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蒲江县妇幼保健院男科大夫四川成都市第九人民医院妇产科怎样Cosmic superhero Stephen Hawking never ceases to amaze his admirers. At the age of 72 he is the world’s most celebrated scientist and the ultimate symbol of triumph over adversity, as he celebrates five decades of intellectual achievement while living with motor neurone disease, which kills most patients within two or three years.“宇宙之王”斯蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)从未停止让他的崇拜者惊叹。72岁高龄的他不仅是在世最著名的科学家,而且是战胜逆境的终极象征。50年来,他在患有运动神经元疾病(MND)情况下取得了非凡学术成就,而这种疾病的患者大多在两、三年内死亡。This week Professor Hawking enjoyed the limelight at the London premiere of the latest film about his life, The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne. Last week he showed off a new communications system designed by Intel, which enables him to write and speak more efficiently — in his famous American android voice — by registering tiny movements of his cheek muscles.最近,霍金教授在《万物理论》(The Theory of Everything)伦敦首映式上成为公众瞩目的中心,这是最新一部刻画霍金生平的电影,由埃迪#8226;雷德梅尼(Eddie Redmayne)主演。更早些时候,他展示了由英特尔(Intel)设计的新通讯系统,通过捕捉他脸颊肌肉的微小抽动,这一系统使他能够更高效地写作和讲话——用他那著名的美国机器人的声音。At the same time Prof Hawking stirred up controversywith his views on artificial intelligence, which “could be a real danger in the not too distant future”, he told the Financial Times by email. “The risk is that computers develop intelligence and take over. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.”同时,霍金对人工智能的看法激起了争议。他在发给英国《金融时报》的电子邮件中说,人工智能“可能在不太遥远的将来给人类带来真正的危险”。“风险在于电脑开发并掌控智能。人类受到缓慢生物进化的限制,可能无法与之竞争,并被取代。”Lord Rees, astronomer royal and fellow cosmologist, first met Prof Hawking in 1964 when both were graduate students at Cambridge university. “He was aly unsteady on his feet and spoke with great difficulty,” recalls Lord Rees. “I learnt that he might not live long enough even to finish his PhD.英国皇家天文学家、宇宙学家里斯勋爵(Lord Rees)第一次见到霍金是在1964年,那时两人都是剑桥大学的研究生。“他已经无法站稳,而且说话也非常困难,”里斯勋爵回忆说。“我意识到他可能活不了多长时间,甚至可能无法完成他的士学位。”“Astronomers are used to large numbers,” he adds. “But few numbers could be as large as the odds I’d have given, back in 1964 when Stephen received his ‘death sentence’, against ever celebrating this uniquely inspiring crescendo of achievement sustained now for more than 50 years.”他说:“霍金早在1964年就接到了‘死亡判决书’,而他还可以庆祝这一至今逾50年、不断发挥独特的鼓舞人心作用的辉煌成就,放在当年我会认为出现这一结果的几率无比之小。”Prof Hawking’s scientific reputation rests on his work on the relationship between gravity, space and time. “He has done as much to advance our understanding of gravity as anyone since Einstein,” says Lord Rees.霍金在科学领域的声誉建立在他对重力、空间和时间关系的研究上。“他是继爱因斯坦之后,在加深我们对重力的理解方面贡献最大的人,”里斯勋爵说。His most celebrated research concerns black holes, concentrations of matter so dense even light cannot escape their gravitational pull. Prof Hawking showed black holes are not just a bizarre theoretical construct but also play an important role in the development of the universe. His eureka moment came in the early 1970s, when he realised that black holes would not be completely black but would emit what became known as “Hawking radiation”, a key concept in mathematical physics.他最著名的研究成果与黑洞有关。黑洞是超高密度的天体,连光都逃不过他们的引力。霍金告诉人们,黑洞不仅是一种奇怪的理论建构,而且在宇宙的进化中发挥着重要作用。他的“尤里卡时刻”在上世纪70年代初降临,当时他认识到黑洞并不完全是黑的,而是会发射出被称做“霍金辐射“的能量,这个词后来也成为数学物理领域的一个重要概念。Although his subsequent work has not had such a strong scientific impact, he has continued to publish research papers on quantum cosmology, tackling questions such as what happened before the birth of our universe. His later output is doubly remarkable in a mathematical subject where most researchers peak at an early age.虽然霍金之后的研究没再产生那么大的科学影响,但他不断地发表关于量子宇宙学的研究论文,力图解答诸如宇宙诞生前发生了什么之类的问题。他后来在一个数学课题上取得了卓越成果,而在这一领域,大多数研究者在年轻时就达到了顶峰。He became a celebrity in 1988 with the publication of his first popular book, the bestselling A Brief History of Time. Ten further books have appeared, including four written for children with his daughter, Lucy. “The concept of an imprisoned mind roaming the cosmos plainly gripped people’s imagination,” Lord Rees says.霍金在1988年因其第一本畅销书《时间简史》(A Brief History of Time)成为名人。之后,他又出版了10本书,其中4本是为儿童以及他的女儿露西(Lucy)所写。“一颗身体被禁锢的心灵在宇宙中漫游的想法显然激发了人们的想象,”里斯勋爵说。Prof Hawking enjoys his fame, happily filling lecture rooms from London’s Royal Albert Hall to the White House. He has featured in Star Trek, The Simpsons and many other television shows. Several films have been made about him, including a notable portrayal by Benedict Cumberbatch in 2004.霍金享受他的声誉,他高兴地发表演讲,从伦敦的皇家阿尔伯特音乐厅(Royal Albert Hall)到白宫的演讲厅都挤满了他的听众。他在《星际迷航》(Star Trek)、《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)和其他许多电视节目中出演过。已有多部关于霍金的电影问世,其中包括本尼迪克特#8226;康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch)在2004年塑造的著名形象。The best account of Prof Hawking’s early life is his memoir, My Brief History,published last year. He grew up just north of London, the son of Oxford graduates. After three laid-back undergraduate years, also at Oxford, serious work began as a Cambridge postgrad. His illness started at that point, too.对霍金早年生活最好的记录是他的回忆录——去年出版的《我的简史》(My Brief History)。他在伦敦北部长大,父母都是牛津大学毕业生。他同样在牛津念大学,度过3年悠闲的本科时光之后,他成为一名剑桥硕士生并开始了严肃的研究工作。他的病情也是在那时开始发展的。The Theory of Everything focuses on Prof Hawking’s marriage to Jane Wilde, who looked after him and their three children with extraordinary devotion for more than 25 years. They broke up under the strain of 24-hour medical care — and in 1995 he married Elaine Mason, one of his nurses. That, too, ended in divorce and since 2006 he has depended on a team of helpers — and the best medical technology available.新片《万物理论》着重刻画了霍金与简#8226;怀尔德(Jane Wilde)的婚姻,后者为照顾霍金和他们的3个孩子做出了超过25年的非凡奉献。但在24小时医疗护理的压力下,他们离婚了。1995年,霍金与照看他的护士之一伊莱恩#8226;梅森(Elaine Mason)结婚,但这段婚姻也以离婚收场。自2006年以来,霍金一直依靠一个助手团队和当今最先进的医疗技术生活。Prof Hawking retains a strong sense of fun and adventure, though respiratory problems are curtailing his ability to travel and in particular to fly.霍金依然对和冒险保持强烈的兴趣,尽管呼吸道问题限制了他旅行,特别是坐飞机。“He is a fantastic symbol for people living with motor neurone disease,” says Belinda Cupid, research director of the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association, with his role in the 2012 London Paralympics opening ceremony particularly inspiring. “As patron of our charity, he is very generous with his time.” Why Prof Hawking has lived so much longer than other MND patients remains a medical mystery, however.英国运动神经元疾病协会研究部主任贝琳达#8226;丘比特谈到霍金在2012年伦敦残奥会开幕式上特别鼓舞人心的作用时说:“他对患有运动神经元疾病的人来说是一个神奇的象征。”“作为我们慈善机构的赞助人,他付出了很多时间。”但是,为什么霍金可以比其他运动神经元疾病患者多活如此之久仍是个医学谜题。In the past 15 years Intel engineers have looked after his communications needs. “They have redesigned my software and incorporated new word prediction algorithms that allow me to write faster,” he says. “Through my computer I can write, talk, scientific papers, make Skype phone calls and search on the internet. Recently I decided to join Facebook .”在过去15年中,英特尔的工程师一直在关注他的通讯需求。“他们重新设计了我的软件,并加装了新的单词预测算法,让我可以写得更快,”霍金说。“通过我的电脑,我能够书写、讲话、阅读科学论文、拨打Skype电话以及在互联网上进行搜索。最近,我决定加入Facebook。”Important as Prof Hawking’s own research has been, his role as a beacon inspiring young people to study maths and physics may be even more influential in the long run, says Professor David Wands, director of Portsmouth university’s cosmology institute: “The iconic figure of Hawking the celebrity is impossible to disentangle from his profound contribution as a scientist.”朴茨茅斯大学宇宙学研究所所长大卫#8226;万兹(David Wands)教授说,与霍金教授自己所做的研究同样重要的是,从长远来看,他作为鼓舞年轻人学习数学和物理的一盏明灯可能会发挥更大的影响。“霍金作为一个名人的偶像形象不可能脱离他作为一个科学家的巨大贡献。” /201412/349711内江市中医院割包皮 While some dams in the ed States and Europe are being decommissioned, a dam-building boom is underway in developing countries. It is a shift from the 1990s, when amid concerns about environmental impacts and displaced people, multilateral lenders like the World Bank backed away from large hydroelectric power projects.美国和欧洲废弃一些大坝时,发展中国家却掀起了兴建大坝的热潮。上世纪90年代的趋势发生了重大改变,当时由于担心影响环境和居民流离失所的问题,世界(World Bank)等多边借贷机构都开始回避大型水电项目。World hydropower production will grow from 4,000 terawatt hours now — about the annual power output of the ed States — to 4,670 terawatt hours in 2020, according to Maria van der Hoeven, executive director of the International Energy Agency, in Paris. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that hydropower generation will double in China between 2008 and 2035, and triple in India and Africa.总部位于巴黎的国际能源署(International Energy Agency,简称IEA)的总干事玛丽亚·范德胡芬(Maria van der Hoeven)表示,到2020年,全球水力发电量将从现在的4万亿千瓦时——大约相当于美国一年的发电量——提高到4.67万亿千瓦时。政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)预测,中国的水力发电量在2008至2035年间会翻一番,印度和非洲的水力发电量将会增加两倍。The World Bank and other international lenders were the most important financiers of large dams before the ’90s lull. But although the World Bank has in recent years increased its investment in hydropower from a low of just a few million dollars in 1999 to about .8 billion in 2014, it still funds only 2 percent of hydropower project investment today.世界及其他国际借贷机构曾是水坝项目最重要的资助者,但它们从20世纪90年代以来减少了投资。虽然近年来,世界又增加了对水力发电项目的投资,从1999年的数百万美元,提高到了2014年的18亿美元(约合110亿元人民币),但该的投资金额在水电项目的整体投资规模中只占2%。Picking up the slack are national development banks from emerging countries such as China, Brazil, Thailand, and India, and private investors. Public-private partnerships are on the rise, generally with the support of regional development banks.其余资金则来自中国、巴西、泰国、印度等新兴国家的国家开发,以及私营部门投资者。公私合作的模式也在不断发展,而且一般受到地区开发的持。“Who benefits from these infrastructure projects?” asked Jason Rainey, executive director of the anti-dam group International Rivers, in Berkeley, Calif.总部设在加利福尼亚州伯克利的国际河流组织(International Rivers)反对建造大坝,该组织的执行主任贾森· 雷尼(Jason Rainey) 问道,“谁会从这些基础设施项目中获益?”Some well-documented answers: The Xayaburi Dam in Laos will sell power to Thailand, while threatening the subsistence livelihoods of people who have long lived along the Mekong River; the Inga 3 dam in the Democratic Republic of Congo will sell power to mining companies and to South Africa, rather than to the 96 percent of Congolese who lack access to electricity.以下是一些众所周知的:老挝的沙耶武里水坝(Xayaburi Dam)将向泰国售电,但对那些长期生活在湄公河沿岸的民众的生计造成了威胁;刚果民主共和国的英加三期(Inga-3)水电大坝的供电对象是矿业公司和南非,而不是刚果民众,96%的刚果人用不上电。A 2012 report from International Rivers found that Chinese companies or financiers were involved in 308 dam projects in 70 different countries, many in Southeast Asia, but also some in Africa, Latin America and Pakistan. Aside from supplying electricity to investing countries, projects can also offer a type of vertical integration to power funders’ industrial projects, such as mining or smelting. “China isn’t the only one working this model,” Mr. Rainey said: “The Brazilian Development Bank has financed more dam projects in Latin America than the Inter-American Development Bank. India is investing in hydropower in Nepal and Bhutan.”国际河流2012年发布的一份报告指出,中国公司或投资方参与了70个国家的308个大坝项目,其中有很多在东南亚,但也有一些地处非洲、拉丁美洲和巴基斯坦。除了为投资国供电,大坝项目还会为投资者的工业项目,比如采矿或冶金项目,提供了一种垂直整合的模式。“中国不是唯一采取这种模式的国家,”雷尼说。“巴西开发(The Brazilian Development Bank)在拉丁美洲资助的大坝项目比美洲开发(Inter-American Development Bank)多。印度也正在尼泊尔、不丹投资水力发电项目。”Nancy Alexander, director of the Economic Governance Program for the Heinrich B#246;ll Foundation, a public policy institute in Berlin, said she attributed this trend partly to a Group of 20 initiative that prioritized infrastructure investment as a path to economic stability.柏林的公共政策研究机构海因里希·伯尔基金会(Heinrich B#246;ll Foundation)的经济管理项目(Economic Governance Program)主任南茜·亚历山大(Nancy Alexander)表示,她将这种趋势部分归因于20国集团提出的一项计划,即优先考虑基础设施方面的投资,以此作为一种促进经济稳定的方式。The initiative encourages joint financing by multilateral development banks and other sources. A World Bank report on hydropower this year said that the bank now “typically acts as a ‘convener,’ bringing other financiers to the table.” It said that over the past five years, the World Bank Group had funded about half of the costs of projects that it financed, with the balance coming from host country governments, the private sector and other development banks.该计划鼓励多边开发及其他机构共同提供资金。世界今年发布了有关水力发电的报告,称该现在“通常是充当‘召集人’,招揽其他投资方提供融资”。报告称,在过去五年中,世界集团提供的资金,在其资助项目耗费的成本中占了大约一半,其余资金则来自项目所在国政府、私营部门,及其他开发。Ms. Alexander said the problem with this model is that it “derisks” mega-projects for the private sector and draws in institutional investors like pension funds and mutual funds. “Very often this means privatizing profits and outsourcing risks to the public,” she said.亚历山大表示,这种模式的问题在于,它消除了私营部门投资大型项目的风险,还吸引养老基金、共同基金等机构投资者进行投资。她说,“这通常意味着利润私有化,将风险推给公众。”Those risks can be both significant and hidden, she added. Project backers may cite national security or business confidentiality to avoid sharing information with the public.她还表示,这些风险可能会非常大,并且很隐蔽。项目投资者可能会以国家安全或商业机密为由,不向公众披露信息。National development banks such as the Brazilian Development Bank, China Development Bank and the Development Bank of Southern Africa “have abysmal records in terms of transparency and in terms of social and environmental safeguards,” Ms. Alexander said.各国的开发,比如巴西开发、中国开发,以及南部非洲开发(Development Bank of Southern Africa),“在社会影响和环境保护方面的透明度,一直都极其糟糕,”亚历山大说。The reduced involvement of global institutions allows countries to ignore international concerns. Although international backers have pulled out, for example, public-private funding has permitted Turkey to go ahead with its Ilisu Dam on the Tigris, defying Unesco’s objections that it would flood Hasankeyf, a town with 10,000 years of history. Turkish dam projects have also played a role in drying out Iraqi wetlands downstream and exacerbating tensions in Syria.全球性机构的参与减少了,各国就可能会无视国际社会的关切。比如,土耳其在底格里斯河上修建伊利苏大坝(Ilisu Dam)的项目,由于水位将淹没已有1万年历史的古城哈桑凯伊夫,而受到了联合国教科文组织(Unesco)的反对。尽管国际投资方已经撤出,但来自公共部门和私营部门的资金,却仍在推动这个项目继续进行。土耳其的一些水坝项目也在一定程度上导致处在下游的伊拉克湿地干涸,并加剧了叙利亚的紧张局势。Yet, although dam investment is coming from diversified sources, activist organizations still look to the World Bank to set the standard for environmental and social protections. At the World Bank’s annual meetings this autumn, 318 civil society organizations from 98 countries criticized its proposal for a new environmental and social framework, saying it would weaken existing safeguards. Among other things, they said, it would undermine the rights of indigenous people and of those displaced by projects, fail to protect workers or guarantee human rights and not meaningfully address climate change.然而,尽管大坝投资的来源日趋多元化,但倡导组织仍然期待世界能设定社会影响和环境保护的标准。今年秋天,在世界年度会议上,来自98个国家的318个民间团体,对该机构提出的一个新的环境和社会框架表达了批评,称这会削弱现有的保护措施。他们提出,这会损害原住民的权利、损害因项目而流离失所的居民的权利。该框架也未能保护工人、保障人权,并未有意义地应对气候变化问题。“They have a lot of weasel language that softens and dampens safeguards,” Mr. Rainey said.雷尼说:“提案中有很多狡猾的措辞,软化并削弱了保障性的条文。”Amy Stilwell, a spokeswoman for the World Bank, said the proposal was just a starting point. A second phase of consultations, including those with the petitioning groups, will begin soon, with a second draft expected in 2015, she said.世界发言人艾米·斯迪威尔(Amy Stilwell)说,该提案只是一个起点。她表示,该机构很快就会开始第二阶段的咨询,包括与请愿团体磋商,第二稿预计于2015年完成。Part of the reason dams are back in favor, despite ongoing concerns, is the increasing awareness of climate change and the need for cleaner energy sources, said Ken Adams, president of the International Hydropower Association, an industry group based in London. Hydropower can also balance the electricity load and store energy to support intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, he said.国际水电协会(International Hydropower Association)是一个总部设在伦敦的行业团体,其主席肯·亚当斯(Ken Adams)说,尽管关于水坝的担忧一直存在,但由于人们对气候变化日益重视,也需要更清洁的能源,兴建水坝又受到了青睐。而且水电还可以平衡电力负荷、储存电量,为风能、太阳能等间歇性的可再生能源提供持,他说。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change supports hydropower to slow climate change, calling it a “proven, mature, predictable technology,” in a 2011 report.IPCC持用水电来减缓气候变化。在2011年的一份报告中,IPCC称,“它是已获得事实明的、成熟的、可预测的技术。”Hydropower’s reputation for low emissions, however, has come under scientific scrutiny in recent years. Reservoirs behind dams flood vegetation, which decays, releasing methane and soil carbon. A 2012 study, in the journal Nature Climate Change, concluded that “emissions from tropical hydropower are often underestimated and can exceed those of fossil fuel for decades.”然而,近几年来,水电“排放量低”的说法遭受了科学上的挑战。大坝背后的水库会淹没植被,使之腐烂,释放出甲烷和土壤碳。2012年,《自然·气候变化》(Nature Climate Change)杂志发表了一项相关研究,其结论是,“热带水电站的排放量常常被低估,它们可能在长达几十年的时间里,超过化石燃料的排放量。”The study emphasized that the effect is more pronounced in tropical ecosystems. Yet hydropower is typically presumed to be emission-free, Mr. Rainey said. “There is no mechanism within dam sanctioning processes, or any of the funding models, that methane emissions be monitored in dam projects,” he said, adding that even carbon market instruments such as the Clean Development Mechanism help to fund large dams without considering their carbon footprints.这项研究强调,在热带生态系统中,这种效应会更加明显。雷尼表示,人们通常认为水电不会有碳排放。“在水坝审批手续和融资模式中,都没有监测水坝项目中甲烷排放量的机制,”他说。即使是碳市场工具,比如“清洁发展机制”(Clean Development Mechanism),也在帮助大型水坝融资,却并没有考虑它们的碳足迹。Mr. Adams said his association’s voluntary standards could offer a solution. Its Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, drafted with input from various stakeholders, including the World Bank, provides a framework for hydropower developers to monitor and benchmark their projects. William Rex, a hydropower specialist at the World Bank said: “We see it as a really useful tool.”亚当斯说,他所在的协会提出的自愿性标准可以提供一种解决方案。这套标准名为“水电可持续性评估规程”(Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol),由多个利益相关方起草,其中包括世界。这套规程提供了一个框架,供水电开发方监测自己的项目,并进行基准比较。世界的水电专家威廉姆·雷克斯(William Rex)说:“我们认为这是一种非常有用的工具。”Mr. Adams said his association would like to see financial institutions encourage borrowers to use it. “Any energy source is going to have its good side and downside,” said Mr. Adams. “But I believe that if done intelligently and appropriately, the downsides to hydro projects can be managed.”亚当斯表示,协会希望看到各大金融机构鼓励借款方使用该规程。“任何能源都有利有弊,”亚当斯说。“但我相信,如果明智而适度地开发,那么水利工程带来的负面影响是可以控制的。” /201412/346223成都第五冶职工医院治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱

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