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来源:医苑信息    发布时间:2019年06月21日 00:21:42    编辑:admin         

In books and movies like Call of the Wild, huge, vicious huskies pull sleds for hundreds of miles over the Alaskan tundra. A Moment of Science wonders, what kind of dogs are sled dogs?在书里或者在像《野性的呼唤》之类的电影里,巨型凶猛的哈士奇在阿拉斯加的冻原上可驰骋数百英里。《科学一刻》栏目想知道,到底什么样的是雪橇呢?Most champion sled dogs are not pure husky: in fact, the “Alaskan Husky” isn’t really a breed at all: it’s a mix of various breeds. Although not pure bred, every sled dog must be carefully bred for life on the trail.大多数冠军雪橇都不是纯种哈士奇:事实上,所谓的“阿拉斯加哈士奇”根本就不是一个品种,而是由多个品种杂交而成。尽管并非纯种,每条雪橇在其拉雪橇的生涯中都需精心喂养。The dogs need heavy coats to protect them from the cold, and tough feet to prevent injuries. Unlike the tough dogs in the movies, dogs with softer feet wear booties when they run.们需穿戴厚重的保暖以免受寒,以及拥有强健的足部以防止受伤。与电影里面强壮的不同, 足部柔软的在奔跑时会穿上短靴。The dogs also need compact bodies to maximize endurance. The sled dogs’ remarkable endurance is thanks to their large heart-to-body ratio, and their ability to carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, which is about three times that of a human being们需要结实的身躯以使自身耐力最大化。雪橇耐力持久,主要是因为它们的心脏对比其身体而言相当之大,并且它们将肺部的氧气供给给肌肉的能力是人类的三倍。On film, large dogs seem powerful, but their size decreases their ability to use oxygen efficiently. In competitive dog-sledding, dogs usually weigh less than 55 pounds and can comfortably trot over 70 miles a day.在电影里,体型巨大的看起来很强壮,而事实上它们的体型弱化了它们利用氧气的能力。在雪橇竞技当中,通常体重在55磅以下的每天能够轻松地慢跑70英里。A sled dog also needs the right temperament. They must love running and be sociable and obedient. Like wild dogs, each team has a hierarchy, but the dogs struggle for position by taking aggressive or submissive postures such as squealing and rolling. Real dogfights are rare because the dogs are carefully introduced and trained before going out on the trail.雪橇需性情温和。他们必须热爱奔跑,温顺友好。正如野一样,每个群都有头,但是们通过极具侵略性的长吠或者表达顺从的滚地等动作来获取位置。们混战的机率较小,因为在进入雪橇队之前他们就已经受到了良好的引导和训练。The careful crossing of northern dogs, like Malamutes, with southern breeds like Greyhounds produces dogs with the right stuff to be sled dogs.北方的爱斯基与南方品种如长腿猎等交配得当,那么他们的后代将具备成为雪橇的优良基因。 /201306/245609。

Finance and economics财经商业Chinas economy中国经济An alternative view另一视角Chinas official figures both understate and overstate inflation中国官方数据既低估又高估了通货膨胀IS CHINAS economy underheating?中国经济正在降温?Not long ago, many people would have scoffed at the suggestion.前不久,许多人可能还对这种观点嗤之以鼻。The country is known for searing property prices, hot-money inflows and the steam escaping from its financial furnaces.中国正以其过热的房地产价格、大量流入的热钱和蒸汽缭绕的金融市场大熔炉而扬名于世。The stock of outstanding credit, broadly defined, climbed to over 180% of GDP at the end of 2013,根据央行数据,截至2013年底,广义未偿债务已超过GDP的180%;according to the central bank, and over 215%, according to an even broader measure by Fitch, a ratings agency.而根据评级机构惠誉更大范围的测算结果,该数字已超过215%。But house prices are slowing, exports are weak and shadow banking is losing ground to traditional lending.但房价涨速放缓,出口疲软,影子在传统借贷上的优势正在丧失。Forecasters expected industrial output to grow by 9.5% in the first two months of 2014, compared with a year earlier;预测者曾预期2014年前2月的工业出口同比去年增长9.5%,it grew by only 8.6%.但仅同比增长了8.6%。Moreover, evidence of excess has long been absent from the traditional measure of economic overheating: inflation.此外,长久以来,针对经济过热的传统测算一直缺失通货膨胀这一据。New figures suggest that consumer prices rose by only 2% in the year to February,新的数据表明,截至2014年2月,居民消费价格仅增长2%,well below Chinas average inflation of over 3% in the past decade.显著低于过去十年间中国超过3%的平均通货膨胀率。The prices paid to producers fell, again.采购价格也又一次下降。One way to reconcile the inflation number with other signs of excess is to disbelieve it.把通货膨胀数字和经济过热的其他迹象相匹配的办法之一,就是对其持有怀疑。Chinas critics routinely argue that inflation is higher than the governments statisticians claim.中国的家们照旧争论说通货膨胀数据高于政府统计专家所声称的数据。But although it is easy to say the official figures are bad, it is difficult to quantify how bad.但是,口头说说官方数据较差,这很容易,但很难去量化到底有多差。That is the tricky task that Emi Nakamura, Jon Steinsson and Miao Liu of Columbia University set themselves in a recent study.哥伦比亚大学的Emi Nakamura、Jon Steinsson和Miao Liu正在最近的研究中进行这一棘手的工作。They start with an economic law first observed by a 19th-century statistician, Ernst Engel:他们的入手点是19世纪统计学家恩斯特恩格尔首次发现的一条经济法则:richer households spend a smaller share of their income on food.家庭越富裕,购买食物的出占家庭收入的份额越小。Thus as a household becomes richer over time,因此,一个家庭随着时间的推移变得更加富裕时,its spending pattern should match that of households who were equally rich a year or two before.它的出模式应该与一年或两年前同等富裕的家庭相匹配。But in China, they discovered something different.但他们发现,在中国的情况有所不同。They compared urban households in 2006 with households that were, according to the official figures, equally rich in 2008.他们将2006年的城市家庭与2008年官方数据显示的同等富裕的家庭进行了对比,They discovered that the later households were devoting 3-4% more of their budgets to food.发现后者分配在食物上的预算要高上3-4%。Perhaps they were not quite as rich as their 2006 counterparts, after all.可能后者终究还是没有2006年同比家庭那么富裕。The reason is that the cost of living rose faster in the intervening years than official figures suggested—much faster.原因在于,在这几年间,生活成本的涨速已远远超过官方数据。The economists believe true inflation may have been as high as 20% in 2007 and 18% in 2008,经济学家们相信,2007、2008两年的实际通货膨胀率已经分别高达20%和18%,与此相比,compared with official figures of 4.8% and 5.9%.官方数据仅为4.8%和5.9%。This dramatic increase in the cost of living partly reflects a spike in pork prices after an outbreak of disease fattened the price of hogs by about 60%.在一场突发疾病导致生猪价格上涨了约60%之后,这种生活成本的急剧增长在一定程度上就反映了猪肉价格飙升这一情形。Did the government simply lie about this price pressure?仅仅是政府在这种价格压力上撒谎了么?Possibly. But if so, its rationale is not clear.可能吧。但要是这样,其基本原因并不明确。Understating inflation does not suppress the discontent it causes.低估通货膨胀并不能抑制它所引发的不满情绪。The public pays more attention to the price of pork in the market than to data from the National Bureau of Statistics.公众更多关注的是市场上猪肉的价格,而不是国家统计局发布的数字。Moreover, it turns out that Chinas official figures do not always understate inflation.另外,中国的官方数据并非总是低估通货膨胀。From 1996 to 2006, they actually exaggerated it in every year but one, according to the same method.1996-2006年间,按照相同计算方法来看,除其中一年外,实际上每年官方数据都夸大了通货膨胀。As a result, urban consumption was growing even faster in this period than the official statistics conveyed.因此,此期间内城镇消费的增长甚至要比官方发布的数据还快。Chinas policymakers had more to boast about than they knew.中国的政策制定者们还能再做更大程度的自夸。The inflation figures calculated by the three economists are also remarkably well correlated with the official numbers.上述三位经济学家计算出的通货膨胀数据也非常好地匹配了官方数据,They rise and fall in unison.双方数据的上涨和下落相一致。It is just that the unofficial figures rise faster and fall further.只是这些非官方数据上涨速度更快,下落幅度也更大。The trio conjecture that two competing biases are at work.三人推测,有两方相互竞争的偏见在起作用。First, new goods are often of higher quality than the ones they replace,首先,新商品的质量往往比其所替代的商品更高,but their price is the same.但二者价格一样。That would explain why China overstated inflation before 2007.这可以解释为何中国在2007年以前高估了通货膨胀率。More subtly, statisticians sometimes fail to grasp that new goods are merely upgrades of existing ones.更微妙的是,有时统计学家们并没有注意到新产品其实仅仅是现有产品的升级,So they invent new categories; that biases inflation towards zero.所以他们制定出了新的产品类别,这就使通货膨胀率偏向零。As a consequence, Chinas official figures present a smoothed version of reality, the authors write.因此,三人在研究中写道,中国官方数据展现了一种被平滑了的现实。Those numbers do not, then, reveal the whole truth about Chinas economy, as the cynics point out.愤世嫉俗者们指出,那么这些数据就没有披露中国经济的全部实情。But their shortcomings are not simply statistical flattery.但这些数据的缺点并非在于美化实情,They are closer to statistical smooth-talk.而是更偏向于圆滑地表述了实情。 /201403/280321。

Microsoft and the PC industry微软和个人电脑业Defenestrated被抛弃Steve Ballmer is a casualty of the personal computer’s rapid decline史蒂夫鲍尔默是个人电脑迅速衰败的罪魁祸首Aug 31st 2013 |From the print editionUNTIL August 23rd few people would have described Steve Ballmer as “retiring”. Microsoft’s chief executive has played both tiger and Tigger: snarling (toothlessly, as it turned out) at Apple’s gadgets; and bouncing, with a whoop, onto conference stages to extol his company’s wares. But retiring he is, within a year.在8月23日之前很少人会想到史蒂夫鲍尔默会退休。微软的首席执行官即使老虎也是跳跳虎,与苹果的产品叫板,但是结果却没什么威胁,在发布会上吹嘘其产品。但是他将会在一年之内退休。Mr Ballmer’s departure is a surprise. He had announced a reorganisation of the company only in July and had hoped to oversee much of the change. Some celebrated his going: Microsoft’s share price went up by 7.3% on the day the news broke. Mr Ballmer has plenty of critics, although Microsoft’s revenues have trebled on his 13-year watch, to .8 billion in the year to June, and profits have grown similarly, to .9 billion. The critics point at the rise of Apple and Google, and say Microsoft should have done better—or handed some of its billion of cash to shareholders. In an interview with the Seattle Times, Mr Ballmer denied that pressure from ValueAct, a fund with a small stake in the firm, helped push him out.鲍尔默的离职是一个意外。就在七月他还宣布了公司的重组,希望能看到改变。一些人为他的离开叫好,微软的股价在鲍尔默退休消息传出的一天内上涨了7.3%。尽管微软的营收在鲍尔默的13年掌舵期间翻了三倍,达到了219亿美元,但是他还是饱受批评。批评者瞄向苹果和谷歌的崛起,表示微软应该比现在做的更好,或者将其770亿现金部分返给股东。在一次来自西雅图时报的采访中,鲍尔默否认了其迫于拥有微软小部分股份的基金ValueAct而离开的说法。Microsoft sits atop a pyramid of companies that prospered from the long boom in personal computers (PCs). The vast majority of PCs run on Microsoft’s Windows operating system and are powered by Intel’s processors. They bear the brands of Dell, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Lenovo and others, and nowadays are mostly made by Taiwanese contractors. The trouble is that people increasingly prefer to buy mobile devices, made by Apple or running Google’s Android operating system. Sales of PCs have been falling at double-digit rates. From the pyramid’s apex to its base, companies are desperate both to refresh the PC and reduce their reliance on it. Few are having much success.微软坐在受益于个人电脑长期繁荣的公司金字塔顶端。大部分的个人电脑跑的是微软的视窗操作系统,用的是英特尔的处理器。它们撑着戴尔,惠普,联想和其他品牌,大部分是有台湾代工厂完成的。现在的麻烦是人们越来越多的倾向于苹果生产或者运行谷歌安卓操作系统的移动设备。个人电脑销量以两位数的速率在下降。金字塔上的公司个个都昂着更新个人电脑,减少它们对个人电脑业务的依赖。几乎没有一家取得成功。Frank Gillett of Forrester, a research firm, reckons that Windows’ share of the market for personal devices, once 95% or more, has dropped to around 30%. Microsoft responded belatedly with Windows 8, a new edition intended for touchscreen PCs and tablets launched last October, with variations for cheaper tablets and phones. Applications lie behind oblong tiles designed for fingertips rather than icons for mouse-clicks. Microsoft’s successful Xbox entertainment system was given the same look. The idea was that this uniform style would help to transfer Microsoft’s dominance of the desktop to mobile devices, and refresh the PC too.调查公司Forrester的Frank Gillett认为微软一度站个人设备市场95%以上的视窗系统现在所占份额跌到了大概30%。微软随后的回应是适用于触屏个人电脑和平板电脑的视窗8系统,发布于去年十月,同时拥有廉价平板和电话的版本。应用以矩形磁贴展示在桌面,为了使用手指触控而不是鼠标点击。微软成功的Xbox系统也使用同样的外观。微软的想法是这种风格上的统一会帮助微软从桌面霸主转变成移动设备霸主,同时也更新个人电脑。It has not happened yet. Few businesses were likely to hurry to buy Windows 8 anyway; some have yet to switch to its predecessor, Windows 7. Consumers have not taken to tiles on PC screens: a new version, Windows 8.1, due in October, will make it easier for them to stick with the old look. Only now is a wide choice of touch PCs and tablet-PC hybrids appearing.然而这个愿景还没有实现。很少的企业急着想购买视窗8系统,有些甚至都没有使用前代的视窗7系统。消费者也没有习惯笔记本屏幕上的磁贴,将于10月发布的最新版本的视窗8.1会让消费者更简单的回到传统桌面。现在有很多混合型平板电脑机型出现在市面上。Microsoft’s own tablet, the Surface, has been a flop, forcing it to make a 0m write-off in its latest results. Windows phones, mostly made by Nokia of Finland, are far behind iPhones and Android devices, with just 3.3% of the world market according to Gartner, another research firm. They have ousted BlackBerry from third place, but that is not saying much.微软自家的平板Surface是一款失败的产品,到现在只销售了9亿美元。另一家调查公司Gartner表示,使用微软操作系统的手机,主要由芬兰的诺基亚生产,销量远远落后于iPhone和安卓设备,只占到手机世界市场的3.3%。它们已经取代了黑莓第三的位置,但是也说明不了什么。Next to Microsoft at the apex, Intel has also done poorly in smartphones and tablets, though it is striving to catch up and in June unveiled a new chip that it hopes will bring new zip to PCs. Among the PC-makers, HP pondered quitting altogether in 2011, then sacked the chief executive who suggested it. Meg Whitman, his successor, chose to stay in, as well as pushing into services and software and shedding 27,000 jobs. She has plenty still to do: HP’s latest results, on August 21st, sent a share-price rally into reverse. At Dell, which is scrapping for much the same ground, Michael Dell, the founder and chief executive, still hopes to win a battle to take the company private. Of the leading PC-makers, Lenovo has coped best. Its home market, China, is slowing but growing, and it is selling plenty of smartphones.跟微软地位相同的英特尔在智能手机和平板市场表现也不佳,尽管其在努力追赶,并于6月发布了一款新的处理器,希望给个人电脑注入新的力量。在所有的个人电脑生产商中,惠普在2011年曾考虑退出,然后解雇了提出这个想法的首席执行官。继任者Meg Whitman选择继续留在个人电脑市场,进军务和软件行业,并减少了27000个职位。她仍然有很多事要做:惠普8月21日最新的财报显示股价重新下跌。戴尔的境遇也非常相似,创始人兼首席执行官迈克尔戴尔仍然希望让公司私营化。在所有的个人电脑制造巨头中,联想的表现是最好的。在本土市场中国,联想在缓慢增长,同时也销售相当部分的智能手机。Despite its slow start in mobile, Microsoft remains hugely profitable. “It’s easy to get focused only on Windows,” says David Cearley of Gartner. The firm was quicker than its rivals to provide cloud services to big companies. Although Google’s free word-processor and spsheet threaten its Office software, Microsoft still has most of its customers, to whom it can sell improved services online. The direction Mr Ballmer has set “makes a lot of sense”, Mr Cearley says. Had he set out sooner, he might have seen the journey through.尽管在移动市场开始较慢,但是微软仍然有很大利润。Gartner的David Cearley表示,专注于视窗操作系统很容易。微软在给大公司提供云端务上比其他对手快了不少。尽管谷歌免费的文本处理软件和表格处理软件对微软的Office构成了威胁,但是微软仍然拥有大部分顾客,微软向其销售改进的在线务。Cearley说鲍尔默规划的方向起了很大的作用。尽管他就要离开,但是他可能看透了前景。 /201309/255929。