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蒲江县妇幼保健院收费标准青白江区妇科医院哪家好When it comes to difficult government jobs, few are as tricky as the one held by Xie Zhenhua, China’s chief negotiator on climate change.说到政府部门的职位,很少有比中国在气候变化问题上的首席谈判代表解振华的工作更棘手的。On the day he agrees to meet the Financial Times, in a room the size of a basketball court near his office in the country’s economic planning ministry, the air outside is “unhealthy”. At least, that is what it says on the smartphone air quality apps people in Beijing check as obsessively as Londoners watch weather forecasts.不久前,解振华同意接受英国《金融时报》的采访,地点安排在他在中国发改委的办公室附近一间篮球场大小的房间里。当天户外的空气质量为“不健康”;至少,智能手机上的空气质量应用是这么说的。北京市民对此类应用的痴迷程度,不亚于伦敦人对天气预报的重视。Much of the smog comes from cars but it also drifts in from the coal-powered plants that have helped propel China’s economy into second place after the US – and turned it into a carbon dioxide polluter like no other.大量雾霾来自汽车尾气,但燃煤电厂也是来源之一。这些电厂推动中国成为仅次于美国的第二大经济体,也将这个国家变成世界头号二氧化碳排放国。China’s hunger for coal meant it pumped out almost 10 gigatons of CO2 in 2012, more than the US and the EU combined and nearly a third of the global total. Despite its 1.3bn population, China’s emissions per head are higher than those of France, Italy and Spain and nearly equal to the EU average.中国对煤炭的巨大需求意味着,它在2012年排放了近100亿吨二氧化碳,超过美国和欧盟(EU)的总和,占全球总排放的近三分之一。尽管拥有13亿人口,但中国的人均排放量仍高于法国、意大利和西班牙,几乎等于欧盟平均水平。This makes Mr Xie’s position difficult. For most of the past decade, the 64-year-old engineer has represented China in the international climate talks launched nearly 20 years ago to curb emissions of CO2 , the main man-made greenhouse gas scientists say is warming the atmosphere to potentially dangerous levels.这让解振华的处境很困难。在过去10年的大部分时间里,这位现年64岁、工程师出身的官员代表中国参加国际气候谈判。这些谈判于近20年前启动,目的是遏制二氧化碳排放。二氧化碳是主要的人为制造的温室气体,科学家称,它正使大气层的温度升至潜在危险的水平。Those talks have failed to stop the fastest rise in emissions on record over the past decade, due in large part to China, which has resisted outside pressure to rein in carbon pollution.谈判未能阻止排放量在过去10年创下有记录以来最快的增速。这在很大程度上要归因于中国,中国一直在抵制外界要求其控制碳排放污染的压力。Mr Xie has been known to bang the odd table in climate talks when confronted with what he felt were unrealistic demands from other countries. But now, he says, the pollution visible each day outside his windows is forcing China to change regardless of what the outside world wants.在气候谈判中,如果解振华认为其他国家提出了过分的要求,他有时会拍桌,这让他出名。但现在他表示,窗外天天可见的污染,正在迫使中国做出改变——无论外国提出什么样的要求。“It’s fair to say the smog issue and climate change issue are caused to some extent by the same source,” he says. “The smog has pushed us to make greater decisions to accelerate the transformation of our development and living model, and transform the economic, industrial and energy structure.”“不夸张地说,雾霾问题和气候变化问题在一定程度上是相同来源造成的,”他表示,“雾霾促使我们做出更重大的决定,加速转变发展和生活模式,转变经济、工业和能源结构。”In other words, China wants to build on what Mr Xie describes as the “tremendous efforts” aly made to replace coal power with cleaner energy sources as its economy matures and becomes less reliant on heavy industry. The question is whether China is willing, or even able, to make such changes in time to prevent global temperatures warming to potentially risky levels.换言之,随着中国经济日渐成熟和降低对重工业的依赖,它希望在解振华所称的用更清洁能源代替燃煤发电的“巨大努力”基础上,更上一层楼。问题在于,中国愿不愿意(或者能不能够)及时做出改变,阻止全球气温升至潜在高风险的水平?Mr Xie bristles at the question. “Sometimes the international community wonders whether China will take real action,” he says. “There should be no question on this issue. China will definitely take action, not only in terms of protecting people’s livelihoods and health but also making a contribution to global climate-change efforts.”对于这个问题,解振华面露愠色。“国际社会有时候怀疑中国会不会采取切实行动,”他表示,“这件事应该是不存在问题的。中国肯定会采取行动,不仅是为了保护人民的生命财产和健康,也要为全球应对气候变化的努力做出贡献。”It is true that China is taking astonishing strides to switch from coal to cleaner forms of power. Of the 94 gigawatts of new generating capacity it installed last year, almost 60 per cent was renewable. That included more than 11GW of solar, enough to power a small Chinese city and more than any country has built in a single year.没错,中国正在迈出惊人的大步,从燃煤发电转向更清洁的发电方式。去年中国新增的9400万千瓦发电装机容量中,近60%使用可再生能源。这其中包括超过1100万千瓦的太阳能,足以为中国的一座小型城市供电,并且高于其他任何国家一年的新增装机容量。Solar, wind and hydropower now account for nearly a third of its installed electricity generating capacity, compared with less than 15 per cent in the US. It is also piloting emissions trading systems that could lead to a national carbon market by 2020.目前,太阳能、风电和水电占中国发电装机总量的近三分之一,而美国的这一比例不到15%。中国还在进行排放交易系统的试点,有望到2020年建立全国性的碳市场。But its addiction to coal is far from over. Fossil fuels, mostly coal, still make up nearly 70 per cent of its power generating capacity. Although it plans to boost sharply its nuclear and renewable power, it is also expected to add 248GW of coal capacity between now and 2020, according to IHS, the consultancy – equal to about three new coal plants every month.但中国对煤炭的依赖还远未结束。化石燃料(主要是煤炭)仍占发电能力的近70%。尽管中国计划大幅增加核电和可再生能源发电的比重,但咨询机构IHS表示,预计2020年前中国也将新增24800万千瓦的燃煤发电装机容量,相当于每月新建约三座燃煤电厂。Other factors underline the im#173;mense scale of the challenge China faces as it tries to wean itself off the coal choking its cities. Hydropower dams are by far is main source of renewable energy but cannot be ex#173;panded infinitely. Nuclear power is ex#173;pensive. The country’s shale gas industry is in its infancy. Coal is not just cheap – it is ingrained in an economy that is the world’s workshop.燃煤让中国的城市乌烟瘴气。但在中国试图摆脱对煤炭的依赖之际,其它一些因素突显中国面对的巨大挑战。水电大坝目前是中国遥遥领先的最主要可再生能源,但不可能无止境地建设下去。核电成本高昂。中国的页岩气行业仍处于发展初期。煤炭不仅廉价,在身为世界工厂的中国经济中,煤炭也根深蒂固、盘根错节。Interviews with officials and advisers working on energy and climate policies suggest China has something in common with St Augustine, who prayed for chastity but not yet.对能源和气候政策领域的官员和顾问的采访似乎表明,中国与圣奥古斯丁(St Augustine)有共同之处。后者曾祈祷:“赐予我贞洁吧,但不是现在。”Yes, it wants to reduce its emissions, but perhaps not as fast as climate science might dictate.没错,中国希望减少排放,但它或许不想以气候科学可能要求的速度迅速减排。Despite 30 years of remarkable economic growth, China still has almost 100m people living below the national poverty line of Rmb2,300 a year, or less than 0. The idea that it should cut its emissions as fast as western countries before it achieves a comparable standard of living remains deeply unpopular. “China is not Chad,” says Mr Xie, referring to one of the world’s poorest countries. “But on the other hand, China is not the US, the EU or even Japan.”虽然30年来中国的经济增长令人瞩目,但中国仍有近1亿人生活在每年2300元人民币(不到400美元)的国家贫困线以下。中国应当在实现与西方可比的生活水平之前像西方那么快地减排——这种观点仍极不受欢迎。“中国不是乍得,”解振华提到的乍得是世界最贫穷的国家之一,“但另一方面,中国也不是美国、欧盟或日本。”Those countries’ emissions peaked when per capita GDP was ,000 to ,000, and sometimes as much as ,000, he says, yet the figure in China is still around ,000.他表示,这些国家的碳排放在人均GDP达到1万至1.5万美元(一些情况下甚至是3万美元)时达到顶峰,而中国的人均GDP还在6000美元左右。So what does China really want? Part of the answer may come in September when heads of state are expected to spell out how they plan to tackle climate change at the UN.那么,中国真正想要的是什么?今年9月各国首脑在联合国(UN)阐述各自的气候变化对策时,我们或许将看出一些眉目。The event has been designed to focus attention on the international climate negotiations, which are due to produce a global deal on tackling carbon emissions late next year in Paris.按计划,此次联合国会议将重点关注国际气候谈判。此轮谈判定于在明年后期的巴黎气候大会上达成应对碳排放的全球协议。China has said it will cut the amount of carbon it produces as a proportion of GDP by at least 40 per cent from 2005 levels by 2020. This is a far cry from the absolute cut in emissions offered by the EU, the US and other industrialised economies.中国表示,到2020年,其碳排放与GDP的比例将至少比2005年水平降低40%。比起欧盟、美国和其他工业化国家提出的排放量绝对值削减,中国的目标相去甚远。China’s position is understandable, says Prof Detlef van Vuuren of the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, who was also an author of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report.但政府间气候变化问题小组(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)最新报告的作者之一、荷兰环境评估局(PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency)的德特勒夫#8226;范维伦(Detlef van Vuuren)表示,中国的立场可以理解。China’s economy is growing much faster than that of European countries, “so for us it is much easier to reduce emissions in an absolute sense”, he says.他表示,中国经济增长远远快于欧洲国家,“所以对我们来说,削减排放量绝对值要容易得多。”That raises the question of when China’s emissions are likely to peak, either naturally or with policy effort.这就带出了一个问题:中国的排放量何时将见顶(自然或是受政策努力的影响)?The Dutch agency recently took part in a sweeping study that tried to answer this question using a range of climate-economy models. Most suggested that without more stringent policies, emissions would keep rising until at least 2050.荷兰环境评估局近期参与了一项大范围的研究,该项研究借助一系列气候-经济模型来尝试回答这个问题。大多数模型似乎显示,若没有更严厉的政策,排放增长将至少延续至2050年。They showed the most cost-effective way of stopping global temperatures rising more than 2C from pre-industrial times – a threshold some scientists say should not be breached – is for China’s emissions to peak shortly after 2020. Temperatures have aly risen by nearly 1C.这些模型表明,若要阻止全球气温升高到比工业化之前时期高出2摄氏度(一些科学家称,不应突破这一门槛)的水平,成本效益最好的办法是让中国的排放量在2020年后不久见顶。全球气温已经比工业化之前升高了近1摄氏度。Action could be delayed beyond 2030 but this would be more costly because it would require deeper emissions cuts later. Could China stop its emissions rising as early as 2020?行动可以推迟到2030年以后,但代价将更为高昂,因为那将要求对排放量进行更大幅度的削减。中国能否在2020年就阻止排放量继续上升?The influential Beijing think-tanks and institutes that advise ministries such as the National Development and Reform Commission, where Mr Xie is vice-chairman, have been working on an assessment of a likely peaking period.北京一些具有影响力、为国家发改委(解振华担任副主任)等政府部门提供建议的智库和研究机构一直在评估排放量可能在何时见顶。The findings may be y in time for the September summit but there is still plenty of disagreement about a realistic peaking date, according to analysts working on the topic.到9月份联合国峰会时,研究结果可能已经出炉。但研究这一课题的分析人士表示,各方对于现实的见顶日期还存在不少分歧。“Frankly, we have a very broad range of projections,” says Zou Ji of China’s National Centre for Climate Change Strategy. “Xie and Su Wei [Mr Xie’s negotiating colleague in the climate talks] ask us again and again, which figure is more reliable and more reasonable?”“坦白地说,我们预测的结果区间很大,”中国国家气候变化战略中心的邹骥表示,“解振华和苏伟(与解振华一同出席气候谈判的代表)三番五次问我们,哪一份数据更可靠、更合理?”The trouble is there are enormous problems to consider, he says. “People say: ‘Oh, coal is so dirty, let’s shut down the coal mines.’ But on the other hand we also see a very rapid increase in demand for electricity and it seems we cannot stop that.他表示,困难在于要考虑许多严峻的问题。“人们说:‘哎,煤炭太脏了,把煤矿关掉吧。’但另一方面,我们发现用电需求迅速增加,看上去也无法阻止这一势头。“Furthermore, we also see over 10m employees in coal factories. If we shut down some of the coal mines, how will those unemployed workers be addressed with a very weak social security system?”“此外,煤企雇佣着1000多万人。如果我们关闭一些煤矿,考虑到社会保障体系十分薄弱,失业工人应当如何安排?”Small wonder that Fuqiang Yang, senior climate and energy adviser at the Natural Resources Defense Council, a US group that operates in China, says the emissions-peaking debate has been fraught. “The first study five years ago said China’s emissions peak will be in 2035. Many Chinese government officials said ‘Why did you say that? It’s too soon’#8202;”难怪在中国开展研究项目的美国自然资源保护委员会(Natural Resources Defense Council)的气候与能源高级顾问杨富强表示,围绕碳排放何时见顶的辩论一直问题重重。“五年前的第一项研究称,中国的排放量峰值将在2035年到来。许多中国政府官员表示‘为什么这么说?太早了。’”He Jiankun of China’s Tsinghua University is one of the most senior advisers on climate change and has spent months trying to balance the myriad unknown variables that go into calculating China’s likely emissions peak.中国清华大学的何建坤是气候变化问题上最为资深的顾问之一,最近他花费数月时间权衡大量未知变量,计算中国排放量可能见顶的日期。These include how much its growing economy will slow down in the coming decades; what the energy mix will be and how much more efficient the industrial and transport structure will become.这些变量包括:中国增长中的经济在未来几十年将以多大的幅度放缓;未来的能源结构将是什么样的;以及工业和交通的效率将提高多少。It is a tough calculation in a planned economy that rarely performs according to the plan.对于中国这样很少按计划运行的计划经济,估算的难度很大。He figures the peak will be around 2030, based on the idea that economic growth will gradually slow to about 5 per cent a year, that more of China’s energy will be generated from low-carbon sources and that it will be able to reduce the amount of pollutants generated per unit of GDP by 3.5 per cent every year for the next 16 years.他估计,峰值将在2030年前后出现,依据是中国经济年增速将逐渐降至5%左右,中国更多能源产出将来自低碳来源,以及中国能够在未来16年将单位GDP产生的污染物每年降低3.5%。Any number of Prof He’s calculations are open to disagreement. Just discussing whether China’s one-party system can sustain an economic slowdown to less than 5 per cent is difficult for Chinese researchers. But the weight of probability points to a deceleration of the economy from today’s 7.4 per cent growth.何建坤教授估算的任何一个数字都可能引发意见分歧。中国的一党制体系能否承受经济放缓至5%以下?光是讨论这个问题,就让中国的研究人员头疼。但概率加权显示,经济增速将从目前的7.4%逐渐减速。There is a risk that if growth slows too fast it will trigger another attempt by Beijing to juice the economy with a shot of loose credit, as it did in 2008 after the global financial crisis and, to a lesser extent, last summer.目前存在的一个风险是:如果增长放缓过于剧烈,中国政府将试图为经济注入又一轮宽松信贷,它在2008年全球金融危机后曾这样做过,去年夏天又再次祭出此招,尽管规模较小。Such stimulus efforts tend to flood the state-owned, heavy industrial sector with money, unbalancing any natural transition in the economy to a more mature, service-led structure.此类刺激往往意味着向国有的重工业注入大量资金,从而扰乱中国经济自然地向更成熟、务业主导的结构转型。A bigger problem is the assumption that China can continue to wring the same amount of energy efficiency and improvements in emissions year after year, long after the low-hanging fruit has been plucked.更大的一个问题是,估算基于这样一种假设:在“好摘的果子”摘完之后,中国还能继续年复一年地取得等量的能效和减排改善。One notable aspect of a recent paper by Prof He, however, is the extent to which it examines how emissions peaked in the US, the EU and Japan as their economies moved beyond the rapid industrialisation China is now undergoing.不过,何建坤近期一篇论文中有一点值得关注:它深入研究了美国、欧盟和日本经济在走过中国正经历的快速工业化之后,它们的排放量是如何见顶的。And that goes to the heart of what China offers in the Paris climate talks. “China is definitely going to offer more ambitious mitigation action and contributions than what it has offered previously,” Prof He has said in an interview.这将触及中国在巴黎气候大会上提议的核心。“中国无疑将比以往提出更为宏伟的减排目标,做出更大的贡献,”何建坤在一次采访中表示。But this will depend on progress in the negotiations, he added, “including the principle of equity”.但他补充称,这将取决于谈判的进展,包括“公平原则”。Environment: Still dreaming of a blue sky环境:不变的蓝天之梦The smog was so bad that people’s eyes streamed on the way to work. Drivers had to pull over to the side of the road because they could not see for their tears. Officials fretted the pollution was a menace to aviation.雾霾如此严重,以至于人们上班路上会流泪。驾驶员不得不把车停到路边,因为眼泪模糊了他们的视线。官员们担心污染威胁航空安全。This was not Beijing, Shanghai or any of the other Chinese cities where a thick pall of smog regularly engulfs residents. It was Los Angeles almost 60 years ago, one of two western cities famous for choking levels of air pollution.这不是北京、上海或是任何一座经常被浓重雾霾笼罩的中国城市,而是近60年前的洛杉矶。西方有两座城市曾以呛人的空气污染而闻名,洛杉矶是其一。The other was London, where smog blanketed the city so heavily in 1952 that it killed an estimated 4,000 people.另一座是伦敦。1952年,浓雾笼罩伦敦,据估计导致4000人丧生。It took decades for each city to clean their skies but Xie Zhenhua, China’s top climate change official, thinks Beijing’s smog can be fixed in as little as five years, even though its pollution is in some ways more dire.它们各花了数十年才恢复了天空的清洁,但中国在气候变化问题上的最高级别官员解振华(见右图)认为,虽然北京的污染在某些方面更为严重,但该市的雾霾可以在短短5年时间内解决。“The London smog was caused mainly by coal combustion and sulphur dioxide emissions and Los Angeles’ smog was mainly caused by auto emissions,” he says.“伦敦雾霾主要由燃煤和二氧化硫排放引起,洛杉矶的雾霾主要由汽车尾气排放引起,”他表示。China has suffered both problems simultaneously, he adds, but by absorbing lessons from abroad it should be able to tackle its smog faster.他补充称,中国正同时遭遇上述两种问题,但如果汲取国外教训,它应当能更快地解决雾霾问题。“We have published 10 measures to address air pollution,” says Mr Xie. “If those measures can be honoured, it will take five to 10 years for Beijing to have a clear sky.”“我们公布了10项措施来解决空气污染,”解振华表示,“如果认真落实这些措施,5到10年就能还北京一片晴空。”Whether this comes to pass remains to be seen but there is no lack of plans being rolled out to address China’s unnerving environmental woes. There appears to be an air of increasing openness about the problem. This month, a government report that had previously been classified a state secret was published, showing one-fifth of China’s agricultural land is polluted. In March, officials revealed that only three of its 74 largest cities met national air-quality standards.治霾结果如何还有待观察,但中国确实出台了不少计划来应对令人不安的环境问题。在这一问题上,中国似乎表现得越来越公开透明。上月,一份之前被列为国家机密的政府报告发布,显示出中国五分之一的农业用地受到污染。今年3月有官员透露,在中国最大的74座城市中,只有3座达到国家空气质量标准。On Thursday, China finally passed long-awaited revisions to its Environmental Protection Law, removing a loophole that kept the cost of polluting lower than the cost of installing cleaner technology and opening the door to more public monitoring.最近,中国终于通过了各方期待已久的修订版《环境保护法》,堵住了污染成本低于安装清洁技术成本的漏洞,并且为加强公众监督敞开了大门。This comes as Li Keqiang, China’s premier, declared a “war on pollution”, but as anyone breathing the air in the country’s largest cities will attest, victory is still far from evident.与此同时,中国总理李克强宣告“向污染宣战”。但在中国大城市呼吸空气的每一个人都会明,胜利还遥远得很。 /201405/295049成都市第二医院门诊地址 In China, grave sweeping--that ancient Confucian tradition--has gone virtual. 扫墓本是中国儒家的一个传统,现在却走向虚拟化。Over the Qing Ming holiday weekend, millions of people flocked to the nation#39;s cemeteries to burn paper money, arrange dishes of food and deliver trinkets ranging from faux iPhones to plastic flower boas as a way to express their devotion to the departed. 今年清明节适逢周末,成百上千万人来到墓地陵园,用烧纸钱、献祭品,送纸糊的iPhone和塑料花篮的方式表达哀思。But increasingly, as the nation makes a push for more #39;environmentally friendly#39; ways to revere the dead, many mourners are going online instead. 但随着政府倡导以更环保的方式缅怀先人,越来越多的人选择在网上祭祀。At Waheaven.com, for example, users can build elaborate web shrines decked out with flickering bytes of candles, images of bouquets and pots of incense. This year, some draped portraits of their loved ones in black cloth, while others outlined them with red fabric. 在天堂网(Waheaven.com),用户可以为逝去的亲友创建网上纪念馆,点烛、上香、送花。今年有些用户还在逝者照片的旁边加上了黑色或红色的缎带。At least one user has created a shrine featuring Beijing#39;s Gate of Heavenly Peace, where they#39;ve chosen to supplant the portrait of Mao#39;s that hangs there in real life with images of his or her own loved ones. (Roast pigs, Terra Cotta stone warriors, and an elaborate white wreath of flowers were added to mark the recent holiday.) 至少有一名用户把虚拟纪念馆建成北京天安门的样子,然后把已故亲人的照片放在毛主席像的位置。(这家网站最近推出了天堂金猪、护陵兵马俑、白色花圈等最新祭品。)For Qing Ming, users flooded the site with tens of thousands of virtual tributes, spanning everything from GIFs of animated white lotuses to drummers dressed in white or pictures of departed ones#39; favorite foods. The company says it currently has more than 3.4 million users. 清明节,用户们涌向这家网站,敬献成千上万的虚拟祭品,这些祭品从GIF格式的白荷花、到身穿白衣的鼓手、再到逝者生前最喜欢的食物,可谓应有尽有。天堂网说,他们的用户已经超过340万。Elsewhere online, vendors on Taobao.com this weekend also offered to sweep tombs for those who couldn’t visit their relatives’ cemeteries in person. For a modest fee―usually around 100RMB or up―they offered to place flowers, candles and other offerings, perform a set number of ritualistic bows, and send photos as part of the bargain. 这个周末,淘宝网(Taobao.com)的商家也为无法亲自扫墓的人提供了代客扫墓务。只要付不多的钱(通常是人民币100元起),就可以雇人到墓地摆花、蜡烛和其他祭品,还可以雇人去鞠躬,送照片。On a sunny Monday, one family spanning three generations gathered to sweep tombs the traditional way in the outskirts of Beijing, carefully layering plastic flowers and paper money before a family grave. 周一是个阳光明媚的日子,一个祖孙三代之家在北京郊区的墓园以传统方式扫墓,他们小心翼翼地在墓碑前摆放塑料花和纸钱。Standing before the low mound of dirt and stone as his Bluetooth device idled in his ear, Mr. Wang, who only wanted to be identified by his surname, said he sympathized with people couldn#39;t sweep tombs in person. #39;What if they live overseas? Or outside Beijing and it#39;s not convenient?#39; said Mr. Wang, a media worker in his 40s. When he passes away, he said, he wouldn#39;t mind if his descendants didn#39;t always pay their respects in person. #39;If I#39;m not here, I won#39;t have any feelings about the matter,#39; he said. 王先生站在泥土和石头堆成的一个小土堆前,耳朵上挂着蓝牙设备。他说,他理解那些没法亲自来扫墓的人。“住在海外的人怎么办?人不在北京,不方便怎么办?”他说,如果他去世了,自己的后代不能经常来祭奠他,他是不会介意的。“如果我不在了,对这件事也不会有什么感觉了”。王先生40多岁,从事媒体行业,他不愿意透露全名。From his wheelchair across the way, though, Mr. Wang#39;s father interjected with disdain. #39;Tomb-sweeping is about the spirit. If you don#39;t do it yourself in person, there is no spirit.#39; 王先生的父亲坐在轮椅上,很不屑地插话说,“扫墓是一种精神,不亲自来就没有这种精神了。”For his part, Mr. Wang#39;s young son said he planned to keep sweeping tombs all his life. Looking around at the quiet, sun-dappled cemetery at the flower-festooned tombs, popping open a soft drink, he told his father, #39;I like doing it.#39; 王先生的儿子说,他会一直亲自来扫墓的。他环顾四周,看着安静、阳光斑驳的墓园和花朵装点的墓碑,打开手上的一罐饮料,对王先生说:“我喜欢这样做。” /201404/285489South Korea#39;s parliament is considering a law that would classify online gaming as potentially antisocial addiction alongside gambling, drugs and alcohol.韩国议会拟通过一项法律,将网络游戏与、吸毒和酗酒一并列入潜在反社会上瘾症。The bill has won support from parents, religious groups and doctors but has alarmed the internet industry and enraged gamers. The legislation includes provisions to limit advertising, while a separate bill would take 1% of the gaming industry#39;s revenue to create a fund to curb addiction.该提案现已获得家长、宗教团体及医生的持,但遭到了互联网产业反对并激怒了游戏玩家。这项立法案中提出限制游戏广告,而另一个提案则拟征收游戏产业1%的营业额,以建立防治游戏成瘾基金。The uproar over the legislation highlights conflicting social and economic priorities in South Korea. Internet entrepreneurs are prized as a source of innovation, but conservative politicians and many parents say online obsessions are taking a growing toll on schooling, families and workplaces.对该议案的反对之声凸显了韩国的社会与经济优先权之间的冲突。互联网创业素来被褒奖为创新的源泉,但保守政治家和家长们却说网络成瘾现象正在学校、家庭和工作场所中泛滥开来。;We need to create a clean Korea free from the four addictions,; Hwang Woo-yea, an MP in the ruling party, said in a recent speech.执政党议员黄伍延(Hwang Woo-yea)在最近的一次演讲中说道:;我们需要营造一个健康的社会环境,使韩国摆脱这四种上瘾行为的不良影响。;The legislative assault, backed by 14 ruling party lawmakers, is the latest phase in South Korea#39;s culture wars. Headline-grabbing incidents such as the death by starvation of the infant daughter of two online gamers have fuelled a moral panic. A law passed in 2011 that bans gaming between midnight and dawn for anyone under age 16 is being challenged at South Korea#39;s constitutional court.这次立法打击网络游戏成瘾得到了14位执政党议员的持,标志着韩国的文化之争进入了最新阶段。有两位游戏玩家醉心于游戏而饿死了自己的女婴——类似事件常常登上报纸头条,引起了社会的道德恐慌。2011年通过的一条法律禁止16岁以下的青少年在午夜到破晓这段时间内玩游戏,但该法律条文正受到来自韩国宪法法庭的挑战。;There is a huge prejudice that gaming is harmful,; said Lee Byung-chan, an attorney involved in the constitutional court case. ;Games are as harmful as alcohol, drugs and gambling, that#39;s the prejudice.;;有一种巨大的偏见认为玩游戏是有害的,;参与此案审理的律师李炳昌说道。;他们认为玩游戏和酒精、毒品和的害处一样大。;Game companies have taken exception to being lumped together with drugs, alcohol and gambling, and say the bill is a death sentence for their industry. ;The 100,000 people employed in the game industry are not drugmakers,; said the Korea Internet and Digital Entertainment Association, which represents game companies.游戏公司反对将其与毒品、酒精和混为一谈,认为这项立法案无疑是给游戏产业判了死刑。代表游戏公司的韩国网络电子协会抗议道:;从事游戏产业的十万员工绝不等同于制毒者。;Online gaming has become a significant export industry. In 2012, MapleStory and other titles earned more cash from abroad for South Korea than the YouTube sensation Gangnam Style, K-pop music, movies and all other cultural exports combined.据悉,网络游戏已经成为韩国重要的出口产业柱。2012年,包括MapleStory在内的网络游戏为韩国创下的外汇收入比Youtube上大热的《江南style》、韩流音乐、电影等文化出口加起来的还要多。The government started studying internet game addiction in 2011. Its latest annual study found that 2% of South Koreans aged 10-19, or about 125,000 people, needed treatment for excessive online gaming or were at risk of addiction.韩国政府自2011年起开始研究网络游戏的成瘾现象。最近的一份年度报告显示,韩国10至19岁的青少年中有2%(约为12万5千人)的人需要接受网络游戏过量治疗,或者是有游戏成瘾的危险。;My parents tried to stop me but I kept playing. Even the government wouldn#39;t have stopped me,; said Shin Minchul, a 21-year-old college student as he recounted his heavy gaming past.21岁的大学生申敏中(Shin Minchul)在回忆自己的游戏上瘾史时说道:;我爸妈想不让我玩,但我还是在玩。就算是政府也挡不住我玩游戏。;At elementary school Shin bonded with his friends at an internet cafe playing StarCraft for three to four hours a day after classes finished. He dreamed of becoming one of the professionals with corporate sponsorship whose games are broadcast live on cable TV to audiences numbering in the millions. By high school, he was playing World of Warcraft for up to 15 hours straight.上小学时,申敏中每天放学后都会和朋友结伴去网吧玩上三四个小时的《星际争霸》(StarCraft)。他梦想成为一名职业游戏玩家,有自己的赞助商,每场游戏都会在有线电视上直播给千千万万的观众们看。到了高中,他可以不间断地玩《魔兽》(WarCraft)15小时。Shin#39;s rank at school plunged from the top to bottom half. ;When I tried to think more broadly about my life, playing games wasn#39;t that important,; Shin said. ;Then I lost interest.;而他在学校里的排名也从前几名直跌到倒数几名。;当我试着从更广阔的角度考虑我的生活时,玩游戏就没那么重要了,;申敏中说。;那之后我丧失了对游戏的兴趣。;Supporters of the bill say cases like Shin#39;s show why curbs are needed. Kim Min-sun, a mother of two, said online games took children away from real life. ;Without online games, kids would talk to their mother and play,; she said.上述法案的持者称,像申敏中这样的案例明了立法约束的必要性。金敏允(Kim Min-sun)是两个孩子的母亲。她觉得网络游戏让孩子们远离了真实生活。;没有网络游戏的话,孩子们就会跟妈妈聊聊天做做游戏,;她如此说道。Others say South Korea should do more to address the factors behind online game addiction, such as hyper-competitive education and a dearth of other leisure options for teenagers. South Korea had the lowest percentage of students who reported being happy at school in 2012 among 65 countries surveyed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.也有人认为韩国政府应该多下点功夫来深究网络游戏成瘾背后的原因,比如说教育的竞争过于激烈、青少年途径的缺少等等。2012年,经济合作与发展组织开展的一项调查结果显示,韩国学生在校的快乐程度在受调查的65个国家中处于最低水平。 /201312/269582成都省第五医院咨询师

新都区中医院男科挂号四川电力医院缩阴 Taiwanese group Wintek, formerly a major supplier of touchscreens for Apple’s iPhone and iPad, has shuttered two plants in southern China and axed 7,000 jobs, leaving unpaid suppliers to chase debts of Rmb230m (m).台湾胜华科技(Wintek)关闭了中国南方的两家工厂,裁掉了7000员工,并亏欠供应商大约2.3亿元人民币(约合3700万美元)的账款。胜华科技曾是苹果(Apple) iPhone和iPad触摸屏的主要供应商之一。Armed police surrounded the plants in the city of Dongguan as workers collected final pay this week, while suppliers demonstrated in front of the factories. Wintek declined to comment.本周武警包围了这两家设在东莞的工厂。工人们聚集在厂门口讨要工资,供应商也上门来讨债。胜华科技拒绝置评。The company sought insolvency protection in October, filing in Taiwan for a restructuring of more than NT30bn (1m) in debts owed to local and mainland lenders and suppliers. Wintek reported a loss of NTbn for 2013 and a NTbn loss in the first half this year. The Taipei-listed company was once one of the main suppliers for Apple, but placed a bet that failed after Apple selected a rival touchscreen in late 2012.该公司10月在台湾提交了破产保护申请,希望重组超过300亿元新台币(合9.61亿美元)欠台湾和大陆及供应商的债务。胜华科技2013年亏损了100亿元新台币,今年上半年亏损了30亿元新台币。这家台北上市公司曾是苹果的主要供应商之一,但苹果在2012年底选择了竞争对手的触摸屏,致使其押注失败。The episode represents a cautionary tale for high-tech manufacturers in southern China who aspire to being an official Apple supplier.胜华科技的例子给有志成为苹果供应商的华南高科技制造企业敲响了警钟。While Wintek was the largest supplier of touchscreens for the iPhone 4, Apple switched to a different technology in 2012 for its iPhone 5, eliminating much of Apple’s need for Wintek’s technology.虽然该公司曾是iPhone 4最大的触摸屏供应商,但是苹果在2012年为iPhone 5选择了另一种技术,消除了苹果对胜华科技技术的大部分需求。In 2013, Apple then opted for film touch panels in its iPads, rather than the glass touch panels made by Wintek. Apple still lists a Wintek facility in Suzhou, near Shanghai, as a supplier, but not any of its Dongguan plants.2013年,苹果为iPad选择了薄膜触摸屏面板,而不是胜华科技生产的玻璃触摸屏面板。苹果仍将胜华科技设在苏州的一家工厂列为其供应商,但胜华的东莞工厂未被列入供应商名录。Jerry Chen from Shenzhen Laibao Hi-tech, another touchscreen maker, said, such incidents are common “although it did come a bit suddenly with Wintek”.另一家触摸屏制造商——深圳莱宝高科技公司(Shenzhen Laibao Hi-tech)的Jerry Chen表示,这种情况是常见的,“只是在胜华科技的案例中确实有些突然”。“It mostly has to do with the growing competition and lower margins. Before there used to be two to three companies sharing a single order and now there may be as many as 10,” he said.他表示:“这主要与竞争加剧和利润率下滑有关。以往的情况是两、三家公司分享一份订单,现在可能有多达10家厂商分享一份订单。”But he said the plant closures did not necessarily mean Wintek was obsolete, as it still made the leading technology in “on glass solution” (OGS) touchscreens.但他同时也指出,关闭工厂未必意味着胜华科技已经出局,因为它仍掌握着“单玻璃解决方案”(OGS)触摸屏领域的先进技术。Wintek’s shares were suspended in mid-November at NT.83.胜华科技的股票已于11月中旬停牌,最后的收盘价为1.83元新台币。 /201412/348634四川省成都第七人民医院治疗宫颈糜烂多少钱

成都军区总医院体检多少钱These are challenging times for world leaders seeking to stimulate the global economy. The G-20 wants to see trillion of global GDP and tens of millions of jobs added by 2018 through what officials described in Sydney in February as #39;ambitious but realistic policies.#39; Multilateral talks are aly underway to drive growth by further liberalizing trade, which are important initiatives but which have yet to bear fruit. So businesses will be particularly encouraged to see dialogue restarting that aims to give cross-border investment a boost, especially since the talks involve the world#39;s two largest economies.对于寻求刺激全球经济增长的世界各国领导人而言,这是一个颇具挑战性的时代。二十国集团(Group of 20,简称G20) 2月份在悉尼召开会议时,官员们希望通过“宏大但务实的政策”,在2018年前将全球经济总量提高2万亿美元,同时增加数千万个工作岗位。通过进一步推动贸易自由化来促进经济增长的多边谈判正在进行之中,这样的谈判是非常重要的举措,但目前尚未取得成果。因此,企业尤其希望看到重启意在扩大跨境投资的对话,特别是在全球最大两个经济体也展开对话的情况下。The talks concern the U.S.-China Bilateral Investment Treaty, or BIT. Such an agreement would clarify the rules for investment between the two countries while removing many barriers that remain to such investments--rather like a free-trade agreement for capital flows instead of goods and services. A high-standard BIT will help remove ambiguities that detract from greater investment and broader economic activity, and give the U.S. and China increased stakes in each other#39;s success. In the interest of stability and predictability, the BIT should be a strategic imperative for both countries.这样的对话关乎美中双边投资协定(Bilateral Investment Treaty,简称BIT)的命运。该协定将阐明两国之间的投资规则,同时打破这些投资领域仍然存在的诸多壁垒,这更像是一个允许资本流动的自由贸易协议,商品和务贸易则不包括在内。达成高标准的BIT有助于消除妨碍扩大投资和经济活动的歧义条款,美国和中国在彼此经济成就中的利益会更大。从保持稳定行和可预见性的角度看,BIT对中美两国都应该是一种战略需要。A comprehensive investment treaty would be good business for both sides. In general, investment treaties prohibit favoritism for local investors; protect foreign investors from arbitrary treatment (by requiring fair compensation for any expropriation or nationalization of assets); provide for dispute resolution in international arbitration; and protect foreign-invested enterprises from local content requirements and export as.达成全面的投资协定可令两国实现共赢。总的来说有以下几个益处:投资协定能够防止对本地投资者的偏袒行为;能够保护外国投资者免受不公平待遇(因为投资协定会要求资产被征收或国有化时获得合理补偿);能够解决国际仲裁纠纷;还能够保护外资企业不受当地成分要求和出口配额的影响。For the U.S., the case for attracting more inbound Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) is compelling. Out of the 5 billion in FDI into the U.S. in 2012, China, as the world#39;s second-largest economy, accounted for a mere billion of that amount. A BIT would help bring greater transparency and clarity to investment approval processes.对美国来说,获得更多来自中国的外商直接投资(FDI)的前景非常吸引人。2012年美国的FDI总额为1,750亿美元,来自中国的投资仅为40亿美元。BIT将提升投资审批程序的透明度。Recent research suggests that Chinese-owned companies provided more than 70,000 full-time jobs in the U.S. in 2013, a more than eight-fold increase compared to 2007. More two-way investment under a successful BIT means many more American jobs.近期调查显示,2013年中国控股的公司在美国提供的全职岗位超过了70,000个,较2007年水平增加了八倍多。若BIT成功签署,将增加双边投资额,这意味着美国将增加更多就业岗位。The BIT also would increase the global reach of American businesses, allowing them to invest in Chinese markets in industries that are largely restricted today, such as financial services, transportation and telecommunications. This treaty would allow American manufacturing and agricultural exporters to establish critical distribution platforms in China to facilitate their sales of American products into that market. As a condition of restarting the talks, Beijing has agreed to put almost all industries on the table, dropping its earlier desire to shelter a large number from American investment.BIT还能帮助美国企业在全球的扩张,让美国企业投资于如今在中国基本不对外开放的一些行业,比如金融业、运输业和电信业。该协定还将允许美国制造业和农业出口商在中国建立起至关重要的分销平台,这样一来,向中国市场出售美国产品就会变得更容易。作为重启相关谈判的一个条件,北京已经同意把几乎所有行业都摆到桌面上,放弃了此前希望保护多个行业不受美国投资冲击的立场。The protections of a BIT are especially important in markets where Chinese state-owned enterprises dominate, because it will require that those companies act based on commercial and not political principles. For example, state firms#39; access to non-commercial financing would be challenged. The BIT would also end the occasional Chinese practice of requiring American firms that manufacture in China to transfer their technology to Chinese businesses or use local technology in their manufacturing processes. This would help to address the concerns about intellectual-property theft that often discourage American investment.在那些国有企占主导地位的中国国内市场中,BIT尤其具有重要性,因为这将要求那些企业按照商业原则而非政治原则行事。举例来说,国企利用非商业融资的做法就会受到挑战。BIT还将结束中国偶尔会采取的某种做法:要求在中国生产商品的美国制造企业将技术转移给中国企业,或在生产过程中使用中国的技术。这将有助于缓解有关知识产权方面的忧虑。这种担忧常令美国投资者望而却步。For China, the BIT will help advance the economic reform goals reiterated by its leaders at last month#39;s National People#39;s Congress. It can help China achieve these goals by increasing capital available to private firms (especially small- and medium-sized businesses), which often rely on informal lending. The foreign capital, and the management expertise that so often comes with it, would promote innovation and entrepreneurship, which are critical to any economy#39;s long-term success. Deploying private capital also helps foster healthy competition, making state-owned enterprises more efficient and better suited to compete in the global marketplace.对中国来说,BIT有助于推进上个月两会时重申的经济改革目标。它能让民营企业(特别是中小型的企业)可获得的资本越来越多,从而帮助中国实现这些目标。在中国,民营企业通常依靠非官方渠道获得融资。外国的资本以及随同带来的管理方面的专长会推动创新和创业,而对任何一个经济体来讲,创新和创业都是长期成功不可或缺的要素。动用民营部门的资本还有助于实现良性竞争,让国企变得更有效率,更能适应在全球市场的竞争。Nor are business benefits the only advantage to a U.S.-China investment treaty. There would also be considerable political advantages to concluding a deal. The difficulties faced by each country#39;s investors in the other#39;s economy have created significant friction between Washington and Beijing over the years. This is the case both when Chinese investments in the U.S. generate political controversy, and when American companies discover they aren#39;t allowed to invest in booming Chinese industries. An investment treaty would help ratchet down such tensions by improving market access and ensuring greater predictability.而且,企业受益也不是美中投资协定能带来的唯一利益。达成这样一项协议也会带来相当大的政治利益。多年来,这两个国家的投资者在对方国家遇到的困难已经让华盛顿和北京产生了重大擦。不管是中国投资在美国引发政治争议,还是美国企业发现自己不被允许在中国欣欣向荣的行业投资,这些都是擦的来源。投资协定将改善市场准入,提高可预测程度,从而有助于缓解此类紧张局面。Leaders of the two largest economies in the world should focus on policies and initiatives big enough to result in meaningful economic growth but modest enough to be achieved. The U.S.-China investment treaty is one such initiative. Both sides have a great opportunity to advance their countries#39; interests and the global economy. The business communities on both sides of the Pacific have much to gain and should come together to play a constructive role supporting the negotiations and seizing the opportunity to do our BIT for global growth.两个全球最大经济体的领导人应该把注意力集中在规模足以令经济出现明显增长的政策和倡议上,同时,这样的政策和倡议又要避免因太过宏大而无法实现。美中投资协定就是这样一个倡议。双方有一个绝佳的机会推动实现两国的利益,也让全球经济受益。太平洋两岸的企业都将获益良多,因此,两岸企业界人士应该协力扮演一种建设性的角色,持相关谈判,抓住这个机会,为全球经济增长尽一份力。 /201404/284540 四川省公立三甲医院检查能用医保卡吗凉山男科妇科网上预约



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