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2019年11月14日 10:36:51 | 作者:光明报 | 来源:新华社
The Republic of China中华民国General概况As a turbulent and decisive period of Chinese history, the Republic of China (中华民国)experienced a short period of 37 years, which succeeded the Qing Dynasty (清朝)in China and ruled mainland China from 1912 to 1949.作为中国历史上一个混乱却无比重要的时间段,1912到1949年这37年间,中华民国推翻清朝并统治中国大陆。In 1905 Sun Yat-sen founded the Tongmeng Hui(同盟会)centered on the three Principles of the People(三民主义):“nationalism(民族),democracy(民主),and people’s livelihood(民生)With the “bourgeois” revolution ofl911,he introduced a Western style administration system, who was inaugurated in Nanjing(南京)as the first provisional president(临时大总统).1905年,孙中山成立了以三民主义为纲领的同盟会,强调:民族、民主和民生,他在1911年资产阶级革命中引入了西方的行政制度,并在南京宣誓就职成为第一任临时大总统。 /201512/412287

An Austrian 85-year-old cut up into tiny pieces almost a million euros (.1 million) in an apparent attempt to spite her heirs, authorities said Thursday.据报道,上周四,奥地利一位85岁老人将近100万欧元(合700多万人民币)剪碎。这显然是为了报复她的继承人。After the woman died in a retirement home, the 950,000 euros as well as savings accounts books were found shredded on her bed, prosecutors said.检察官说,老人在养老院去世后,在她的床上发现了95万欧元和存折的碎片。State prosecutor Erich Habitzl confirmed the discovery -- first reported in the Kurier daily -- but said that there was nothing he could do for the relatives.国家检察官埃里希·哈毕策尔实了这个报道——《信使报》首先报道了这一新闻——但他说并不能为老人的亲属做什么。;The damage of the money in the woman#39;s property is not a criminal matter, so we have not begun any investigation,; Habitzl told AFP.检察官哈毕策尔告诉法新社,“这名女性的财产受到损害,但此案不是刑事犯罪,所以我们不能展开调查。”Kurier reported however that the woman#39;s surviving family will have the last laugh, with Austria#39;s central bank (OeNB) saying it will replace all the cash.《信使报》随后报道,奥地利国民(OeNB)称他们可以复原所有纸币,这对老人的继承者来说是一大转机。;If the heirs can only find shreds of money and if the origin of the money is assured, then of course it can all be replaced,; Friedrich Hammerschmidt, deputy head of the OeNB cashier division, told Kurier.奥地利国民现金管理部副主任弗里德瑞希·汉默尔施密特告诉《信使报》,“如果继承者能找到钱的碎片,并且能确保这些钱的来源,那么我们当然可以替换。”;If we didn#39;t pay out the money then we would be punishing the wrong people.;“如果我们拒绝替换,那么我们将是在惩罚没有犯错的人。” /201511/409028

Can Lab Grown #39;Super#39; Coral Rescue Our Rapidly Dwindling Reefs?人造“超级珊瑚”能否挽救濒危珊瑚礁?Rising water temperatures and the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in our oceans are killing our beautiful coral reefs at an unprecedented rate. Add the current El Ni#241;o weather pattern that is expected to prevail through winter and spring 2016 to the mix, and things look even worse. Scientists estimate that the 1988 El Ni#241;o destroyed almost 16% of the world#39;s coral reefs and believe things could get even worse this time around.不断上升的海水温度和二氧化碳浓度使美丽的珊瑚正以前所未有的速度消失。从去年冬天一直持续到2016年春天的厄尔尼诺天气也使情况变得更糟。据科学家估算,1988年的厄尔尼诺现象几乎毁坏了全球16%的珊瑚,这次甚至会毁坏更多。The disappearance of the reefs does more than rob humans the chance to admire the beautiful structures. It removes a natural barrier that protects shorelines from storms and also leaves fewer habitat options for fish and other marine life.珊瑚的消失远不止无法供人类赏玩这么简单。这不仅使海岸线少了一道天然保护屏障,也让鱼类和其他海洋生物失去了一样栖息场所。To prevent these important animals from disappearing altogether, a team of researchers from the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology are attempting to breed #39;super#39; corals.为了避免如此重要的物种灭绝,夏威夷海洋生物研究所的科学家们正努力尝试人工繁殖“超级珊瑚”。The group led by Dr. Ruth Gates began by selecting certain coral species that seem to have adapted to the changing ocean conditions better than others. They then made them even more resilient by subjecting them to warmer, more acidic water at their research center on the 28-acre Coconut Island, in Kāne#39;ohe Bay off the Island of Oahu.这个由Ruth Gates士带领的团队先是从更耐受海洋环境变化的珊瑚中筛选出一些特殊种类。随后,他们在可可纳特岛上的实验室里,将这些珊瑚耐热耐酸性能培养得更强。该岛仅有28英亩大小,坐落于Oahu岛附近的Kāne#39;ohe海湾上。The resulting strains are being bred with each other to create #39;super#39; corals that will hopefully not just withstand, but thrive in the warmer, increasingly acidic oceans. Once y, the researchers plan to transplant the coral into Hawaii#39;s Kaneohe Bay, which has lost an estimated 60 percent to 80 percent of its coral to bleaching this year.他们希望培养出的新品种通过杂交来产生既能在更暖且酸度更大的海洋里生存,又能不断蓬勃繁殖生长的“超级珊瑚”。“超级珊瑚”生成之后,科学家打算把它们移植到有60%-80%珊瑚发生白化的夏威夷Kaneohe湾中。Although the researchers realize the dangers, Gates believes there is no choice but to intervene if we want to prevent the reefs from disappearing altogether. Tom Oliver, a marine biologist and team leader at NOAA#39;s Coral Reef Ecosystem Division agrees. The expert who believes the project is both scalable and promising says, ;The question is not can they do it, it#39;s can they do it fast enough?; - We sure hope so!虽然科学家意识到这样做有风险,Gates士认为防止珊瑚完全灭绝,除了人工干预之外别无他选。同为海洋生物学家和美国国家海洋及大气珊瑚生态系统分部领导的Tom Oliver也同意这一观点。 他认为该项目既可行也颇具前景,他表示:“问题并不在他们这么做是否正确,而是是否还来得及?”而我们当然希望为时不晚咯。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可, /201601/421971

LUCKNOW, India — That’s Mishty Yadav on the right. At 28 months, she looked huge in her mother’s arms, as if she spent nights on a gold throne dipping cookies into buffalo milk.印度勒克瑙——右边的是米什蒂·亚达夫(Mishty Yadav)。她28个月大,在母亲怀里看起来体格硕大,仿佛夜里都是坐在黄金宝座上吃着饼干蘸牛奶。But it turns out the reason she caught my eye was because, in contrast to so many children, Mishty is healthy. And here in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, where the majority of children under the age of five are malnourished and stunted, what looks normal starts to change.不过,后来我发现,她之所以引起了我的关注,是因为她很健康,与太多的孩子不一样。这里是印度北方邦,多数五岁以下的婴幼儿营养不良、发育迟缓。什么叫做正常,也就有了变化。In rural villages like this one a normal child looks like 5-year-old Shanvi Yadav, there on the left — very small and very thin.在这样的乡村里,“正常”孩子长得像左边的五岁大的莎薇·亚达夫(Shanvi Yadav)一样——又瘦又小。So Mishty is barely half Shanvi’s age but may weigh even more than her. They live about 100 feet from each other, but their opportunities to grow up healthy, both physically and mentally, are vastly different. When I met them and spoke to their families, I was struck by how early child-rearing practices were likely to result in dramatically different life trajectories for the two kids. When most mothers in these villages care for their children, they do so based on traditional practices. And tradition, even when misinformed, can be hard to go against.因此,尽管米什蒂刚到莎薇一半的年纪,体重却可能比她还大。她们住的地方相距大约百尺,身心健康成长的几率却有着天壤之别。当我认识她们并与其家人谈话之后,我深有感触:早期育儿实践很可能会让这两个孩子走上截然不同的生活轨迹。这些乡村里的母亲养育孩子的时候,多数人遵循的是传统做法。而传统,即便是谬误,也会很难抗拒。When Nicholas Kristof asked one mother in Jalim Kheda whether or not she was giving water to her month-old infant, she said she was not. Only breast milk. Hearing this, her mother-in-law and neighbors started scolding her for not giving the child water. Many villagers provide infants with water when it is hot to cool them off.在贾里姆凯达,纪思道(Nicholas Kristof)询问了一位母亲是否给她一个月大的婴儿喂水。是否定的,她只喂母乳。听闻此言,她的婆婆和邻居开始训斥她没有让孩子喝水。天热的时候,许多村民会用给婴儿喂水的办法来给他们降温。“Anything the baby is taking that is not breast milk [such as water] is replacing breast milk,” says Shawn Baker, head of nutrition for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “And breast milk has been designed over several million years of evolution to be the perfect nutrition. It’s perfectly synchronized to the infant’s needs.”“婴儿摄入的任何除母乳之外的东西(比如水),都是在挤占母乳的空间,”比尔及梅林达·盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)的营养议题总监肖恩·贝克(Shawn Baker)说。“经过几百万年的进化,母乳是最佳营养品。它与婴儿的需求完美契合。”As peer pressure weighed on the mother, she finally gave in and said she would start giving her baby water. The influence of tradition is strong, and in many cases, unhealthy. A nutritionist with us hurriedly told the mom that she was on the right path and not to give water.周围的压力落到了这位母亲身上,她最终投降,表示自己会开始给孩子喂水。传统的影响力是强大的,在很多情况下却并不健康。与我们同行的一名营养专家匆忙告诉她,她是对的,别给孩子喝水。One of the best ways to break out of the cycle of misinformation is through education. That’s what Nisha Yadav, who earned a bachelor’s degree, credits for knowing how to raise Mishty.打破这种谬误的一种最佳办法是教育。米什蒂的母亲尼莎·亚达夫(Nisha Yadav)拥有学士学位。正是因为教育,她懂得如何抚养自己的孩子。When Nisha was pregnant with Mishty, she went to a private clinic to receive prenatal care. Every day she took iron and folic acid tablets as well as multivitamins. Iron tablets are key during pregnancy to prevent the mother from becoming anemic.当尼莎怀着米什蒂的时候,她去了一家私人诊所来接受产前护理。每天她都要吃铁片和叶酸片,以及多种维生素。铁片是预防母亲在怀期间贫血的关键。Mishty was born at a private hospital in Lucknow and started breast-feeding shortly after. Exclusive breast-feeding lasted six months, upon which complementary feeding was introduced. Nisha breast-fed for the recommended two years before stopping.米什蒂在勒克瑙的一家私人医院出生,并且很快就开始了母乳喂养。纯母乳喂养持续了六个月,然后添加了辅食。尼莎根据推荐让母乳喂养持续了两年,最后才断奶。Just down the road is a different story.就在路的另一端,则是不一样的故事。Babli Yadav, Shanvi’s mother, was taken out of school after eighth grade to help earn for the household. When Babli was pregnant, she was given iron and folic acid tablets but she didn’t take them because they made her feel nauseous.莎薇的妈妈芭布里·亚达夫(Babli Yadav)在八年级后被迫辍学弥补家用。当芭布里怀的时候,她收到了铁片和叶酸片,但是没有吃,因为这些让她感到恶心。Shanvi was born at home and breast-feeding didn’t begin until day 10. There is a myth that the mother’s milk should not be given during the first few days.莎薇是在家里出生的,直到第10天才开始母乳喂养。当地有个错误观念,认为母亲在刚生下孩子的那几天是不能母乳喂养的。“There’s a very strong tradition of giving honey or giving something before being given the breast,” says Baker. “But the early milk is incredibly rich in maternal antibodies. Everything the mother has been protected against is being transferred to protect the infant.”“这里有一个很强的传统,在母乳喂养之前,要先给孩子蜂蜜或者其他的东西,”贝克说。“但初乳有着非常丰富的母源抗体。所有保护母亲的东西都会转移到婴儿身上。”When Babli transitioned to breast-feeding, it was irregular, and eventually stopped after one year. Babli says their diet is poor.当芭布里转为母乳喂养后,也不是很经常,并且最终在一年之后就停止了。芭布里说他们的饮食很差。You can see the physical manifestation of malnutrition in the photo. But physical health is not the only concern. Studies show that cognitive development is severely hampered in malnourished children. They drop out of school earlier and are at a greater risk of dying.你可以从照片中看到营养不良的切实表现。不过,身体健康并不是唯一的问题。研究表明,营养不良儿童的认知能力发育会受到严重阻碍。他们辍学较早,死亡的风险也更大。On this trip I have been fascinated by the tension between factual knowledge and tradition. It has given me an appreciation for how difficult health interventions can be. Simply transmitting knowledge is very unlikely to change behavior. But looking at these two kids, you see the stakes.在这次旅行中,事实知识和传统之间的冲突深深地吸引了我。这让我了解到健康干预可能会有多么的困难。单纯地传播知识好像并不能改变习惯。但看着这两个孩子,你就会看到其中的利害关系。 /201510/404196

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