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2019年10月15日 13:19:55|来源:国际在线|编辑:安互动
When smog descends on Beijing or other Asian cities, people rush to buy face masks.当雾霾降临到北京等亚洲城市的上空时,人们争相购买口罩。But how effective are the masks at filtering out tiny, harmful particles of pollution?可是,在过滤微小的有害颗粒物方面,这些口罩究竟有多少效果呢?The effectiveness varies tremendously, depending on factors like type, brand and fit. Simple, loosefitting masks do little to combat pollution, according to the ed States Food and Drug Administration, whereas more advanced, government-approved respirators that bind tightly to the wearer#39;s face can help but may be uncomfortable. More public education and research are urgently needed about face masks, health professionals say.基于类型、品牌和贴合度等因素,它们的有效性千差万别。美国食品与药品(ed States Food and Drug Administration)称,松垮地戴在脸上的简单口罩在对抗污染上起不到什么作用,而如果是获政府审批的更为先进的呼吸防护罩紧贴在面部,则能起到作用,但或许不太舒适。卫生领域的专业人士称,在口罩方面亟需加强公众教育与研究。;Consumers simply just don#39;t know which of those masks are the best,; Richard Saint Cyr, a physician in Beijing who writes a health column for the Chinese-language T Magazine once a month, said in an email. ;And some indeed may be worse than helpful if people are falsely reassured and spend more time outside using a mask which doesn#39;t work.;为纽约时报国际生活网站撰写月度健康专栏的圣西睿智医生(Richard Saint Cyr)在北京执业,他通过电子邮件接受采访称,“消费者对哪些口罩最好完全是一头雾水。有些的确是会帮倒忙,比如人们获得了错误的保,戴着不起作用的口罩在室外待更长的时间。”Many masks worn around Asia are simple surgical-type masks. But these are designed to prevent problems like splattering blood, not to block tiny particles, Benjamin Cowling, an associate professor of public health at the University of Hong Kong, said in an email. ;It is pretty common knowledge that surgical face masks have almost no filtration efficiency against pollutants,; he said.亚洲各地采用的许多口罩就是简单的医用口罩。香港大学公共卫生学副教授高本恩(Benjamin Cowling)在电子邮件中表示,这种口罩的设计用途是防止血液飞溅之类的问题,而不是阻挡细颗粒物。“医用口罩在过滤污染物方面几乎无效,这是很基本的常识,”他说。Surgical masks are made of polypropylene, according to Wallace Leung, director of the Research Institute of Innovative Products and Technologies at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. His tests found that at a standard airflow velocity, basic masks captured only 20 to 25 percent of tiny particles of 50 to 500 nanometers — a size common in diesel vehicles#39; exhaust. Such particles, less than 1 percent of the width of a human hair, are of particular concern because they can get buried deep in the lungs and end up in the bloodstream. The figures do not include any gap between the mask and the face that allows air to come in, further reducing efficiency香港理工大学创新产品与科技研究所所长梁焕方(Wallace Leung)称,医用口罩的材料是聚乙烯。他做的实验发现,在标准空气流速下,基本款的口罩只能过滤20%到25%直径在50到500纳米的细颗粒物。这种尺寸的颗粒物常见于柴油车尾气中,直径不到人体毛发的1%,因为能深入肺部进入血液循环而尤为令人担忧。这些数据还没有考虑口罩与面部之间漏气的情况,而这种空隙会进一步降低过滤效率。;What it means is, if you wear a face mask, you get 75 to 80 percent into the body,; Dr. Leung said. ;So that#39;s not good.;“这就意味着,如果戴的是一般口罩,就会有75%到80%进入人体,”梁士说。“所以情况不太妙。”A better bet, experts say, are respirators that guard against at least 95 percent of small particles. Sometimes known as N95 respirators, they use thick layers of polypropylene, according to Dr. Leung, and are designed to fit tightly to the face. In the ed States, such masks get tested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and must be shown to keep out at least 95 percent of all tiny airborne particles to gain approval. They are often used by industrial workers and are generally disposable.专家们表示,更好的选择是能阻挡至少95%细颗粒物的呼吸防护罩。这种产品有时被命名为N95防护罩,梁士说它由厚厚的多层聚乙烯制成,采用紧贴面部的设计。在美国,此类面罩接受国家职业安全与卫生研究所(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)的检测,要想过关必须明能过滤空气中至少95%的细颗粒物。它们常被工业工人使用,基本是一次性用品。One widely sought-after brand is 3M. The Minnesota-based company recently announced that it would invest million in a Singapore plant to increase production of its N95 respirators by 70 percent.一个广受欢迎的品牌叫3M,厂家的总部位于明尼苏达州。公司最近宣布,将投资1500万美元(约合9300万元人民币)在新加坡新建一座工厂,从而把N95防护罩的产量提升70%。;We definitely are seeing an increase in sales for respiratory protection; for use in China and elsewhere in Asia during hazy conditions, said Nikki McCullough, the technical manager for 3M#39;s personal safety division. The company said the price for its disposable respirators ranges from 30 cents to .70.3M个人安全部门的技术经理尼基·麦卡洛(Nikki McCullough)称,在中国等亚洲国家,由于人们在雾霾天气里要保护呼吸系统,“我们明显发现相关防护产品的销量增加了”。该公司称自己生产的一次性呼吸防护罩的价钱从30美分到6.7美元不等。The respirators block particles in a number of ways as the airflow encounters layered fibers. But respirators that guard against small particles can make it more challenging to breathe. That is especially true for people with heart or lung problems, said Tze-wai Wong, a research professor at the School of Public Health and Primary Care at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.随着气流经过层状纤维,呼吸防护罩会以多种方式阻挡颗粒物。不过,能阻挡细颗粒物的呼吸防护罩可能会让呼吸变得更困难。香港中文大学公共卫生及基层医疗学院(School of Public Health and Primary Care at the Chinese University of Hong Kong)的黄子惠(Tze-wai Wong)教授表示,对有心肺问题的人群尤其如此。To improve breathability and increase filtering efficiency at the same time, Dr. Leung of Hong Kong Polytechnic University wants to create masks and respirators that use multiple layers of nanofibers. He received a ed States patent last year, and ;a number of companies have approached us,; he said.为了改善透气性,同时增强过滤效率,香港理工大学的梁士想发明出使用多层纳米纤维的口罩和呼吸防护罩。去年,他在美国获得了一项专利。“已经有多家公司跟我们接洽了,”他说。Another issue is that while N95 respirators guard against small particles, they do not combat another form of traffic-related pollution: gases like nitrogen oxides or volatile organic compounds.另一个问题是,尽管N95防护罩能阻挡细颗粒物,它们却无法抵御另一种与交通有关的污染:像氮氧化物这样的气体或挥发性有机化合物。Some companies have created cartridges that can connect to certain respirators to block some gases. But they are expensive and cumbersome — and, Dr. Leung said, not a good choice for the public in Asia.一些企业已经研制出了能和特定的呼吸防护罩相连以阻挡部分气体的滤芯。但它们很贵,而且很笨重。梁士说,对亚洲的民众而言,它们不是很好的选择。Dr. Leung hopes to create a system that uses sunlight and oxygen to turn nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds into ;harmless substances, like carbon dioxide or water.; Eventually, he hopes to be able to join it to a regular, particle-filtering respirator.梁士希望能制造一个用阳光和氧气,将氮氧化物和挥发性有机污染物变成“像二氧化碳或水那样的无害物质”的系统。他希望最终能把这个系统加进过滤颗粒物的常规呼吸防护罩中。More testing of existing brands of masks and respirators should be a priority, Dr. Saint Cyr said.圣西睿智表示,首要的应该是对现有的口罩和呼吸防护罩品牌进行更多的检测。Aided by his blog, Dr. Saint Cyr is trying to organize independent testing for 40 brands that are commonly available in China. But he recently put the project on hold, citing the need to gain academic and scientific backing for the project.通过自己的客,圣西睿智正试图组织对中国常见的40个品牌进行独立检验。但前不久,他搁置了这个项目,理由是必须让这个项目有学术依据和科学依据。;I feel it#39;s very important to warn people against masks that don#39;t work, as well as to tell them which work well,; Dr. Saint Cyr said, adding that research is also needed on household air-purifying machines.“我觉得提醒人们有些口罩不起作用,并告诉他们哪些口罩效果好很重要,”圣西睿智说。他还表示,也需要对家用空气净化器进行研究。Dr. Wong said that one low-tech method of combating air pollution might also be the most effective — encouraging people not to go jogging or engage in other strenuous activities during times of heavy smog. The goal, he said, is ;really to try to change the behavior of people on high-pollution days.”黄子惠表示,对付空气污染的一种科技含量很低的方法可能也是最有效的,那就是建议人们不要在烟雾浓重的时候跑步或进行其他剧烈运动。他说,目的“实际上是试着改变人们在高污染天气中的行为”。 /201410/335708Even though she has lived in Beijing for several years, Chinese men are still a closed book to Cathie Watson.即使已经在北京生活多年,凯蒂?沃森对于中国男士还是知之甚少。The 27-year-old from the UK says she is unable to the signs - or rather, the lack of signs - given off by Chinese men. “Quiet”, “hard to reach out to” and “shy” are the words Watson uses as she tries to describe them to China Daily.这位27岁的英国姑娘表示,自己难以读懂中国男士传达出的“信息”,确切的说是他们身上缺少这种信息。在接受《中国日报》采访时,她用“安静”、“拒人千里之外”、“腼腆”等词来描述中国男士。In a country that is integrating with the world in dimensions across the spectrum, cross-cultural relationships have become more common.在这个方方面面都与世界接轨的国度,跨国恋情越来越常见。However, different dating cultures, communication norms and personalities forged in various social contexts pose both challenges and opportunities for young people involved romantically with someone from another country.然而,不同社会背景下造就了约会文化、交际规范以及个性上的各不相同,这在为年轻跨国情侣制造机会的同时,也带来了挑战。Introverted men内敛的男士Hu Yiqiang, 31, a Beijing-based online shop owner, has set his heart on finding a non-Chinese wife or partner, mainly because he is frustrated at the demands made by some Chinese women - a big apartment, a nice car and a good job are the usual requirements cited by Chinese dates, Hu says. That’s not what he wants.31岁的胡义强(音译)是北京一家网店的店主,他一心想要找个外国人做老婆或女友。胡义强表示,这主要是因为,一些中国女性开出的大房子、名车、好工作等要求令他望而却步。而这种恋情并非他想要的。But according to women from abroad, Chinese men are not easy to hang out with, either.但与此同时,一些外国女性也表示,中国男士不太容易接近。Alicia Feng, 26, who works for a law firm, recently arrived in China from the US and has found that people are very different from her peers back in California. “Men here just appear more introverted,” she says.26岁的艾丽西娅?冯在一家律师事务所工作,最近刚刚从美国来到中国的她发现,中国人和自己以前在加州的朋友完全不同。“中国男士似乎更加内向。”她说道。Different attitudes态度不同Andrea Bacon, 29, who works as a foreign expert in a meteorological lab, came to Beijing more than 18 months ago with her Chinese boyfriend, whom she met in the US. According to her, Chinese men are very considerate and pay attention to every detail, which she thinks is very touching.29岁的安德烈亚?培根是一所气象实验室的外国专家,一年半之前,她随中国男友来到北京,他们二人是在美国相遇的。在她看来,中国男士十分体贴,关注每一个细节,她觉得这非常令人感动。“Obviously, Beijing is quite a strange place for me and at the beginning he tried to accompany me to many multicultural events so I could mingle in a familiar environment. I thought that was very sweet,” Bacon says.“显然,北京对我来说是一个完全陌生的城市。起初,他尝试着陪我去参加一些跨文化交流活动,让我可以融入一个相对熟悉的环境之中。我认为这是十分温柔体贴的举动。”培根说。However, Bacon also admits that her boyfriend’s attitude is very Chinese and the problems that face all young people in the big city, such as buying an apartment, weigh heavily on him. “He always seems to be under some sort of pressure, but I care more about how well we get along with each other,” Bacon says.尽管如此,培根承认男友的观念仍十分中国化,那些大城市年轻人所面临的买房等问题也深深困扰着他。“他看上去总是压力重重,但我更在乎我们之间如何更好地相处。”培根说道。Bridging the dating gap跨越距离爱上你For Roy Huggins, who has provided long-term counseling for many interracial couples in the US and other countries since 2010, overcoming cultural differences is crucial to ensuring the longevity of a relationship.罗伊?哈金斯从2010年开始就向美国及其他国家的跨国恋情侣提供长期咨询务。他认为,克文化差异是确保跨国恋稳定长久的关键。“Based on academic studies and my experience with clients from Japan, Southeast Asia, and a few from China, being from a collectivist culture, Chinese partners are likely to clash with American or other Western partners about responsibility to family and helping each other meet individual needs,” he says. “For example, a Chinese partner may think less of an American or Canadian partner who seems ‘needy’.”“结合学术研究,以及我与日本、东南亚及中国客户打交道的经验来看,受集体主义文化熏陶的中国人在家庭责任、满足彼此需求等方面的观念往往与美国或其他西方人截然相反,”他说。“比如,对于美国人或者加拿大人认为严重的问题,他们的中国情侣可能会认为无足轻重。”In a recent article It’s Hard to Say “I Love You” in Chinese, on China File online magazine, Roseann Lake, a China-based writer from the US, discovered that Chinese men find it very hard to cross the boundary into uncharted territory and express their love in a straightforward, direct way, even though they may be intensely in love with their partner or spouse.在线杂志《中参馆》最新刊登了一篇名为《难以启齿的“我爱你”》的文章,现居中国的美国作家罗斯安?莱克发现,即使是向他们深爱着的伴侣或配偶,中国人依旧很难跨越进入未知领域,大胆直接地表达爱意。 /201404/289916

Invited by China`s First Lady Peng Liyuan, US First Lady Michelle Obama is visiting China with her daughters this week. The two ladies will definitely attract attention in terms of fashion. Peng turned the world onto Chinese designer Ma Ke and the label Exception de Mixmind, while Mrs. Obama has made famous the American designer Jason Wu, along with Michael Kors and Ralph Lauren. Before their styles meet, let us review some of the attractive moments the two First Ladies have had under the public eye.应中国国家主席习近平的夫人彭丽媛女士之邀,美国第一夫人米歇尔?奥巴马将携两个女儿于本周开启访华之旅。毫无疑问,两位女士的时尚穿着将会引起各界关注。彭丽媛将中国设计师马可和其打造的装品牌“例外”推向了世界舞台,而奥巴马夫人则让美国设计师Jason Wu、Michael Kors以及Ralph Lauren名声大噪。在她们展开真正的“时尚交锋”之前,让我们先来回顾一下这两位第一夫人在公众视线下的迷人时刻吧!First Strike第一回合Michelle Obama wore a Thom Browne design to the US Presidential Inauguration. The Fist Lady arrived at St. John`s Church in Washington DC, wearing a checked-pattern overcoat. Her dark pink gloves were also highlights of her outfit.米歇尔?奥巴马身穿Thom Browne品牌饰亮相美国总统就职典礼。这位第一夫人身着格纹大衣出现在华盛顿圣约翰教堂,玫红色的手套也成为她这身装扮的一大亮点。Peng, who accompanied her husband President Xi Jingping on his first state visit to Russia, wore a navy blue coat from designer Ma Ke. Her overcoat, together with the square black handbag, was very elegant. Her look`s highlight was in her light-blue scarf, adding a light style to her classic look.彭丽媛身穿设计师马可打造的藏青色外套,陪同习近平主席对俄罗斯进行首次国事访问。这身外套配上方形的黑色手袋令她本人看上去格外优雅。浅蓝色的丝巾无疑是整个造型的亮点,给她这身经典搭配增添了一抹淡雅之感。Layers层次搭配Peng Liyuan used different shades of blue to create a flowing style, such as a long dark blue shirt matching a light blue skirt. The best part was her thin leather belt, in milky white, which added something fresh to her total look. Michelle Obama, on the other hand, used a cape-like shirt to match a cherry one-piece long dress. Her belt featured a few metallic touches, which went well with her ring.彭丽媛用不同层次的蓝色营造出一种行云流水的风格,例如用深蓝色长款衬衫搭配浅蓝色裙子。乳白色细腰带是这身造型的最大亮点,为整个搭配增添了一点清新感。米歇尔?奥巴马则用斗篷式外套搭配樱桃红色的连衣裙。她的腰带展现出一些金属质感,和所佩戴的戒指相映成彰。White shirt白衬衫Michelle Obama`s white shirt was tight, with giant flounces. It was feminine, stylish, and delivered a strong and independent office look. Peng Liyuan`s white shirt, on the other hand, was wide in the cuffs and shoulders. It was elegant, classic, and especially so when she matched it with a same color tote and earrings.米歇尔?奥巴马的白色衬衣在讲究修身的同时又点缀了巨大的荷叶边。知性而时尚,透露出一股职业女性的坚强与独立。彭丽媛则身穿一件宽肩宽袖口的白色衬衣,尤其再配上同色系的手袋和耳环,更显优雅和经典。Formal suit套装Michelle Obama picked a baby blue suit for an official ceremony to welcome British Prime Minister David Cameron and his wife. The suit was a Zac Posen design. Peng Liyuan, on one formal occasion, wore a dark gray-and-green suit. However, she skillfully used a silk scarf, and she is known for her well-matched scarves!在出席为英国首相戴维?卡梅伦夫妇举行的官方欢迎仪式上,米歇尔?奥巴马挑选了一身淡蓝色的Zac Posen套装。而彭丽媛在一次正式场合上,身着深灰绿色套装。不过,她巧妙地搭配了一条丝巾。众所周知,彭丽媛十分擅长用围巾进行巧妙搭配。Conclusion: a promotion of home brands结论:不遗余力地宣传本国品牌The two First Ladies` power in fashion lies in their promotion of home-grown brands and designers.两位第一夫人的时尚影响力在于对本国品牌和设计师的大力推广。 /201403/281659

Historically, the science of epidemiology was directed toward identifying and controlling epidemics of infectious disease. In a study just published in the New England Journal of Medicine, my colleagues and I highlight another important job for epidemiologists: identifying and controlling epidemics of medical care.历史上,流行病学的研究方向是确诊和控制广泛传播的传染病。我和同事们在《新英格兰医学杂志》(New England Journal of Medicine)上刚刚发表的一篇研究论文中指出,流行病专家还有另外一项任务:识别和控制医疗界造成的流行病。The setting is South Korea, where, over the last two decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased fifteenfold. Nowhere in the world is the rate of any cancer growing faster.研究的背景是韩国。在过去20年里,这里甲状腺癌的发病率提高到了最初的15倍。全世界任何地方都没有哪种癌症能如此之快地增长。We’ve all been taught to seek biological explanations for a significant rise in disease — perhaps a new infectious agent or environmental exposure. But in South Korea, we are seeing something different: an epidemic of diagnosis.我们受过的教育都是,为发病率的显著提高寻找生物学上的解释,或许是新的病原体,或许是环境暴露。然而在韩国,我们看到了不同的情况,这种流行病是因为诊断造成的。In 1999 the government initiated a national health-screening program focused on reducing cancer and other common diseases. Although thyroid cancer screening was not included in the program, all it requires is a simple test — an ultrasound of the neck. Hospitals have ultrasound machines and so do many doctors’ offices. Both promoted thyroid cancer screening as an inexpensive add-on to the government program. It was an easy sell, particularly with the government, the medical community, the news media and cancer “survivors” praising the virtue of early cancer detection.1999年,韩国政府启动了一项全国性的体检计划,主要目的是减少癌症和常见病。尽管其中并不包括甲状腺癌筛查,但它只需要一个简单的步骤:颈部超声波检查。医院里有超声波设备,很多医生的诊所里也有。医院和医生都认为,它是政府计划之外一项廉价的补充检查,因而鼓励患者检查。而患者也很乐于接受,尤其是因为政府、医疗界、新闻媒体和癌症“生还者”都称赞,及早发现癌症有好处。In doing so they inadvertently highlighted the major harm of early detection: What was a rare cancer is now the most common cancer in South Korea.但这样做也意外地突显了及早诊断的巨大危害:一种本来罕见的癌症,成为了韩国最常见的癌症。Where did all those new thyroid cancers come from? They were always there. As early as 1947 pathologists recognized that, although it was a very rare cause of death, thyroid cancer was a frequent finding during autopsies. Studies have since shown that over a third of adults have thyroid cancer. Virtually all of these cancers are small “papillary thyroid cancers,” many of which will never become evident during a person’s life.那些新增的甲状腺癌患者是从哪里来的呢?他们其实一直存在。早在1947年,病理学家就发现,尽管极少成为死因,但是在尸检中经常发现死者患有甲状腺癌的情况。从那时起,研究就发现,超过三分之一的成年人患有甲状腺癌。其中几乎所有人患的都是微小的“甲状腺乳头状癌”,许多人一生中症状都不明显。Unless that person receives a screening ultrasound. In fact, virtually all the newly identified thyroid cancers in Korea are papillary thyroid cancers. How do we know this is not a real epidemic of disease? Because the number of Koreans dying from thyroid cancer has not changed. If the screening were saving lives, the death rate would decline, or increase more slowly as the epidemic sp — but not stay perfectly flat.除非这个人接受了超声波检查。事实上在韩国,几乎所有新确诊的甲状腺癌都是乳头状癌。我们怎么才能知道这不是真正的流行病呢?因为在韩国,死于甲状腺癌的人数并没有变化。如果超声检查挽救了患者的生命,那么死亡率应该降低才对,而如果流行病蔓延开来,死亡率应该缓慢上升才对——然而数据却完全没有起伏。An epidemic of diagnosis is not good for anyone’s health. Resources are needlessly diverted; people are needlessly scared. But the biggest problem is that it begets an epidemic of treatment.诊断呈现的流行病对任何人的健康都没有好处,而且它毫无必要地转移了资源,也毫无必要地惊吓了患者。然而最大的问题是,它在医疗体系内催生了过度治疗。The majority of patients given diagnoses of thyroid cancer have their thyroid gland removed. The thyroid is an important gland — it produces the hormones that control metabolism. Without it, patients may need lifelong thyroid replacement therapy. And it can take doctors a while to find the right dose for each individual. In the meantime, patients suffer from the effects of too little or too much thyroid hormone, including energy and weight fluctuations.多数被诊断患有甲状腺癌的患者,被切除了甲状腺。然而甲状腺是一个重要的腺体,它能分泌控制新陈代谢的激素。如果切除了,患者就可能会终生需要甲状腺替代治疗,而且医生可能需要一段时间才能为每一位患者找到恰当的剂量。与此同时,患者还要承受甲状腺素水平过低或过高的后果,包括精力和体重的波动。The surgery has other less common complications. In South Korea and the ed States about 10 percent of patients have problems with calcium metabolism and about 2 percent experience vocal cord paralysis. And, as with any surgery, there can be life-threatening effects — blood clots in the lungs, heart attacks and strokes. In about two of every 1,000 thyroid cancer operations, the patient dies. It’s rare, but it happens.这种手术也会产生一些并不十分常见的并发症。在韩国和美国,大约10%的患者产生了钙质代谢问题,约有2%的患者发生了声带麻痹。此外,就像任何一种手术一样,它可能会产生威胁生命的后果,如肺部血凝块、心肌梗死和中风。每一千例甲状腺癌手术中,大约会有两名患者身亡。很罕见,但的确会发生。Could what happened in South Korea happen here? Absolutely. Even without a concerted effort to promote screening, thyroid cancer incidence in the ed States is up threefold since 1975. To reverse this trend, we need to actively discourage early thyroid cancer detection.在韩国发生的情况也会在美国发生吗?绝对会。尽管没有各方同心协力推动筛查,美国的甲状腺病例自1975年以来也已经提高到了最初的三倍。要想扭转这种趋势,我们需要积极地劝阻甲状腺癌的早期检查。The virtue of early detection is so ingrained and so appealing that many assume that screening can only be good for you. But that’s not true. The Korean experience illustrates the downside of trying to find cancer early: overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The problem is greatest for thyroid and prostate cancer, but also exists for cancers of the lung, breast, skin and kidney. And then there is all the angst surrounding screening — that can’t be good for anyone’s health.及早检查有好处的观念根深蒂固,而且也很吸引人,所以许多人都认为,做一下检查只会有好处。然而事实并非如此。韩国的经验显示出,试图早期诊断癌症的做法有负面的影响:过度诊断和过度治疗。甲状腺癌和前列腺癌的问题最为严重,然而对肺癌、乳腺癌、皮肤癌、肾癌也存在。当然还有对于检查的焦躁,这可是对任何人的健康都不会有好处的。Of course, screening makes sense in some situations: in particular for people who are at a genuinely high risk for the cancer — those with multiple cancer deaths in their family history. People at average risk who expect to live long enough to experience the potential benefit in the future — and who are willing to accept the chance of harm from unneeded treatment now — may also decide that the screening makes sense for them.当然,检查在一些情况下是有意义的,尤其是癌症真正的高危患者:家族内有多人死于癌症的患者。患病风险中等,但预期寿命足够长,未来可以体验到潜在收益的人——以及那些愿意接受现在并不需要的治疗带来的受到损害的可能性的人——或许也会认定接受检查是合理的。Nevertheless, those interested in early detection may want to concern themselves with the question of how early. Sure, we would rather diagnose cancer in a small breast lump than wait until it develops into a large breast mass. But it may be excessive to extrapolate from that to searching for microscopic cancers. Many of the thyroid cancers found in South Korea were less than a centimeter in size. If we look for earlier cancers, we will always find more. And, at some point, we identify too many things that are better off left unfound. In short, having doctors not look too hard for early cancer is in your interest.尽管如此,有兴趣及早检查的人们,也应该考虑一下多早算早的问题。当然,我们宁愿早些诊断微小的乳腺肿块是不是癌症,也不愿意坐视它发展成大肿块。但如果就此推论,应当寻找显微镜才能看到的微小肿块,恐怕就过头了。韩国发现的许多甲状腺癌变的尺寸不足一厘米。如果我们去寻找癌变的话,总能发现更多病例。但超过了一个限度,我们确诊出的问题就太多了,还不如让它们留在那里不被发现好。简而言之,让医生不要那么热衷于发现早期的癌变,符合患者的利益。That’s where epidemiology comes in. Too many epidemiologists concern themselves not with controlling infectious disease, but with hoping to find small health effects of environmental exposures — or worse, uncertain effects of minor genetic alterations. Perhaps they should instead monitor the more important risk to human health: epidemics of medical care.这正是流行病学的意义。太多的流行病专家不是关注于控制传染病,而是希望寻找环境暴露因素对健康产生的微小影响,更糟的是,寻找微小基因差异可能产生的影响。或许他们应该去关注人类健康更重要的风险:医疗界造成的流行病。 /201411/341588

Exploring the question of love through the memory of previous relationships, one artist has immortalized 12 former lovers in uniquely-designed shoes.回忆往昔的恋情,我们才能够求索爱情的难解之谜。一位艺术家用12双设计独特的鞋子为12位前女友留下了不朽的记忆。New York-based Chilean designer Sebastian Errazuriz reveals a glimpse of each relationship through his wearable Shoe Sculptures, which are accompanied by personal photos and stories.现居纽约的智利设计师塞巴斯蒂安·埃拉苏里斯,设计了12双可穿的鞋塑,还加上了真人照片和故事叙述,向人们可以一窥他的每一段恋情。From the frosty #39;Ice Queen#39; Sophie to the sweet #39;Honey#39; Natasha and #39;The Boss#39; Rachel, the 28-year-old recreates those past relationships -- some meaningful, and some fleeting flings.冷若冰霜的“冰雪皇后”索菲、甜蜜的“甜心”娜塔莎、“女老板”瑞秋……这位28岁的艺术家再现了过去的恋情,再现了那些意义深远又转瞬即逝的情感。1.;Honey; Natasha“甜心”娜塔莎The artist starts with shoe number, a yellow wedge made out of mesh to resemble honeycomb for #39;Honey#39; Natasha -- who was so nice he broke up with her.艺术家首先设计了一号鞋。这只黄色的坡跟鞋由无数线圈组成,形如蜂巢,是为“甜心”娜塔莎而作——他与娜塔莎分手是因为她太过体贴。2. ;Cry Baby; Alexandra“哭泣的宝贝”亚历山德拉Shoe number two is designed after #39;Cry Baby#39; Alexandra who hung out with the artist to get over a breaking up with her ex- boyfriend.二号鞋子是为“哭泣的宝贝”亚历山德拉设计的,她和艺术家在一起是为了治愈自己和前男友分手的伤痛。3. ;Gold Digger; Alison“掘金者”艾莉森4. ;Heart Breaker; Laura“让我心碎的人” 劳拉Shoe number four tells the story of #39;Heart Breaker#39; Laura, who broke the artist#39;s heart, marrying someone else.四号鞋讲述了“令我心碎的人”劳拉的故事。她另嫁他人,伤透了这位艺术家的心。5. ;Ice Queen; Sophie“冰雪皇后”索菲6. ;Hot lady; Caroline“辣”卡洛琳Shoe number six is named after #39;Hot Lady#39; Caroline, who earned the artist disapproving looks from women, but envious looks from men.六号鞋被命名为“辣”卡洛琳,这是一个让女人投来嫌恶神情、男人投来嫉妒目光的女友。7. ;the virgin; Anna“处女”安娜Shoe number seven, for #39;The Virgin#39; Anna is a white wedge with the Virgin Mary as the shoe#39;s heels.七号鞋子名叫“处女”安娜,这只白色的坡跟鞋的鞋跟是圣母玛利亚的塑像。8. ;Jet Setter; Jessicca“旅行者”杰西卡“You know my dad has a plane. He never really used it; She whispered. Her father is an important man, I am sure the family had several planes...“你知道,我爸爸有一驾私人飞机。他几乎没有用过这架飞机。” 杰西卡悄声说。她的爸爸是一个重要人物,我相信她家拥有几部私人飞机。9. ;The Boss; Rachel“女老板”瑞秋Shoe nine, pictured, is for #39;The Boss#39; Rachel. When held with fingers in the loops, the shoe resembles a gun.九号鞋是为“女老板瑞秋”设计的。其形状像一只手,手指可以穿进鞋底设计的指环里。10. ;G.I. Jane; Barbara“魔鬼女大兵”芭芭拉Shoe number ten, a green pump with a small toy soldier at the toe, was influenced by #39;GI Jane#39; Barbara.十号鞋子是一只绿色的无带轻便舞鞋,鞋尖上有一个玩具兵。这只鞋是献给“魔鬼女大兵”芭芭拉的。11. ;The Ghost; Valentina“幽灵”瓦伦蒂娜Shoe number 11, which is made purely of white wire, is dedicated to #39;The Ghost#39; Valentina, a woman he loved #39;a little#39;.十一号鞋完全是以白色的缆线为材质,这只鞋是献给“幽灵” 瓦伦蒂娜的,他对这个女人只是“有一点点喜欢”。12. ;The Rock;Alice“磐石”爱丽丝Shoe number 12 is #39;The Rock#39; Alice. #39;She knew we would be together long before I ever did,#39; Mr Errazuriz writes. #39;She also knew we would eventually break although I always wanted to believe otherwise.第十二号鞋子是“磐石”爱丽丝。“早在我之前她就知道我们会在一起,” 埃拉苏里斯说,“她也知道终有一天我们会分开。虽然我一直都希望我们能不分开。” /201312/269059

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