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2019年06月21日 00:22:56来源:医苑助手

A donation that the Twins Days festival is getting from the estate of two frugal bachelor farmers is enough to make some people do a double-take (1): as much as million.John and William Reiff, once recognized by Guinness World Records as the world's most identical twins, left most of their estate to the festival in Twinsburg (2), about 15 miles southeast of Cleveland. John Reiff died in 2005 and William five years earlier, but only recently have plans to develop part of the twins' suburban Philadelphia farm been worked out.With the land deal expected to be completed this year, about million to million will go to the festival, according to a lawyer for the Twins Days Festival Committee. The festival committee intends to invest the money to help pay for operating costs (3).The Reiffs, who attended their first Twins Days festival in the late 1970s, always dressed alike, talked alike and enjoyed dating other twins. The wiry, bespectacled pair won many "most identical" competitions over the years.The annual Twins Days festival, a three-day event that begins Aug. 3 this year, attracts about 3,000 sets of twins, triplets (4) and quadruplets (5) and features contests such as those for the most alike and least alike twins. Over the years, it also has attracted scientists interested in genetic research.Between trips to Twinsburg and to other twin events, the Reiffs lived frugally (6) on a 154-acre farm that had been in the family for three generations. It was no model of agriculture. A wood stove heated the house, and a 20-cow herd barely supported the dairy.Before his death in 2005, John Reiff cut a deal with a development group that planned to use the farm, a rare piece of undeveloped land near Philadelphia, for residential housing.Neighbors sued, but local officials, the developer and residents have finally agreed on a plan to build six houses and a park on the site, and 40 houses elsewhere.The Reiff brothers, who never married, gave most of their fortune to the Twins Days festival but also left 0,000 to four churches. None of their four living sisters was named in their will. 两位简朴的单身农夫向双胞胎日捐赠了价值5百万美元的资产,足以让人们为之惊讶。约翰雷夫和威廉雷夫曾经被吉尼斯世界纪录认为是世界上长得最像的双胞胎。他们把自己大多数的资产都赠给了特温斯堡市的双胞胎节日,即在克里夫兰东南部的15英里地。约翰于2005年去世,而威廉比约翰早去世5年。然而,直到最近,对这对双胞胎兄弟在费城城郊的农场的开发计划才得以实现。据一位双胞胎节日委员会的律师称,随着这项土地交易在今年的完成,双胞胎节日将获得4到5百万美元。节日委员会打算将这笔钱用于付其运营成本。雷夫兄弟俩第一次参加双胞胎节日是在70年代末。他们总是穿同样的衣,用同样的方式讲话,喜欢和另外的双胞胎约会。多年来,这对瘦但结实的双胞胎兄弟参加了很多“最相像”比赛并获奖。双胞胎节日每年都会举办一次,一共持续三天。今年是在8月3日举行的,吸引了有3000对双胞胎、三胞胎和四胞胎的参与,举办了长得最像和最不像之类的比赛。很多年来,这项活动同样也吸引了那些对基因研究感兴趣的科学家们。在往返于参加特温斯堡市和其他双胞胎活动之外,雷夫兄弟在一块154英亩的农场上过着俭朴的生活。这个家族有三代人在这块农场上生活过。这里不是模范的农场。整个屋子靠一个木制火炉取暖,20头牛勉强维持产奶。一个开发商原本打算在这块费城附近的稀有的未开发土地上修建住房,但约翰雷夫在2005年去世以前和该公司缔结了土地交易。邻居们起诉了他,但到最后,当地政府、开发商和居民还是达成一致,计划就在那修建6座房子和一个公园,然后在别的地再修40 座房子。雷夫兄弟一生未婚,并把他们大多数财产都捐给了双胞胎节日,把另外的25万美元赠与了4座教堂。在遗嘱里,他们根本没有提及四个还健在的。 /200807/43317。

  • Long before the iPhone made him the god of gadgets, Steve Jobs launched his tech career by hacking land lines to make free long-distance calls.史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)通过iPhone成为电子设备教父,不过他很久之前就开始了高科技事业,做的是盗用本地通话线路从而实现免费远程通话。Bob Dylan’s band, the Golden Chords, lost a high-school talent competition to a tap dancing act.鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)成为金牌音乐家之前,在高中达人秀比赛中输给了一个踢踏舞表演。Behind every success story is an embarrassing first effort, a stumble, a setback or a radical change of direction. It’s these first clumsy steps on the road to fame and fortune that fascinate writer Seth Fiegerman, who edits the blog OpeningLines.org, a collection of case studies on the origins of famous careers.探究每个成功故事,你总能看到起步时的窘迫,蹒跚前进,被失败打击,或是突然决定转向。这些通往名利财富路上的笨拙的起步吸引了作家塞斯·菲格曼(Seth Fiegerman),她收集了关于成功事业起点的众多案例,并编写了客OpeningLines.org(起步线)。“When you see someone who’s very successful, you almost imagine that it was a foregone conclusion, that they’re a genius, that they were destined for great things, ” says Fiegerman, who began the blog in 2009, after an early setback in his own career. “I think the big takeaway is failure and setbacks, far from being uncommon, are in many ways essential.”2009年,菲格曼在事业受挫后选择开。”当你看到某些成功人士时,你总会想象他们的成功是必然的,他们都是天才,注定建立丰功伟业,“她说:”我认为 最重要 的是经历失败与挫折,不甘于平庸。“After Fiegerman, now 26, graduated from New York University in 2008, he landed a coveted first job as a research editor at Playboy magazine. But he had worked there for just half a year when management announced that most of the staff would soon be laid off.今年26岁的菲格曼于2008年毕业于纽约大学。大学毕业后,他拥有了一个令人艳羡的工作——《》杂志的研究编辑。但他仅仅在这个工位上工作了半年,公司就开始大规模裁人。As unemployment loomed, Fiegerman felt adrift. He began to explore the Playboy archives, discovering a trove of interviews with celebrities ranging from Marlon Brando to Malcolm X. Many of these successful people shared tales of their less promising early days, and Fiegerman quickly became obsessed with these origin stories.面对裁员的危机,菲格曼感到茫然无措。他开始研究《》杂志档案,并发行了一系列珍贵的名人访问,包括马龙白兰度(Marlon Brando,美国最棒的男演员),马尔科姆·X(Malcolm X,非裔美国人权利提倡者)等等。这些成功人士都经历了看似前途渺茫的开端,这些成功起源的故事很快吸引了菲格曼。“It kind of paired well with this feeling that I had of, ‘Oh my God, what do I do?’” Fiegerman says. “And I found solace, in some ways, ing about the obstacles that famous figures had to overcome.””这些故事与我彼时心情契合,我总在想‘老天,我该怎么办?’“菲格曼说:”在某些方面,通过阅读那些名人克困难的故事,我找到了安慰。“He began devouring biographies and soliciting interviews with writers and musicians he admired, using the blog to document the fits and starts that began the careers of the famous and the infamous. Success, he learned, was less a matter of innate talent and more the product of perseverance, a willingness to stumble and stand up again and again.他开始大量阅读传记,并恳请自己欣赏的作家和音乐家接受采访,这些人有成名的也有事业低迷的,菲格曼把他们的事业开端的起起伏伏记录进客。在调查中他发现,成功更多是源于坚持而非天赋。要有勇气屡败屡战。“You kind of assume that great geniuses are like Mozart, ” Fiegerman says. But few successful people were child prodigies, and prodigies don’t necessarily find success. “Most people don’t stick to it.””你可能觉得天才都是像莫扎特那样的,“菲格曼说。但事实是几乎没什么成功人士是神童,神童未必成功。”大多数人不喜欢坚持一件事。“Author Jennifer Egan stuck with it. She told Fiegerman that her first novel was so bad even her mother hated it. But Egan kept writing, and her writing got better—in 2011, she won a Pulitzer Prize for her novel about growing old in the digital age, A Visit From the Goon Squad.作家詹妮弗·伊根(Jennifer Egan)做到了坚持。她告诉菲格曼他的第一部小说糟到连她母亲都厌恶。但伊根并未放弃写作,而且有了进步。2011年她的一篇描绘在数字时代老去的小说《打手队的来访》(A Visit From the Goon Squad)赢得了普利策奖(Pulitzer Price,美国新闻界最高荣誉)。Knowing about a hero’s early flops and foibles might disillusion some fans, but Fiegerman finds comfort in rough beginnings. “The only thing that would have disappointed me is if I’d researched all these guys and women and found out that they got it right on the first try, because, OK, I did not, ” Fiegerman says with a laugh.了解一个英雄人物早期的失败和缺点也许会使某些粉丝的幻想破灭,但菲格曼却从中得到慰藉。”如果发现这些人首次尝试就成功我倒要失望了,因为我自己的起步并不是如此。“菲格曼笑着说。Like his subjects, Fieger-man found that his own early setback wasn’t permanent. He landed a new job in journalism, and today he works at the tech news website Mashable, covering, appropriately enough, start-up businesses. While he has less time for the blog, he hopes his collection of origin stories will help other young people realize it’s OK to fail.正如他的受访者,菲格曼发现起初的失败并不是永久的。他开始尝试记者工作,如今他在科技新闻网站Mashable工作,可以说还包含很多起步阶段的业务。虽然写客的时间少了,他希望自己收集的这些成功故事的起源可以帮助其他年轻人,告诉他们要允许失败。“I hope some of them benefit from it, ” he says. “But if nothing else, I feel like I benefited from it a little bit.””我希望有人能从中受益,“他说:”但就算没什么效果,我觉得自己已经获益良多了。“ /201303/228201。
  • For most Americans, Friday#39;s 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy#39;s assassination is a time to look back on one of the most turbulent days in the nation#39;s history.周五是美国总统肯尼迪遇刺50周年纪念日,对于多数美国人来说,这一天纪念着一段最为动荡的美国历史。But for people who were entangled in the events of Nov. 22, 1963, like the co-worker who drove Lee Harvey Oswald to work that morning, or the family of the man behind the power Zapruder film that captured the shooting, it has defined their lives.有一些人深陷事件之中,对于他们而言,1963年11月22日意味着人生的彻底转变。在他们当中,有在那天开车送李?哈维?奥斯瓦德(Lee Harvey Oswald)上班的同事,还有全面展现案件过程的泽普鲁德影片背后的拍摄者。That day also has remained a constant for people who became obsessed with the enduring mystery of what led to Kennedy#39;s murder, including a former conspiracy theorist who is now curator of the mainstream museum commemorating the shooting, much to the chagrin of his old colleagues.而对另一些人而言,肯尼迪遇害悬案背后的未解之谜令他们久久不能释怀。比如一位曾经的阴谋论者,如今他担任一家纪念这起事件的主流物馆的馆长,这令他以前的同事都十分气愤。Here are their stories:下面,就让我们走进他们的故事:Buell Wesley Frazier : After Driving Oswald, #39;I Was So Scared#39;比尔?韦斯利?弗雷泽(Buell Wesley Frazier):那件事之后,我害怕极了Fifty years ago, a teenaged Buell Wesley Frazier gave a colleague a ride to work, a courtesy that changed his life forever.50年前,十几岁的弗雷泽开车搭着一位同事一起去上班,然而他的好心彻底改变了他的生活。His co-worker at the Texas School Book Depository was Lee Harvey Oswald. The Warren Commission later concluded that the package Mr. Oswald placed on the backseat of Mr. Frazier#39;s Chevrolet Bel Air that morning didn#39;t contain curtain rods, as he had claimed, but the rifle he used to kill President John F. Kennedy.弗雷泽在德克萨斯州教科书仓库(Texas School Book Depository)工作,他的同事便是奥斯瓦德。根据华伦委员会(Warren Commission)的判定,奥斯瓦德那天早上将用来射杀肯尼迪的步放入一个包中,向弗雷泽谎称包里是窗 杆,并把包放在了弗雷泽的雪佛兰(Chevrolet) Bel Air轿车的后座上。#39;It#39;s still hard to believe that something like this happened and I got swept up in it,#39; said Mr. Frazier, now 69 years old. #39;I just wish it had never happened to me.#39;现年69岁的弗雷泽说道,我至今仍难以相信自己会被卷入到这样一个事件里,我真希望它从未发生在我身上。Many Americans alive when Mr. Kennedy was shot have said they lost some of their innocence that day. But for Mr. Frazier, the loss was deeply personal.许多经历了此事的美国人都将其视作一份纯真情怀的逝去,而弗雷泽承受的是更加深切的伤痛。He remembers watching from a window as the presidential motorcade passed the book warehouse, thinking that Jacqueline Kennedy #39;looked as good as the pictures in Life magazine.#39;他记得当总统车队经过书库的时候,他透过窗户看到杰奎琳?肯尼迪(Jacqueline Kennedy),心想她可真是和《生活》(Life)杂志里看起来一样漂亮。He remembers seeing Mr. Oswald, an acquaintance whom he knew only as Lee, walking away from the building in the chaos that followed the shooting and fading into the crowd.他记得看到奥斯瓦德从楼里走向喧闹的车队向总统开然后消失在人群里。他和奥斯瓦德并不熟,只知道他名字叫李。He remembers being pushed up against a wall later that evening by Dallas police, who interrogated him for hours about Mr. Oswald, then asked him to sign a typed statement confessing to being an accomplice to the assassination. He refused and was released.他记得那天晚上,达拉斯警员逮捕了他,用好几个小时审讯他有关奥斯瓦德的事情,然后让他在一份打好的声明上签字,承认自己是刺杀肯尼迪总统的同谋。他拒绝签字并被释放。He remembers the fear he felt when he watched Mr. Oswald be shot to death on live television by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby that Sunday, how he wondered whether he was somehow in danger.随后,奥斯瓦德在被移交监狱的过程中被达拉斯夜店经营者杰克?鲁比(Jack Ruby)杀,这一过程经电视全程直播。弗雷泽记得当他看到这一事件时,心里是多么害怕自己也会出事。#39;This was all bigger than I could imagine. And I was so scared,#39; he said.他说:这件事的严重性远超我的想像。我当时真的害怕极了。Mr. Frazier went on with life, but says he was a changed man. He blames the shooting for his subsequent career frustrations, but concedes he hasn#39;t always been easy to like. #39;I have a hard time trusting people,#39; he said. He works part-time as a driver for an auto-body shop in the Dallas area, and like many Americans, continues to have questions about Nov. 22, 1963.弗雷泽的生活还是要继续,但他觉得自己已不再是曾经的自己。他认为杀案导致了他日后事业的不如意,不过他承认自己也不总是那么招人喜欢。他说,有段时间,我很难再相信他人。如今他是达拉斯一家汽车修理店的兼职司机,并和许多美国人一样,一直对肯尼迪刺杀案充满疑虑。Mr. Oswald lived in a Dallas boarding house during the week and asked Mr. Frazier for rides on weekends to visit his wife, Marina, who lived near Mr. Frazier in Irving, Texas. This time, however, Mr. Oswald had asked for a lift to Irving on a Thursday, and showed up to get a ride back to work Friday morning carrying what he said were curtain rods-a claim Mr. Frazier has trouble believing wasn#39;t true.奥斯瓦德工作日寄宿在达拉斯的一家旅馆里,妻子玛丽娜(Marina)住在德克萨斯州的欧文市,离弗雷泽很近。一到周末他就会请弗雷泽开车载他去见妻子。然而那个周四,奥斯瓦德搭他的车去了欧文市,并在周五的早上又与他一起回去上班。他告诉弗雷泽手上的包里装的是窗 杆,这让弗雷泽很难起什么疑心。Ruth Paine, the woman with whom Mr. Oswald#39;s wife lived at the time, long ago concluded that the official account of the assassination made sense: Mr. Oswald was capable of murder, she said, and all evidence pointed to him acting alone.露丝?佩因(Ruth Paine)当时与奥斯瓦德的妻子住在一起,她很早就认同了官方对谋杀案的解释,她说:奥斯瓦德绝对干得出杀人的事来,而且所有据都说明他没有共犯。Ms. Paine, now 81 and living in California, believes Mr. Frazier may not be able to emotionally digest what the Warren Commission concluded Mr. Oswald had transported in Mr. Frazier#39;s car that day.现年81岁的佩因居住在加利福尼亚,对于华伦委员会对那天早上包中放有的判定,她相信弗雷泽心里肯定很难接受得了。#39;I am really sorry Buell is in that form of denial,#39; said Ms. Paine, a retired school psychologist, whose old home was restored by Irving and reopened as a museum this month. #39;I have tried to run away from talking about this all my life, but I have also tried to accept the facts.#39;佩因退休前是一位学校心理咨询师,她说,我为弗雷泽的遭遇感到深深的遗憾。这个月,她在欧文的老家已被重新翻修成一座物馆。她说,我一直试着不去谈论我人生中的这段遭遇,但我也努力着去接受现实。Mr. Frazier remains adamant that Mr. Oswald couldn#39;t have killed the president by himself. It is a view shared by many Americans, who feel that multiple people must have plotted the assassination, according to opinion polls, including one by the Associated Press this month that found 59% believed in a conspiracy.弗雷泽却坚信奥斯瓦德不可能凭一己之力杀害总统。根据美联社(Associated Press)本月的调查,有59%的美国人也都持此观点,认为肯定是多人共同策划了这起谋杀。#39;I#39;d like for the American people someday to know the truth,#39; Mr. Frazier said. He acknowledges that he isn#39;t quite sure what that is.弗雷泽说,我期待着真相大白于天下的那一天。他说,他并不清楚真相到底是什么。 /201311/266025。
  • I am a partner in a City law firm and lucky (wise?) to have married a man who gave up his career to stay home with our two young children. He is happy and so are the children. However, I am increasingly irritated that I get home in the evening exhausted to find them all slumped on the sofa watching television, homework often undone and the kids not yet bathed. I usually end up doing it myself. I’m doing a rotten job of managing and motivating my husband. How to do it better?我是伦敦金融城一家律所的合伙人,我很幸运地(或者说很明智地?)嫁给了一位愿意放弃工作、专门在家照看两个年幼孩子的男人。他和孩子们对此都感到很开心。然而,令我越来越受不了的是,每天晚上当我筋疲力尽回到家的时候,总是发现他们都窝在沙发上看电视,功课总是一点也没做,孩子们也没洗澡。结果总是我自己动手做这些事。我在管理和激励我的丈夫方面做得太糟糕了。怎样才能做得好点?Solicitor, female, 40s律师,女性,40多岁Lucy’s answer露西的回答It doesn’t matter if it was luck or wisdom: in marrying a man prepared to slouch about on the sofa all day you did the best thing possible for your career. The one thing that unites women at the very top is that they almost all have beta husbands.说是幸运还是明智其实无关紧要,嫁给一个成天想窝在沙发上的男人,对你的职业生涯或许是一件再好不过的事。职场女强人的一个共同特点是,她们几乎都有个弱势老公。That is the good bit. The bad bit is the gnawing, desperate, hysterical rage you feel when you get home to find the children unbathed. I know that wasn’t how you described it, but I’m putting words in your mouth having had experience of this sort of thing.这是好的一面,不好的一面是,当你回到家发现孩子们还没洗澡时,你会难受、绝望、怒气冲天。我知道你没有这么说,不过我经历过类似的事情,我是在借机说我自己的感受。When I get home tired to find my grown-up children still surrounded by the detritus of breakfast, I let loose a rage so elemental that my husband often has to intervene.当我一身疲惫回到家,发现已经长大成人的孩子们吃完早餐后都没有收拾的时候,我就会大发雷霆,我先生经常不得不介入。Because I understand your situation so well, I know what the answer is. Or rather I know what it isn’t.由于我能切身体会你的感受,我知道问题的是什么。或者准确地说,我知道不是什么。It is not better management and motivation for your husband. Abandon all hope that you can change the way he does things.问题不在于管理和激励你的丈夫。放弃一切认为你可以改变他做事方式的幻想吧。If he runs the show at home, then rules have to be set by him. People like you and me who think it matters hugely that baths are at a fixed time are constitutionally different from people who don’t think it matters a jot. Nothing can be done to turn one sort into the other.如果家里由他打理,那么规则就该由他说了算。你和我这样认为每天定期洗澡非常重要的人,与那些认为这种事无所谓的人生来就不一样。没办法把其中一种人改变成另外一种。You have three options. The first is to bathe them yourself. This can work, but – here’s the catch – you have to do it cheerfully. If you do it as an angry, resentful martyr you become loathsome to everyone, including yourself.你有三个选择。第一个选择就是自己给孩子们洗澡。这可以解决问题,关键在于,在这个过程中你要保持愉快。如果你做这件事的时候像一个充满愤怒和怨恨的受气包,你会在所有人的眼中——包括你自己——变得令人生厌。Alternatively, you could pay someone else to do it. This can be fine, though if the point is that your husband is looking after the children, it rather spoils it if the nanny is doing it instead.或者你也可以花钱请别人来做这件事。这办法也不错,只不过,原本是由你丈夫照看孩子,现在要让保姆来做,事情就有点变样了。Or, third, you learn to stop minding. This is terribly hard to pull off for control freaks like you and me. But it is a bit easier than the alternatives. Comfort yourself with the fact that if the children are old enough to do homework, it can’t be long before they start bathing themselves. In the meantime, I suggest you open a bottle of wine as soon as you get through the door. It takes the edge off.或者还有第三种选择,就是你要学会不再介意。这对你我这种有控制欲的人来说极其困难。不过这比其他办法要容易一点。你可以这么安慰自己,等孩子们长大一点,能独自完成家庭作业以后,他们很快就可以自己洗澡了。还有,我建议你一进家门就开瓶酒,这可以让你放松。Your advice读者的建议Get a nanny请个保姆Ask yourself if he really is capable of more. Mine wasn’t. If you can afford it supplement his care with a nanny who understands that the children must be bathed. Workplace management skills do not typically work at home.你问问自己,他是不是真的能多做一些事?反正我的丈夫是做不到的。如果你能出得起钱,就再找一个知道孩子们必须洗澡的保姆。职场的管理技巧在家里通常没用。Marketing director, female, 40s销售总监,女性,40多岁He isn’t staff他不是你的员工It sounds like you see your husband as a member of your support staff. If he feels you ignore his concerns about his demotion from partner, he may see non-compliance as his only option.听起来你似乎将你的丈夫视为你的持团队的员工。如果他担心自己作为伴侣的地位降级了,并且觉得你无视他这种感受,他可能会将不从视为唯一选择。Non-compliant support husband, 40s不愿顺从的后援丈夫,40多岁Make a list列一张家务清单My wife works full-time and I am self-employed so I do all the child and house duties. I ask my wife for a list of things I should do during the day and that makes me motivated.我太太是全职工作,而我则是自由职业者,因此我负责孩子们的所有事宜和家务事。我让我太太每天列一张我应做事情的清单,这样我会感觉很有动力。Self-employed, male, 38自由职业者,男性,38岁Anger issues关于愤怒Your husband and children are happy but you are full of anger and resentment? Unless you and your husband can come to terms with your issues, I predict you are headed for divorce and he will get custody of the children with big support payments and alimony.你丈夫和孩子们很开心,而你却充满愤怒和怨恨?除非你和你丈夫在你的问题上能达成一致,否则我预言你正走向离婚,你丈夫将获得孩子们的抚养权并得到大笔抚养费和生活费。Former stay-at-home father前全职爸爸Talk to him与他谈一谈Your husband could well be depressed. He gave up his career for you yet rather than trying to communicate with him, you prefer running first to strangers in a newspaper. That’s daft. Try having a real conversation with him.你丈夫可能会很郁闷。他为了你放弃了自己的职业生涯,而你有了问题不与他沟通,却宁愿在报纸上求助陌生人。这么做很愚蠢。试着与他真正谈一次。Anon, male, 40s匿名,男性,40多岁Use sex用性爱手段The simple answer is to use sex. When the kids are bathed and homeworked before you get home he gets lucky and when they are not he doesn’t.最简单的办法就是用性爱手段。如果你回家前孩子们洗澡了,功课也做了,他就能得到奖赏。如果啥都没干,他就没那么幸运了。Anon匿名Get him a job让他去工作I only know of two families where the husband took on the “househusband” role and both husbands suffered nervous breakdowns and attempted suicide. I would never allow my husband to be a househusband for an unlimited time, even though he was man enough to offer.有“家庭主夫”的家庭我只听说过两家,两位丈夫后来都因为精神崩溃而试图自杀。我永远都不会让我丈夫无限期地做主夫,就算他特爷们地提议这么做也不行。 /201304/232944。
  • Halloween, or Hallowe#39;en, a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31, is a mix of ancient Celtic practices, Catholic and Roman religious rituals and European folk traditions that blended together over time to create the holiday we know today.万圣节前夜(每年10月31日),在其形成过程中逐渐融合了凯尔特习俗、天主教仪式和欧洲民间传统,最终形成了我们今天所见的这样一个节日。Ancient远古时期Shades: Throughout ancient history, Shades meant the spirit of a dead person, residing in the underworld.幽灵:远古时期,人们认为幽灵是生活在地下世界的死者的灵魂。Carving gourds into elaborately decorated lanterns dates back thousands of years to Africa.将葫芦精雕细刻、做成灯笼的习俗可追溯到几千年前的非洲。800-450 B.C.公元前800-450年The ancient Celts believed that wearing masks would ward off evil spirits.古凯尔特人相信戴上面具可以避开邪灵。Pre-1st Century1世纪前Samhain: The Festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the Gaelic harvest season.死神节:盖尔人(苏格兰和爱尔兰的凯尔特人)庆祝丰收季节结束的节日。1st Century1世纪Gaels believed that the border between this world and the otherworld became thin on Sambain; because animals and plants were dying, it allowed the dead to reach back through the veil that separated them from the living.盖尔人相信,在死神节,现世与冥界的边界会逐渐消失。动物和植物纷纷死去,而死者将穿过把他们同生者隔开的幕布重回世间。Bonfires played a major role in the Festival of Samhain. Celebrants wore costumes, mostly skins and animal heads, and danced around bonfires.篝火对于死神节来说是必不可少的。参加庆典的人们穿上动物的皮毛和头颅做成的装,围着篝火舞蹈。By A.D. 43, Romans had conquered much of Celtic territory. Two Roman festivals were combined with the Celtic celebration of Samhain: Feralia, a day in late October when Romans commemorated the passing of the dead, and a day to honor Pomona, Roman goddess of fruit and trees.公元43年,罗马人占领了凯尔特人的大部分领土,并将两个罗马节日与死神节的传统结合起来:一个是纪念死者的Feralia节(十月末的一天),另一个是纪念罗马的果树女神Pomona的节日。Werewolf: The original werewolf of classical mythology, Lycaon, a king of Arcadia who, according to Ovid#39;s Metamorphoses, was turned into a ravenous wolf by Zeus. Possibly the source of the term lycanthropy.狼人:古罗马诗人奥维德在他的《变形记》中描绘了古典神话中狼人的原型——阿卡迪亚王吕卡翁,由于触怒天神宙斯而被变成了一匹狼。也许“变狼妄想狂”一词就是来源于这个故事。3rd Century3世纪In the Roman Catholic church, a commemoration of ;All Martyrs; was celebrated between mid April and early May.在每年四月中旬到五月初这段时间,罗马天主教会庆祝一个名为“众殉道者节”的纪念性节日。7th Century7世纪The festival of All Siants dates to May 13 in 609 or 610, when Pope Boniface IV consecrated the Pantheon at Rome.公元609或610年,教皇卜尼法斯四世为罗马万神殿祝圣,并将5月13日定为“众圣人节”。This date was an ancient pagan observation, the end of the Feast of the Lemures, in which the evil and restless spirits of all the dead were appeased.这一节期原本是古老的异教节日——勒姆瑞斯(夜游魂)节的末尾,在这一节日期间人们试图安抚那些邪恶且永不安宁的亡魂。8th Century8世纪Pope Gregory III designated November 1st All Saints#39; Day, a time to honor saints and martyrs.教皇格列高利三世将每年11月1日定为“众圣人节”,以此纪念圣人和殉道者。Many believe the pope was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday.人们相信,教皇此举是为了用一个教会认可的节日来替代凯尔特的亡者之节日。Saint Boniface declared that belief in the existence of witches was un-Christian.圣卜尼法斯(680-754,本笃会修士,美因茨大主教)宣布,相信女巫的存在是不合基督教教义的。10th Century10世纪The Catholic church made November 2nd All Souls#39; Day, a day to honor the dead.天主教会将每年11月2日定为“万灵节”,以纪念死者。The three Catholic celebrations, the eve of All Saints#39;, All Saints#39;, and All Souls#39;, were called Hallowmas.至此,天主教的三大节日——众圣人节前夜,众圣人节,万灵节,被统称为“Hallowmas”(即“万圣节”之意)。Middle Ages中世纪Carved turnips in Ireland and Scotland are used as candle lanterns in windows to ward off harmful spirits.在爱尔兰和苏格兰,人们将芜菁(形似萝卜)雕刻成灯笼放在窗台上,以此抵挡邪灵。Soul cakes, often simply referred to as souls, were given out to soulers (mainly consisting of children and the poor) who would go from door to door on Hallowmas singing and saying prayers for the dead. Each cake eaten would represent a soul being freed from Purgatory.另一项传统习俗涉及“灵魂饼”:在万圣节期间,小孩和穷人会挨家挨户地唱歌并为死者祈祷,人们则给他们一种被称作“灵魂饼”的点心作为报酬。据说每吃掉一个“灵魂饼”,就会有一个灵魂被从炼狱中拯救出来。 /201311/263227。
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