楼主:医苑新闻 时间:2019年07月21日 08:59:08 点击:0 回复:0
Between babymoons and business trips, more and more women are traveling during their pregnancies.除了喜月旅行和日常出差,越来越多女性开始在期旅行。At least that’s the anecdotal evidence that Jan Rydfors, an obstetrician-gynecologist and a co-founder of the app Pregnancy Companion, has gathered from his patients. Not the most scientific survey, he would be the first to admit, but nevertheless telling. “I’ve done this over 20 years,” Dr. Rydfors said, “and I do think women feel much more that being pregnant is a healthy state.” He added, “They tend to listen more to their bodies than to dogma, so there’s much more traveling.” (To be done, of course, under the guidance of your doctor.)至少,这是产科妇科医生让·莱德弗斯(Jan Rydfors)通过对自己病人的观察得出的经验之谈。他是应用程序期伴侣(Pregnancy Companion)的联合创办人。他坦承这不是最科学的调查,却是显而易见的现象。“我干这一行20多年了,”莱德弗斯说,“我的确认为女人越来越觉得怀是一种健康状态。”他补充说,“她们更愿意倾听自己身体的声音,而不是教条,所以越来越多妇开始旅行(当然,要在医生的指导下进行)。”Recently Dr. Rydfors gave travel tips for pregnant women, some of which came in handy during trips he took with his expectant wife before the birth of their first daughter. Following are edited excerpts of the conversation.前不久,莱德弗斯给妇们提供了一些旅行贴士。当年他和初次怀的妻子一起旅行时,其中一些秘诀就发挥了作用。下面的对话经过剪辑和浓缩。Q. Any precautions women should take before their trips?问:开始旅行前,妇要做哪些准备?A. Something I recommend to all of my patients: Get a copy of your prenatal chart and a letter from your O.B. clearing you for travel, with your due date. In case there are any medical problems, doctors would have an idea of how the pregnancy has been going. Your hotel or the American Embassy should have a list of doctors that are recommended, and most medical professionals anywhere understand basic English. I’d also recommend getting a flu shot because on a plane you’re around a lot more people, you’re touching a lot of surfaces, you’re more prone to get an infection. Keep in mind it takes two weeks for the flu shot to really start working.答:我给所有病人提的一个建议是:带上你的产检表以及产科医生的旅行准许函,上面会有你的预产期。万一你的身体出现问题,医生们能从中得知你的怀状况。酒店或美国大使馆通常会提供推荐医师名单,不管在哪里,大多数医务人员都懂基础英语。我还建议你打一针流感疫苗,因为在飞机上,你周围有很多人,你会触摸很多东西,所以更易染上感冒。记住:流感疫苗打完两周后才能真正开始发挥作用。Anything to pack?问:要带哪些东西?It’s not a bad idea before you go to ask your doctor for a prescription of azithromycin, an antibiotic for travel diarrhea that’s safe for pregnant women, and an over-the-counter antidiarrheal medication like Imodium to take along with you. With travel diarrhea, it’s more the loss of liquid than the infection that’s worrying. If you become too dehydrated, it can affect amniotic fluid and blood flow to the baby. If you have a lot of diarrhea, pure coconut water — it has a little sugar and a lot of electrolytes — is a great way to rehydrate.答:出发前让医生给你开一份阿奇霉素的处方是个不错的主意。阿奇霉素是一种治疗旅行腹泻的抗生素,妇也可以安全使用。再带一种非处方的止泻药,比如易蒙停(Imodium)。旅行腹泻令人担忧的主要是脱水,而非感染本身。如果你严重脱水,可能会影响胎儿的羊水和血流。如果你严重腹泻,纯椰汁是补水良品,因为它只含一点糖,却含有很多电解质。My wife had terrible morning sickness, and it did get worse during the travel partly because a lack of sleep makes you a little more nauseous. She was aly taking the anti-nausea medication Scopolamine, so she took a little more to max out her dosage. You can ask your O.B. about the Scopolamine patches behind your ear, which are very good and safe to use.我妻子晨吐严重,旅行时的确又加重了,部分原因是缺乏睡眠让她更易恶心。当时她已经吃了缓解恶心的东莨菪碱,所以她又吃了一点,用到了最大剂量。你可以让产科医生给你开一点贴在耳后东莨菪碱贴,它很有效,也够安全。Any tips for the plane? 问:坐飞机时要注意什么?When you’re pregnant, you tend to sweat more, pee more and drink a little less because you’re nauseous. It’s easy to get dehydrated in a plane, especially because it’s very dry. Drink as much as possible. Also, your clotting factors are elevated from the pregnancy hormones; that along with being dehydrated, your blood becomes more viscous, more prone to blood clots. Walk up and down the aisle at least once every hour to make sure blood is circulating. To help with swelling, wear loosefitting shoes and, in the last trimester, maybe some support hose.答:怀期间,容易出汗,小便频繁,因为恶心而不爱喝水,再加上飞机上特别干,你就更容易脱水,所以你要尽量多喝水。另外,激素会增加你的凝血因子,再加上脱水,你的血会变得更稠,更易形成血栓,所以至少每隔一小时在过道上走一走,确保血液循环。为了应对肿胀问题,你可以穿上宽松的鞋子,在最后三个月,也可以穿上护腿长筒袜。What’s the latest you recommend pregnant women to travel?问:期旅行最晚可以到几月?Term is 37 weeks, so the very, very latest, I’d say, is 36 weeks. A lot of airlines use that cutoff, some earlier, so make sure you double check. If it’s a long flight, I usually recommend 32 to 34 weeks. Toward the end, you swell up so much, and it’s uncomfortable if you’re on a plane.答:37周后就要分娩了,所以最晚最晚是第36周。很多航空公司以此为截止日期,有些更早,所以你一定要仔细算好。如果是长途飞行,我通常的建议是32至34周。到后期,你的腹部隆起很多,坐飞机也会不舒。 /201412/345434Sleeping more than eight hours a day is associated with a higher risk for stroke, a new study has found.一项新研究发现,每天睡眠超过八小时与更大中风风险有关联。Researchers studied 9,692 people, ages 42 to 81, who had never had a stroke. The study tracked how many hours a night the people slept at the beginning of the study and how much nightly sleep they were getting four years later. Over the 10-year study, 346 of the study subjects suffered strokes.研究对象为9692名42岁至81岁的人,研究开始前他们从未发生过中风。研究人员记录了这些人在研究开始时及四年后每晚的睡眠时间。在十年的研究中,有346名研究对象中风。After controlling for more than a dozen other health and behavioral variables, the researchers found that people who slept more than eight hours a day were 46 percent more likely to have had a stroke than those who slept six to eight hours.在控制了十多项其他健康和行为变量之后,研究者们发现,每晚睡眠超过八小时的人比睡六至八小时的人患中风的可能性高46%。The study, published online last week in Neurology, also found that the risk of stroke was higher among people who reported that their need for sleep had increased over the study period.这项研究上周发表在《神经学》周刊(Neurology)的网站上。研究还发现,在研究过程中,自称睡眠需求增大的人中风的风险更大。The authors caution that the data on sleep duration depended on self-reports, which can be unreliable. In addition, the study identified an association between sleep and stroke risk, rather than cause and effect. Sleeping more may be an early symptom of disease that leads to stroke, rather than a cause.作者们警告说,睡眠时间数据基于研究对象的自我报告,也许不可靠。另外,这项研究只是表明睡眠和中风风险之间存在联系,并不是存在因果关系。睡得更多可能是导致中风的疾病的早期征兆,而非中风起因。“It could be that there’s aly something happening in the brain that precedes the stroke risk and of which excessive sleep is an early sign,” said the lead author, Yue Leng, a doctoral candidate at the University of Cambridge.“可能在中风风险出现前,大脑已经发生了某种变化,过量睡眠是其早期迹象之一,”这项研究的主要作者、剑桥大学士研究生岳伦(音译)说。In any case, she added, “we don’t have enough evidence to apply this in clinical settings. We don’t want people to think if they sleep longer it will necessarily lead to stroke.”她补充说,不管怎样,“我们没有足够的据把研究结果用到临床上。我们不想让人们认为,睡得更久一定会导致中风。” /201503/363034When Tiffany is doing well, its luxury products and global presence make it tricky to use its results to draw conclusions about other US retailers. Those other US retailers better hope that the analogy remains tenuous.当蒂芙尼(Tiffany)业绩良好时,它销售的奢侈品和全球业务地盘,令人难以利用其业绩推测其它美国零售商的表现。现在,那些美国零售商最好指望这种类比继续是勉强的。In 2014, Tiffany shares rallied over 60 per cent. Strong results in the US and resilience in Asia and Europe led it to raise earnings guidance twice, despite the underlying weakness of the US consumer. But at the outset of fourth-quarter earnings season on Monday, the jewellery group said that holiday earnings were weak, and that 2015 was unlikely to sparkle — earnings growth may only reach mid-single digits. Investors in other US retailers may shrug, but plenty of other US companies may soon be cribbing the text of Tiffany’s warning.2014年期间,蒂芙尼股价上涨超过60%。美国市场的强劲业绩,以及亚洲和欧洲市场的韧性,令其两度上调盈利指引——尽管美国消费者底气不足。但在本周一开始的第四季度盈利报告期之初,该珠宝集团称圣诞期间盈利不佳,而2015年的业绩不太可能令人振奋——盈利增长只能达到5%左右。美国其他零售商的投资者可能不屑一顾,但其他大量美国公司可能很快就会抄袭蒂芙尼的这段警告文字。Nearly half of Tiffany’s sales come from abroad — primarily in Asia, Japan (a separate segment), and Europe. Currency translation lowered sales growth in Japan and Europe by 13 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively. Stripping that out, sales in Europe were up a healthy 9 per cent while Japan was down 3 per cent. The recent rally in the dollar is expected to sting US multinationals as fourth-quarter results come out. One way to counteract dollar appreciation would be for Tiffany to raise international prices, but economic weakness may preclude that.蒂芙尼近一半的销售来自国外——主要在亚洲、日本(按惯例不计入亚洲数据)和欧洲。汇率换算令日本和欧洲的销售增长数据分别降低了13%和8%。排除这一因素,欧洲市场销售健康增长了9%,而日本则下降3%。近期美元汇率持续上升,预计将影响美国跨国企业的第四季度业绩。对蒂芙尼来说,消除美元升值负面影响的办法之一是在海外市场提价,但经济疲弱可能意味着这一做法不可行。Tiffany’s US holiday sales were off 1 per cent. US results earlier in 2014 were strong: both prices and unit sales rose, and Tiffany’s gross margin reached nearly 60 per cent in the third quarter. A significant portion of US sales are to foreign tourists and some of the domestic weakness could stem from greenback-poorer visitors.蒂芙尼在美国圣诞期间的销售下跌了1%。美国市场在2014年前期的表现强劲:售价和销量都有所上升,公司毛利润率在第三季度达到近60%。美国销售中有很大一部分来自外国游客,美国国内市场的疲软在一定程度上可能源于海外游客因美元升值而底气下降。The 2014 Tiffany rally rested on the long-term global growth opportunity and its enduring brand. The current sell-off (the shares were down 14 per cent on Monday) then may present a buying opportunity. Yet it still trades at over 20 times 2015 earnings, a juicy number for a fashion company — no matter how international or prestigious.2014年的蒂芙尼股价涨势依赖于长期全球经济增长机遇,及其经久不衰的品牌。就此而言,目前的股价下跌(周一股价下跌14%)可能代表着买入的好机会。尽管如此,其股价仍超过2015年预期盈利20倍,对时尚行业公司来说仍属高昂——无论它有多么国际化或者有多么高端。 /201501/354494

With their intoxicating spices and complex flavours, Indian curries are enjoyed the world over.印度咖喱因其美味的香料以及多样的风味风靡全球。Now, in a study of more than 2,000 recipes, scientists have discovered the secret behind curry#39;s popularity on a molecular level.现在,通过对2000多种食谱的研究,科学家从分子水平上发现了咖喱风靡全球背后的秘密。They claim that unlike Western dishes that tend to pair similar flavours together - such as beer and bee f - Indian dishes use at least seven ingredients that do not contain overlapping flavours.他们解释道,并不像喜欢把味道相近的东西在一起的西方的吃法(例如牛肉加啤酒),印度菜中一股要用至少七种不同风味的食材。Researchers at the Indian Institute for Technology in Delhi looked at how often overlapping flavour comp ounds were used in a dish#39;s ingredients.位于德里(印度城市)的印度研究所的研究人员着重研究了菜肴中具有相同风味的化合物出现的频率。They reviewed of recipes on TarlaDalal.com, studying the subtle molecular-level differences that distinguish the cuisine, according to a report in the Washington Post.根据华盛顿邮报中的一篇报道,研究人员们研究了TarlaDalal网站上的食谱,他们从分子的水平上细微的差别来区别不同的菜肴。#39;We found that average flavour sharing in Indian cuisine was significantly lesser than expected,#39; researchers wrote.研究人员写道;我们发现,印度菜肴中出现相同风味的化合物的概率比预料中要低得多。;The study found that ingredients such as garam masala and bell peppers are usually teamed up with other ingredients that have no chemical similarity.这项研究发现,像是辛香料和青椒这些材料一般都和那些与它们化学成分不同的材料搭配。This is in contrast to Western dishes that share like flavours. Chefs, for instance claim that seemingly incongruous ingredients, such as chocolate and blue cheese, can taste good together because they share similar compounds.这与西方的习惯是不一样的.例如,厨师们会说,看起来搭配不协调的东西吃起来会很好,像是巧克力加蓝奶酪,他们搭配起来味道很好是因为它们的化学成分相似。An example is acetal, which can be found in whiskey, apple juice, orange juice and raw beets. Strawberries, meanwhile, have flavour compounds that match white wine.乙缩醛就是一个例子,威士忌,苹果汁,橘汁和原料甜菜都含有这种物质.并且,草莓跟白酒也很搭。In Indian dishes, the more overlap two ingredients have in flavour, the less likely they are to appear in the same Indian dish, the scientists said.科学家说,在印度,两种食材的风味越是接近,它们就越不可能出现在同一道菜中。Researchers believe this makes the dish more tasty as the ingredients each bring their own unique flavour to the dish, rather than simply blending in.研究者相信这会使食物更加可口,因为菜中每一种材料都散发着自己独特的风味,而不是简单的混合在一块。Out of the 381 cooking ingredients in the world, the research team from that Indian food uses 200 in their cuisine.在世界上的381种烹饪原料中,研究团队发现印度菜肴中出现了其中的两百种。#39;Each of the spices is uniquely placed in its recipe to shape the flavour sharing pattern with rest of the ingredients,#39; the researchers said.;每一种香料都被唯一的使用在了适合它的菜肴中,这样能使它的味道与其他食材相得益彰.;研究人员说到。Previous research has found curry could actually be good for you, easing arthritis and even protecting people from Alzheimer#39;s.之前的研究发现,咖喱能有助于人们的健康.它可以缓解关节炎甚至还能预防老年痴呆。Most curries contain turmeric, cumin, allspice, cardamon, ginger, garlic and capsicum - spices with stro ng anti-bacterial properties.大多数咖喱含有姜,孜然多香果粉(一种香料),豆蔻,生姜,大蒜和辣椒,具有较强的抗菌性能。This is largely why they#39;re found in dishes from hot countries, where meat needs to be preserved.所以在热带国家菜肴中,我们会经常看到他们添加这类东西,因为那里的肉类需要保存。Separate studies have found that garlic, cinnamon and cumin can destroy up to 80 per cent of meat-borne bacteria, while ginger can slow bacterial growth by 25 per cent.一项独立研究发现,大蒜,肉桂,小茴香能够杀死80%的以肉为宿主的细菌,而姜可以使细菌的生长速度减慢25%。COULD CURRY BE USED TO BANISH BAD MEMORIES?咖喱可以用来消除不好的记忆吗?A spice commonly used in curry could help erase bad memories, according to a study.根据一项研究表明咖喱中常用的香料可以帮助消除不好的记忆。Curcumin, a bright-yellow compound found in the root of the Indian spice turmeric, prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain, and also removed pre-existing fear memories, researchers found.姜黄素,一个明亮的黄色化合物,在印度香料姜黄根粉末之中被发现,研究人员发现它可以阻止了新产生的恐惧记忆储存于大脑之中,并且可以删除原有的恐惧记忆。It is hoped that the findings will help develop treatments for people suffering with psychological disorders.希望该发现将有助于帮助心理障碍患者的治疗。Psychologists from The City University of New York trained rats to become scared when they heard a particular sound. Scientists assumed the creatures were frightened when they froze.纽约城市大学的心理学家训练老鼠当他们听到一个特别的声音的时候变得恐惧(条件反射)。科学家认为当动物恐惧时就会呆住。Hours later, when the same sound was played to the rats, those who had been given ordinary food froze.几个小时后,当相同的声音响起时老鼠(普通饲料饲养的老鼠)全部呆住了。Yet the rats fed the curcumin-rich diet didn#39;t freeze, suggesting their fearful memories had been erased.然而,使用丰富姜黄素饮食的老鼠并没有呆住,这表明他们的恐惧记忆已经被抹去了。 /201503/366105

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