waves almost a half-century before Jacqueline de Ribes, both exhibitions are marked by a palpable aesthetic consistency, a timelessness as opposed to a sense of trend, in part because their subjects dressed to please themselves, and to express themselves. Not to make an impact on mobile, or “pop” for the paparazzi.虽然格雷菲勒女伯爵几乎比杰奎琳·德里贝斯早半个世纪掀起装浪潮,但是这两场展览具有明显的审美一致性。它们具有永恒感,而非潮流感,一个原因是这两位女主人公选择装的出发点是让自己高兴,是为了表达自己,而不是为了在网上产生影响力,也不是为了“突然现身”让仔队拍照。“These were dresses made not to be shown, but to be worn,” Mr. Saillard said of the de Greffulhe wardrobe. Which is not to say the dresses are subtle or retiring (they can be, by contrast, notably dramatic), merely that they are purposeful.萨亚尔提到格雷菲勒的装时说:“这些衣的制作目的是穿着而非展示。”他的意思不是说这些衣保守过时(相反,有些非常引人注目),只是说它们具有目的性。Indeed, though Mr. Koda acknowledged that he had thought of it as the story of the life of a woman of leisure, complete with furniture and art. But when the countess (who is 86), said: “That’s not what I was about. From the time I was a child I resisted being put into that box. I wanted to create.” Clothes were simply the vehicle and the expression.的确,虽然科达承认,本来他把这看作一个关于富裕有闲阶层女人的生活的故事。但是这位女伯爵(今年86岁)说:“我不是那样的。我从小就拒绝被归入那一类。我想创造。”衣只是她的表达手段。“I could see the gowns she had made in the 1980s as part of a sensibility she had been developing all her life,” Mr. Koda said.科达说:“我可以把她在20世纪80年代制作的礼看作她一生都在探索的一种感情的一部分。”So there is, for example, a continuum between a shell pink sleeveless Guy Laroche evening column from 1962 with a fuchsia embroidered train (which also had a matching fuchsia embroidered coat, but the countess took the coat and combined it with assorted bits and pieces — short sable-trimmed sleeves and bouffant trousers made of tulle from a wholesale fabric seller — for a costume ball in 1969) and a shell pink one-shouldered Jacqueline de Ribes double-faced one-shoulder evening gown with an asymmetric ruffle framing the neck. And it is possible to see the same eye at work in a 1968 couture Yves Saint Laurent salmon jumpsuit with a cock feather ruff at the neck, and a black velvet Jacqueline de Ribes column with white spotted black feathers bristling around the throat from 1986.所以,我们能从很多装中看到一种延续性。比如,盖伊·拉罗什(Guy Laroche)1962年设计的带有紫红色刺绣裙裾的浅粉色无袖直筒晚礼(它还有一个配套的紫红色刺绣外衣,不过1969年,这位女伯爵用这件外套搭配各种小饰品——比如黑貂皮镶边短袖——以及用从面料批发商那里买来的薄纱做成的宽大裤子,参加一个化装舞会)和颈部装饰着不对称褶皱的浅粉色双面植绒单肩杰奎琳·德里贝斯晚礼。伊夫·圣罗兰(Yves Saint Laurent)1968年设计的浅橙色公鸡毛飞边高级定制连衫裤与杰奎琳·德里贝斯1986年设计的白斑点黑羽毛竖领黑天鹅绒直筒连衣裙,也有相通之处。“It requires a certain amount of discipline to say, ‘This is what’s good for me, this is who I am, and whatever trend is out there, I am only going to buy into to the extent I can use it to frame the best portrait of myself,’” Mr. Koda said. “This is all about the reality of a certain kind of life.”科达说:“一个人需要一定的自律精神才能说出这样的话:‘这是适合我的,这是我想要的。不管外面流行什么,我只会购买能用来展示最好的自我的装’。这是某一种人生的本质。”And though that kind of life, or both kinds of lives, may seem on the surface a relic of another age, the broader, more abstract lessons of each show — about choosing and thinking for yourself, about understanding the identity you create via clothes and the opportunities therein — are entirely contemporary. More timeless, even, than the dresses themselves.虽然那种生活,或者说那两种生活,似乎都存在于另一个时代的废墟之上,但是我们从这两场展览中所得到的更宽泛抽象的教益与当代生活十分相关——为自己而选择和思考,通过装塑造身份、创造机会。这些教益甚至比那些装更具有永恒意义。 /201511/410433

Blonde bombshells like Marilyn Monroe used to be regarded as the ultimate fantasy but now, according to a new survey, men are opting for edgy brunettes instead.玛丽莲·梦露那样的金发性感女郎曾是男人们的终极梦想;但根据一项最新调查,如今男士们更欣赏前卫的褐发美女。Dating website Match.com has released a set of findings gathered from their members, begging that age old question, what do men and women find most attractive about each other?交友网站Match.com发布了一系列调查结果,调查数据来自网站会员。该网站请他们回答了一个古老的问题,即对男性和女性而言,异性最吸引自己的特质分别是什么?Instead of the stereotypical Scandinavian blonde look, men are now demonstrating a preference for long brown locks, although blue eyes are still top of their list.男人们表示,他们喜欢的不再是传统的斯堪的纳维亚范儿的金发女郎的长相,而更偏爱拥有褐色长发的女性,虽然蓝眼睛仍是他们的最爱。With caring qualities also top of the list, the survey revealed that a profession as a doctor is most appealing among the male masses.懂得照顾人也是男士们最看重的品质之一,调查还显示,在男性群体中,职业为医生的女性对他们最具吸引力。Pairing brains with beauty, male members of the service said that their ideal woman also likes to go swimming to ensure her physique is toned and fit.不仅要兼具智慧和美貌,Match.com的男性会员们表示,他们心目中的理想女性还要喜欢游泳,以保持体格健美。And when she’s not busy playing with her stethoscope or splashing around in the pool this lady also makes time for her naughtier side, inking tattoos on concealed body parts.不去医院上班、也不在泳池畅游时,她还会腾出时间展现自己顽皮的一面,在比较隐蔽的身体部位纹身。According to this research celebrities like Sienna Miller, Cameron Diaz and Blake Lively are not in the wishlist any more and instead Megan Fox, Angelina Jolie and Zooey Deschanel fit the bill.根据这项调查,西耶娜·米勒(Sienna Miller)、卡梅隆·迪亚茨(Cameron Diaz)以及布莱克·莱弗利(Blake Lively )等明星已不在男人们的愿望清单上,而梅根·福克斯(Megan Fox)、安吉丽娜·茱莉(Angelina Jolie)以及佐伊·丹斯切尔(Zooey Deschanel)则满足了男人们的要求。The verdict for men was equally surprising as women don’t want chiselled abs like Ryan Gosling or Ryan Reynolds, they’d rather see a relaxed dad bod under the car bonnet.女性心目中的男神形象同样令人称奇,比起像瑞恩·高斯林(Ryan Gosling)或莱恩·雷诺斯(Ryan Reynolds)那样拥有轮廓鲜明的腹肌的男性,她们更愿意对方衣下面是松弛的老爸身材。Women too prefer brown hair and blue eyes, but men need to remember to keep it short. Longer locks like Johnny Depp, Jared Leto or Colin Farrell are a big no with the ladies.女性也钟意拥有褐色头发和蓝眼睛的男性,但男性得记住,别让头发太长。像约翰尼·德普(Johnny Depp)与杰瑞德·莱托(Jared Leto)那样的长发男性完全不是女生的菜。The survey didn’t however specify about the beard which, paired with a chunky knit cardigan, has become a popular look with celebrities like Chris Hemsworth, Kit Harington and Jake Gyllenhaal.克里斯·海姆斯沃斯(Chris Hemsworth)、基特·哈灵顿(Kit Harington)以及杰克·吉伦哈尔(Jake Gyllenhaal)等明星最近大爱蓄须搭配厚实针织衫的造型,不过该调查并未具体说明女性喜不喜欢这种样子。Women also expressed a preference for a suited and booted type, who works in an office and spends his free time with his dog. (Legend star Tom Hardy has got it right posing for pictures with pooches).女性们还表示,她们还喜欢衣着时尚得体、在办公室工作、业余时间会陪伴的男士。(出演《黑帮传奇》的明星汤姆·哈迪(Tom Hardy)跟小的合照正好迎合了上述心理。)This research is limited to the UK.该研究仅限于英国范围。 /201509/399268

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