原标题: 即墨市第一人民妇保中医院是私立吗新华知识
If there#39;s a single identifiable moment when Jewish Christmas—the annual American tradition where Jews overindulge on Chinese food on December 25—transitioned from kitsch into codified custom, it was during Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan#39;s 2010 confirmation hearing.如果有什么标志性的时刻来表明犹太人的圣诞节——这是一种年度性的美国传统,美国犹太人会在12月25号这天大吃特吃中国食物——从低级趣味转变成一个既定的传统的话,那这个时刻就非大法官艾蕾娜·卡根2010年的一次审议听会莫属了。During an otherwise tense series of exchanges, Senator Lindsey Graham paused to ask Kagan where she had spent theprevious Christmas. To great laughter, she replied: ;You know, like allJews, I was probably at a Chinese restaurant.;在这次看似紧张的听会上,参议员Lindsey Graham询问卡根她是怎么庆祝前一年的圣诞节的。她的回答是:“你知道,像所有犹太人一样,我可能在一家中国餐馆里吃中餐。”她的回答引起了人们的大笑。Never willing to let a moment pass without remark, Senator Chuck Schumer jumped in to explain,;If I might, no other restaurants are open.;而从来不会让一个时刻留有空白的参议员Chuck Schumer则马上解释道,“如果是我,我也会这么干,因为其他餐馆都没开。”And so goes the story of Jewish Christmasin a tiny capsule. For many Jewish Americans, the night before Christmasconjures up visions, not of sugar plums, but plum sauce slathered over roastduck or an overstocked plate of beef lo mein, a platter of General Tso#39;s, and(maybe) some hot and sour soup.所以小空间里的犹太人圣诞节就是这样展开的。对于许多美国犹太人来说,圣诞夜让人充满了想象,并不是想象小糖果,而是撒上梅子浆的烤鸭亦或满满一盘的牛肉捞面,一盘左宗棠鸡,以及或许还有一些热酸汤。But Schumer#39;s declaration that Jews and Chinese food are as much a match of necessity as sweet and sour are, is onlyhalf the wonton. The circumstances that birthed Jewish Christmas are also deeply historical, sociological, and religious.但是Schumer认为犹太人和中国食物的搭配就好比酸甜的搭配,这种看法其实只对了一半。犹太人圣诞节期间之所以会吃中国食物,这其实还有历史、社会学和宗教方面的原因。The story begins during the halcyon days of the Lower East Side where, as Jennifer 8. Lee, the producer of The Search for General Tso,said, ;Jews and Chinese were the two largest non-Christian immigrant groups; atthe turn of the century.这个故事还要从下东区(纽约市曼哈顿区沿东河南端一带,犹太移民聚居地)的平静的日子里开始说起,来自这里的Jennifer 8. Lee(她是《寻找左宗棠鸡》的制作人)说,“世纪之交之时,犹太人和中国人是两最大的非基督徒移民团体”。So while it#39;s true that Chinese restaurants were notably open on Sundays and during holidays when other restaurants wouldbe closed, the two groups were linked not only by proximity, but by otherness.Jewish affinity for Chinese food ;reveals a lot about immigration history and what it#39;s like to be outsiders,; she explained.中国餐馆确实在周天或者假期的时候还开着,而其他餐馆一般都是关门。中国人和犹太人不仅是因为靠近而产生联系,还因为二者之间的差异性而产生联系。犹太人对中国食物的喜爱“披露了有关移民历史的很多内容以及作为局外人是怎样的一种感受,”她解释道。Estimates of the surging Jewish population of New York City run from 400,000in 1899 to about a million by 1910 (or roughly a quarter of the city#39;s population). And, assome Jews began to assimilate into American life, they not only found acceptance at Chinese restaurants, but also easy passage into the world beyond Kosher food.据估计,在纽约的犹太人口从1899年的40万上升到1910年的大约100万(或者说纽约市总人口的将近四分之一)。随着一些犹太人开始融入美国生活,他们不仅发现自己可以在中国餐馆里受到认可和接纳,而且还能在中餐馆里轻易的吃到犹太食品以外的其他食物。;Chinese restaurants were the easiest placeto trick yourself into thinking you were eating Kosher food,; EdSchonfeld, the owner of RedFarm, one of the most laureled Chineserestaurants in New York, said. Indeed, it was something of a perfect match.Jewish law famously prohibits the mixing of milk and meat just as Chinese foodtraditionally excludes dairy from its dishes. Lee added:“在中国餐馆里,你会非常容易的以为自己吃的就是犹太食物(符合犹太教教规的食物),”RedFarm的所有者Ed Schonfeld如是说,这是纽约最著名的中餐馆之一。二者之间在某种程度上确实是天作之合。众所周知,犹太律法是禁止把奶制品和肉类放在一起的,而中国食物传统上也不包含奶制品。Jennifer 8. Lee补充道:If you look at the two other main ethniccuisines in America, which are Italian and Mexican, both of those combine milkand meat to a significant extent. Chinese food allowed Jews to eat foreigncuisines in a safe way.如果你看看美国另外两个主要的少数族裔餐饮,即意大利和墨西哥,你会发现他们会把牛奶和肉放在一起。而犹太人在吃中国食物时,既能吃到异国风情的食物,又不用担心这些食物是否符合犹太教规。And so, for Jews, the chop suey palaces anddumpling parlors of the Lower East Side and Chinatown gave the illusion ofreligious accordance, even if there was still treifgalore in the form of pork and shellfish. Nevertheless, it#39;s more than a curiositythat a narrow culinary phenomenon that started over a century ago managed togrow into a national ritual that is both specifically American andcharacteristically Jewish.所以,对于犹太人来说,纽约下东区和唐人街里的(美式中国菜)炒杂烩菜和饺子店给他们一种宗教和谐之感的幻觉,尽管不符合犹太教规的食物也会以猪肉和壳类海鲜的形式出现。无论如何,100年前的一个小小的烹饪现象演变成了如今的一个全国性的节日,即犹太人的圣诞节——这是美国人的,更是犹太人的。;Clearly this whole thing with Chinese foodand Jewish people has evolved,; Schoenfeld said. ;There#39;s no question.Christmas was always a good day for Chinese restaurants, but in recent years,it#39;s become the ultimate day of business.;“显然,中国食物和犹太人之间的关系在不断的演变着,”Ed Schonfeld说。“毫无疑问,一直以来圣诞节对中国餐馆来说都是个好日子,但是最近几年,从根本上变成了一个商业日。”But there#39;s more to it than that. Ask a foodpurist about American Chinese food and you#39;ll get a pu-pu platter ofhostilerhetoric about its inauthenticity. Driving the point home, earlier this week,CBS reportedon two Americans who opened a restaurant in Shanghai that featuresAmerican-style Chinese dishes like orange chicken, pork egg rolls, and, yes,the beloved General Tso#39;s, all of which don#39;t exist in traditional Chinesecuisine. The restaurant gets it name from another singular upshot ofChinese-American fusion: Fortune Cookie.不仅如此。如果你问一个食物纯粹主义者有关美式中国食物到底怎样,他可能会抱怨说美式中国食物的不正宗。还有,本周早些时候,哥伦比亚广播公司对两名在上海开了一家餐馆的美国人进行了报道,这家餐馆主营美式的中国食物,包括香橙鸡,猪肉蛋卷,以及受人喜爱的左宗棠鸡,在传统的中国菜肴中,这些菜都是没有的。餐馆的名字也非常具有中美融合的特色:福饼。Schoenfeld, whose restaurant features anegg roll made with pastrami from Katz#39;s Deli, shrugs off the idea thatAmericanized Chinese food is somehow an affront to cultural virtue. ;Adaptationhas been a signature part of the Chinese food experience,; he said. ;If youwent to Italy, you#39;d see a Chinese restaurant trying to make an Italiancustomer happy.;Schoenfeld店里的特色菜是鸡蛋卷五香烟熏牛肉,五香烟熏牛肉来自著名的Katz#39;s Deli,他认为美式中国食物并非是对文化美德的侵犯。“适应当地是中国食物历史中的重要组成部分,”他说。“如果你去意大利,你就会看到那里的中国餐馆也在尽量的让自己的客人满意。;I would argue that Chinese food isthe ethnic cuisine of American Jews.;“我想说的是中国食物是美国犹太人的民族风情美食。”That particular mutability has a meaningfullink to the Jewish experience, the rituals of which were largely forged inexile. During the First and Second Temple eras, Jewish practice centered around templelife in Jerusalem. Featuring a monarchy and a high priesthood, it bears littleresemblance to Jewish life of today with its rabbis and synagogues.这种特别的易变性和犹太经验之间有一种意味深长的关联,犹太经验的仪式大部分是在流放中形成的。在第一和第二圣殿期间,犹太人的实践主要以耶路撒冷的圣殿生活为中心。在一个君主政体和一个大祭司的显著特点下,以前的犹太人生活与如今的具备拉比和犹太教会堂的犹太人生活几乎没有共同点。So could it be that Chinese food is amanifestation of Jewish life in America? Lee seems to think so. “I would arguethat Chinese food is the ethnic cuisine of American Jews. That, in fact, theyidentify with it more than they do gefilte fish or all kinds of the EasternEurope dishes of yore.”所以,中国食物是如今美国犹太人生活的一种表现?至少Lee是这么认为的。“我想说的是中国食物是美国犹太人的民族风情美食。对于犹太人来说,中国食物比鱼丸冻或者所有其他的东欧饮食都更受到他们的认同。Over the centuries, different religiouscustoms have sprung up and new spiritual rituals have taken root, many of whichdraw on the past. Jewish Christmas, in many ways, could very much be seen as amodern affirmation of faith. After all, there are few days that remind AmericanJews of their Jewishness more than Christmas in the ed States.几个世纪以来,不同的宗教风俗如雨后春笋般涌现,而新的精神仪式已经扎根,其中很多以过去为基础。从许多方面看,可以将犹太人的圣诞节看成是对信仰的现代性肯定。毕竟,在美国,很少有其他日子能像圣诞节那样让美国犹太人想起自己所具备的犹太性了。 /201412/350446

ROME — Samantha Cristoforetti had an espresso on Sunday that was out of this world, and she did it in the name of science.罗马——周日,萨曼莎·克里斯托弗雷蒂(Samantha Cristoforetti)享用了一杯世间难寻的意式浓缩咖啡,而且是以科学的名义。Ms. Cristoforetti is an astronaut, the seventh Italian and the first Italian woman to venture into orbit. She has been at the International Space Station since November, and over the weekend got to do something quintessentially Italian: She became the first person to drink an authentic serving of what she called “the finest organic suspension ever devised” in space.克里斯托弗雷蒂是一名宇航员,她是进入过太空的第七名意大利航天员,也是首位意大利女性。从去年11月以来,她一直待在国际空间站(International Space Station)里。上周末,她做成了一件非常具有意大利特色的事情:她成了第一个在太空品尝到纯正意式浓缩咖啡(espresso)的人。她把这杯咖啡称作太空中“有史以来最细腻的有机悬浮液”。“Fresh espresso in the new Zero-G cup! To boldly brew ... ” she posted on social media, where she has been chronicling her stay on the station with photos and explanatory s.“新的零重力杯里的新鲜意式浓缩!大胆地煮……”她在社交媒体上说。她一直在上面用照片和视频记录自己在空间站的生活。However much she may have enjoyed her first espresso in more than five months, making the drink in orbit was no lark, but “a very serious study in fluid physics,” Roberto Battiston, president of ASI, the Italian space agency, wrote in an emailed statement. “Until Sunday, we didn’t know exactly how hot fluids under high pressure reacted” in the near-weightless environment of the space station, he said. “Now we do.”无论她多么享受这五个多月以来的第一杯意式浓缩,在太空中制作这杯饮料可不是为了好玩,而是“一项非常严肃的流体物理学研究,”意大利航天局(ASI)局长罗伯托·巴蒂斯顿(Roberto Battiston)在一份邮件声明中说。“在上周日之前,我们都不能确切地知道,热流体在高压下会出现何种反应,”他说。“现在我们得到了。”A special espresso maker, named ISSpresso, was designed for the task by Argotec, an engineering and software firm based in Turin, and the Italian coffee producer Lavazza, with help from the space agency. It was included among the experiments and technical demonstrations that Ms. Cristoforetti, a captain in the Italian Air Force, was scheduled to carry out on her mission to the station, which ends in mid-May.这台特制的意式浓缩咖啡机叫做ISSpresso,在ASI的帮助下,由位于都灵的设计和软件公司亚果科技(Argotec)和意大利咖啡生产商Lavazza制作。它是克里斯托弗雷蒂计划在空间站完成的实验和技术演示中的一项。克里斯托弗雷蒂是意大利空军的一名飞行员,她的这次任务将于5月中旬结束。“Coffee represents one of the distinctive elements of Italian culture,” said a spokeswoman for the agency, who requested anonymity under her agency’s rules for employees.“咖啡是意大利文化中的独特元素之一,”航天局的一名发言人说。由于该局对雇员的相关规定,她要求匿名。Making a proper espresso — a singular alchemy of high temperature, water pressure and perfectly tamped coffee — is difficult enough to master on earth. Microgravity conditions made the task still more complicated, and Argotec took two years to work out how to do it.制作一杯像样的意式浓缩咖啡——这个流程需要高温、水压,还要把咖啡粉完美地压实——在地球上就已经很难了。微重力条件让这个任务更加复杂,亚果科技花了两年时间才解决这个问题。“We developed our hardware on the basis of the parameters for making good coffee, while considering safety requirements,” said Valerio Di Tana, an engineer at the company.“我们根据制作好咖啡的标准开发了我们的硬件设备,同时还考虑了安全方面的要求,”公司的工程师瓦莱里奥 ·迪塔纳(Valerio Di Tana)说。The squat, 44-pound machine wound up looking something like an old-fashioned laboratory incubator, built from military-standard components. “You don’t see those on terrestrial machines,” Mr. Di Tana said.这台低矮的机器重44磅(约合20千克),采用军工标准的零件打造而成,看上去就像是一台旧式的实验室孵化器。“你在地球上的机器里看不到这些零件,”迪塔纳说。The dripless system is even designed to emit a small waft of coffee odor when the straw is inserted into the pouch containing the brew. Two small flaps on the side allow an astronaut to hold it without burning a hand.通过不滴水系统的特殊设计,当把吸管插入盛有咖啡的小袋时,还可以释放出少量的咖啡香气。侧面设计了两个小活板,宇航员拿着的时候不会烫手。The ISSpresso machine makes other hot drinks as well, including tea and consommé. “This is important from the nutritional aspect, but also gives the astronauts a psychological boost,” David Avino, the managing director of Argotec, said in a telephone interview on Monday.这台ISSpresso还能制作其他热饮,包括茶和清炖肉汤。“它不仅能在提供营养方面能够发挥作用,还能让宇航员在心理上更加振奋,”亚果科技的执行董事戴维·阿维诺(David Avino)周一接受电话采访时说。The company had aly begun the project when another Italian astronaut, Luca Parmitano, remarked in a June 2013 interview from the space station that the one thing he really missed in space “was a good cup of espresso.”在这家公司启动这个项目之后不久,2013年6月,另一名意大利宇航员卢卡·帕米塔诺(Luca Parmitano)在空间站接受采访时曾说,他在太空中唯一十分想念的东西,“就是一杯香醇的意式浓缩咖啡”。 /201505/373444

Chinese people are, quite rightly, proud of their food. However, when foreigners like Britons and Americans think of Chinese food, their impression of it is different to what you might think.中餐理所当然一直是中国人的骄傲。然而,当诸如英、美等西方国家的人提起中餐时,他们的想法可能会出乎你的意料。Growing up in the UK, the Chinese food I was used to eating was food I now recognize as being from Guangdong. For example, a typical dish I would order growing up would be pork in sweet and sour sauce, probably with some rice and spring rolls on the side. This is the type of food we generally eat because most Chinese immigrants to the UK have come from Guangdong.我从小在英国长大,现在才知道原来常吃的中餐其实是粤菜。比如我常点的经典菜糖醋排骨,可能还配有米饭和春卷。我们通常吃的就是这类中餐,因为大多移民英国的中国人都来自广东。You can tell, because when most British people try to imitate the sound of Chinese, they actually imitate the sound of *Cantonese – hearing *Mandarin Chinese is sometimes a shock to British people who have grown up thinking it sounds completely different!这个你可以听出来,因为大多数英国人所模仿的汉语发音实际上是粤语——有时,土生土长的英国人听到普通话会很吃惊,因为跟粤语相差太远。British attitudes to Chinese food may be changing, though.然而,英国人对中餐的态度也许正在发生改变。Chinese-American chef Ken Hom has been on British TV for 30 years, and he told B Food: “Chinese food at the beginning of the 80s (in the UK) was sweet and sour pork, mainly. Most Brits had a very *stereotypical view of Chinese food… Now you are seeing more regional Chinese food from Sichuan, Hunan and other areas of China. It is no longer just Cantonese food.”美籍华人厨师谭荣辉已在英国电视荧屏活跃了30年,他对英国广播公司美食频道说:“80年代初英国的中餐清一色的糖醋排骨。当时,大多数英国人对中餐的看法就是刻版化的粤菜……但现在英国已经可以看到类似川菜、湘菜等更多中国地方菜系了。已经不再只是粤菜的天下了。”Similarly, to most Americans, Chinese food doesn#39;t go too far past orange chicken and fortune cookies, but more regional cuisines are becoming successful, especially in big cities like New York.同样,对大多美国人来说,中餐依旧摆脱不了陈皮鸡和幸运饼的印象,但更多的地方菜系已经在纽约这样的大城市扎稳脚跟。Attitudes have not quite changed completely, though. Many foreigners who live in China will be familiar with this question from a relative back at home: “Have they given you dog yet?” Yes, perhaps because people still know too little about Chinese culture, many people believe that Chinese people love to eat dog meat. And of course, some people do eat dogs, which to Americans is like “eating a member of one#39;s family” according to Vision Times.然而,人们对中餐的看法并没有彻底改观。许多生活在中国的老外经常会听到家里的亲戚这样问:“你吃过肉了吗?”是的,也许因为人们对中国文化还是了解太少,许多人依旧认为中国人喜欢吃肉。当然,有些人确实吃。视觉时代称,吃肉对美国人来说就像“吃掉一个家庭成员”。Also, Chinese people eat many other things people in the West do not –chicken claws, duck heads and some animals#39; organs.当然,中国人也吃许多西方人不吃的东西——鸡爪,鸭头和某些动物器官。But what do foreigners think when they come to China and taste real Chinese food? You#39;ll be glad to know that in my experience, the impressions have been very good.但是,当外国人来到中国,品尝真正的中餐时,他们作何感想?告诉你一个好消息,我个人对中餐的印象非常好。My personal favorite cuisine is Yunnan food, and every foreigner I#39;ve eaten it with has been amazed by the different spices and flavors when they#39;ve tried it.我个人最喜欢的是云南菜,和我一起吃过云南菜的每个外国人都对云南菜独特的配料和味道赞不绝口。Everyone, that is, except my friend who lived in Yunnan for a year, who says she still hasn#39;t had “proper Yunnan food” since. That#39;s the problem when you finally eat real Chinese food –you become picky!真的是每个人,除了我那个已经在云南待了一年的朋友。她坚称自己还没有吃到“正宗的云南菜”。这就是当你吃过真正的中餐后才会有的问题——你的嘴变得太挑了! /201504/372137;I just got promoted again.It#39;s easy to succeed if everyone likes you!;我又升迁了。如果每个人都跟你一样,那么成功很容易啊! /201507/385527Lucy: Don’t just sit there… help me with my homework… go get me volume five of the encyclopedia…露西:别光傻坐在那儿……帮我做作业……给我把百科全书……..Snoopy: Volume five?史努比:第五卷?Lucy: This isn’t volume five, this is volume seven! Can’t you tell volume five from volume seven? How can you be so dumb?露西:这不是第五卷,是第七卷!居然连第五卷跟第七卷都分不清!您怎么这么笨?Snoopy: Rats!史努比:真差劲!Snoopy: (Slurp!)史努比:(吧嗒声)(舔书)Snoopy: They all taste alike to me!史努比:这不尝起来都一个味儿嘛! /201506/375892

Charles L. Dodgson wanted to be remembered for his mathematical innovations as an Oxford don rather than his colorful personal life and 1865 book, “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” but despite his efforts to hide behind the pen name Lewis Carroll, it was Alice who made him famous.查尔斯·L·道奇森(Charles L. Dodgson)希望人们记住自己在牛津担任教授期间的数学创新,而不是自己丰富多的个人生活,以及1865年出版的《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》(Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)。然而,尽管他努力藏身在笔名刘易斯·卡罗尔(Lewis Carroll)之后,“爱丽丝”还是让他出了名。For the 150th birthday of Alice, authors and curators are mining Dodgson’s correspondence and diaries and editions of her story, which has been published in 174 languages. (An events and publications database is at lewiscarrollresources.net.)今年是爱丽丝一书出版150周年纪念日,这本书如今已被翻译为174种语言出版(关于这本书的大事记和出版资料收录于lewiscarrollresources.net),各种作者与策展人深入研究道奇森的信件和日记,以及爱丽丝故事的各种版本。Edward Wakeling, a Dodgson biographer, drew on his own collection of 23,353 documents for his forthcoming book “Lewis Carroll: The Man and His Circle” (I. B. Tauris). Dodgson took about 3,000 photos in his spare time, and a third of them will appear in a second forthcoming book from Mr. Wakeling, “The Photographs of Lewis Carroll: A Catalogue Raisonné” (University of Texas Press), due this summer.爱德华·韦克林(Edward Wakeling)是道奇森的传记作家,他在搜集了23353份文件后,写出了即将出版的《刘易斯·卡罗尔:他和他的朋友圈》(Lewis Carroll: The Man and His Circle, I.B. Tauris)一书。道奇森在空闲时间里拍了大约3000张照片,其中1/3将会出现在韦克林的下一本书《刘易斯·卡罗尔照片选》(The Photographs of Lewis Carroll: A Catalogue Raisonné, University of Texas Press )中,该书将于今年夏天出版。Mr. Wakeling intends to debunk the enduring suggestion that Dodgson, who died in 1898 at 65, disliked the company of adults and had an unhealthy interest in little girls. The biography describes lively, diverse friends including actresses, poets, dentists, judges and British royals.道奇森于1898年逝世,享年65岁,韦克林这本书意在驳斥人们长久以来的想法:他生前并不喜欢与成年人为伍,而是对小女孩们有着病态的兴趣。这本传记栩栩如生描写了道奇森的各种朋友,包括女演员、诗人、牙医、法官和英国贵族。Dodgson largely avoided journalists, however, which did not help his reputation.不过道奇森总是躲着记者,这对他树立名声没什么好处。“His rigorous attempts to protect his privacy and to shun all forms of publicity made successive generations suspect he had something to hide — some dark secret,” Mr. Wakeling writes in the new biography.“他很注意保护自己的隐私,躲避任何形式的曝光,这令一代又一代人觉得他肯定有想隐瞒的东西——比如什么见不得人的秘密,”韦克林在这本新传记里写道。Mr. Wakeling has steadily acquired archival material. In October, at Cheffins auction house in Cambridge, England, he paid about ,100 for Dodgson’s three photos of Constance Mary Powell, a Yorkshire schoolgirl whose family was friends with the Dodgsons.韦克林一直都在收集档案材料,10月,他在英格兰剑桥的柴芬斯拍卖会上花了5100美元买下道奇森为约克郡女学生康斯坦斯·玛丽·鲍威尔(Constance Mary Powell)拍下的三幅照片,她家与道奇森家是朋友。Mr. Wakeling also tracks forgeries that have turned up. In 2006, a volume that Dodgson was said to have signed in 1876 was posted on eBay, and Mr. Wakeling declared it a fake. (It was withdrawn.) “The clincher for me was that the person it was inscribed to, Lewis Carroll hadn’t even met yet,” he said.韦克林也揭露赝品的踪迹。2006年,eBay上有一卷据说是道奇森于1876年亲笔签名的书,韦克林说它是假的,后来它也被下架了。“我的据是,刘易斯·卡罗尔当时还没有遇到那本书的题字里提及的人。”On Feb. 10, memorabilia including Dodgson’s math publications and recently restored paper filmstrips, starring Alice from the 1930s, will appear in “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” an exhibition at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin. In June, the British Library will ship Dodgson’s illustrated manuscript to New York for the first time in three decades for a show at the Morgan Library amp; Museum, “Alice: 150 Years of Wonderland.” And this summer, Oak Knoll Press will publish “Alice in a World of Wonderlands,” a three-volume study of the 7,600 editions of Dodgson’s tale.2月10日,奥斯汀得克萨斯大学哈利·兰塞姆中心将举办“爱丽丝漫游奇境记”展览,届时将展出道奇森的作品,包括他发表的数学著作,以及新近修复的胶片,包括从20世纪30年代起拍摄的爱丽丝形象。6月,大英图书馆将把道奇森的绘画手稿运至纽约,这是30年来的头一遭,这批手稿将在根图书馆与物馆的“爱丽丝:漫游奇境150年”展览中展出。今年夏天,奥克斯·克诺尔出版社将出版三卷本的《爱丽丝漫游各种奇境》(Alice in a World of Wonderlands),书中研究了这个故事的7600种不同版本。The Grolier Club in New York will show various translations in the fall, borrowing from the volumes’ general editor, Jon A. Lindseth. Mr. Lindseth’s gifts to Columbia will be shown in a fall exhibition about Alice at the university’s Rare Book amp; Manuscript Library. And other major private collections are going on view, including loans from August and Clare Imholtz at Hornbake Library at the University of Maryland; Byron and Victoria Sewell at the Huntington Museum of Art in West Virginia (with a catalog from Evertype); and Charlie Lovett at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center.纽约的格罗里埃俱乐部将在今年秋天展出这本书的各种不同译本,它们由这些书的总编辑乔恩·A·林德赛斯(Jon A. Lindseth)出借。林德赛斯赠给哥伦比亚大学的礼物将于今年秋天,在该校的珍本与手稿图书馆举办的爱丽丝展中展出。此外还有其他若干大型个人收藏也会对外展出,其中有马里兰大学霍恩贝克图书馆的奥古斯特与克莱尔·伊姆霍尔兹(August and Clare Imholtz)藏品展,西弗吉尼亚亨廷顿艺术馆的拜伦与维多利亚·塞维尔(Byron and Victoria Sewell)藏品展(包括一份来自艾弗泰普出版社的目录),以及查理·拉维特(Charlie Lovett)在纽约公共图书馆为林肯表演艺术中心举办的活动。Alice connoisseurs enjoy tracing her to the ends of the earth. Mr. Lindseth said in an interview that Mongolian, Kazakh, Tajik and Montenegrin versions were among the most challenging to find. Mr. Imholtz said, “Today came in the mail an Esperanto translation of ‘Through the Looking Glass,’ printed in Ekaterinburg where the Czar was killed.”爱丽丝的研究者们追溯她的踪迹,直到天涯海角。林德赛斯在采访中说,蒙古语、哈萨克语、塔吉克语和黑山语的译本是最难寻觅的。伊姆霍尔兹说,“今天我收到一份世界语译本的《爱丽丝漫游镜中世界》(Through the Looking Glass),它是在叶卡特琳堡印刷的,沙皇就是在那里遇刺。”DRAWN, ELABORATELY精美的绘画For 19th-century German-American communities, painted pages known as fraktur marked rites of passage. In jagged calligraphy — hence the name, which derives from the Latin word for broken — certificates celebrating births and marriages were wreathed in flowers and angels. Many of these fraktur are appearing in the next few weeks at auctions, antiques fairs and museum shows.19世纪,德裔美国社区开始使用德文尖角字体(fraktur)装点各种成人仪式的页面。这种字体源自于拉丁文字母,以充满尖角著称,用于装点出生和结婚,周围还装饰着鲜花和天使。接下来几周,德文尖角字体会出现在很多拍卖会、古玩会和物馆展览上。Lisa Minardi, a curator at Winterthur museum in Delaware, has worked on the exhibitions, poring through thousands of fraktur and noting the evidence that artists trying to make a living produced them in haste. The artists charged pennies per sheet, Ms. Minardi said, and when they marred a page with an ink splotch or misspelling, “Sometimes they make it into a little flower and keep going.”特拉华州的温特瑟尔物馆策展人丽莎·米纳迪(Lisa Minardi)已经筹办过若干展览,研究过几千份德文尖角字体印刷品,她注意到,德文尖角字体的艺术家们为了谋生,经常粗制滥造。她说,作者每制作一份作品,只收取几分钱的费用,如果他们在纸上溅上了墨水渍或拼错了单词,“有时候他们就画一朵小花遮住,糊弄过去。”Fraktur shows will open in February and March at Winterthur, the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Free Library of Philadelphia. Ms. Minardi’s catalog for the Philadelphia Museum show, “Drawn With Spirit: Pennsylvania German Fraktur from the Joan and Victor Johnson Collection” (Yale University Press), points out recurring motifs from practitioners who did not sign works and have not yet been identified. They are known for now with monikers like the Exotic Scenery Artist, the Color Block Artist and the Ruffled Tulip Artist.温特瑟尔物馆、费城艺术馆和费城自由图书馆都将在二月和三月举办德文尖角字体展。米纳迪为费城艺术馆展览撰写的目录名为:“以灵魂绘制:宾夕法尼亚德国尖角字体,来自琼与维克多·约翰逊(Joan and Victor Johnson)的收藏”(耶鲁大学出版社),她在目录中指出,某些一再重复的主题来自若干从不署名,且至今未能识别的作者们。如今人们用代号称呼他们,诸如“异国风情艺术家”、“色块艺术家”和“褶边郁金香艺术家”。The Johnsons kept collecting even as the show and catalog were underway. Last January, they paid about ,800 for an 1820s fraktur painted with birds and bouquets at a Pook amp; Pook auction in Downingtown, Pa. The painter, Friederich Speyer, a Lutheran schoolmaster, wrote in uneven letters. Charming flaws can be detected throughout the Johnson collection: hearts and flower petals have asymmetrical lobes, and text lines slant.直到展览和目录筹备期间,约翰逊夫妇还在继续扩充自己的收藏。去年1月,他们在宾夕法尼亚州唐宁镇的Pook amp; Pook拍卖会上花了3800美元,购买了一份19世纪20年代的德国尖角字体作品,上面绘有鸟儿和花束。作者弗里德里希·斯皮耶(Friederich Speyer)是一位路德会校长,使用参差不齐的字母书写。在约翰逊夫妇的藏品中可以发现种种迷人的瑕疵:心形与花瓣有着不对称的叶片,一行行文字微微歪斜。Cara Zimmerman, an Americana specialist at Christie’s in New York, stood before a fraktur birth certificate, for sale on Jan. 23 at the auction house (estimated at 0 to 0), with a misshapen rectangle of text and mismatched stars along the border. “It’s that freehand nature that’s so fabulous,” she said.卡拉·齐默曼(Cara Zimmerman)是纽约佳士得的一位美国专家,1月23日,她将主持该拍卖行对一份德国尖角字体出生的拍卖(估价200到400美元),文字呈歪曲的矩形,边框上有不协调的星星图案。“这就是这种艺术品著名的手绘特征,”她说。The Christie’s lot had previously belonged to the folk art dealer Edith Gregor Halpert, as did a number of the Johnson pieces. Among the other celebrated past owners of the Johnson acquisitions are Albert Barnes, du Ponts and Rockefellers.佳士得的拍品原本属于民间艺术交易商伊迪丝·格莱格尔·哈尔珀特(Edith Gregor Halpert),约翰逊的若干藏品也来自她那里。约翰逊的藏品中还包括来自阿尔伯特·巴恩斯(Albert Barnes)、都彭(du Ponts)和洛克菲勒等著名藏家的藏品。Ms. Minardi will be lecturing about fraktur on Jan. 24 at the Winter Antiques Show in Manhattan. At the show, Olde Hope Antiques from New Hope, Pa., will offer fraktur painted with parrots and flowers (from ,000 to ,000 each) and a trio with tulips (,000 for the set). At the Metro Curates show, opening Jan. 22 in Manhattan, the dealer Jeff R. Bridgman from Dillsburg, Pa., is bringing fraktur with flowers, birds, hearts, suns and crowns, made for two sisters (,500 for both fraktur). Leatherwood Antiques from Sandwich, Mass., has floral certificates (,800 for a pair) that belonged to Edith Gregor Halpert and then Andy Warhol.1月24日,米纳迪将在曼哈顿的冬季古玩展上就德国尖角字体做一次讲座。在这个展览上,宾夕法尼亚州新霍普的老霍普古玩馆将提供绘制着鹦鹉与花朵的德国尖角字体艺术品(每份22000美元到28000美元不等),以及一份绘有郁金香的三件套作品(一套24000美元)。在1月22日于曼哈顿开幕的Metro Curates展上,宾夕法尼亚州迪尔斯堡的艺术商杰夫·R·布里奇曼(Jeff R.Bridgman )将带来装饰着花朵、鸟儿、心形、太阳和王冠的德国尖角字体艺术品,由两姊制作(两份10500美元)。马萨诸塞州桑德维奇的莱塞伍德古玩馆有花朵装饰的德国尖角字体书(5800美元两份)。它们最初属于伊迪丝·格莱格尔·哈尔珀特,后来又属于安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)。From March 5 to 7, a fraktur symposium at the McNeil Center for Early American Studies at the University of Pennsylvania will cover topics including paint formulas, botanical motifs and early collectors who purchased works from descendants of the original patrons.从3月5日至7日,宾夕法尼亚大学的早期美国研究学会将在麦克尼尔中心举办德国尖角字体研讨会,探讨绘图公式、植物主题、以及那些原始拥有者的后代们手中买下这些艺术品的早期收藏家。 /201501/356559LOS ANGELES — When Edmund G. Brown Sr. was governor of California, people were moving in at a pace of 1,000 a day. With a jubilant Mr. Brown officiating, California commemorated the moment it became the nation’s largest state, in 1962, with a church-bell-ringing, four-day celebration. He was the boom-boom governor for a boom-boom time: championing highways, universities and, most consequential, a sprawling water network to feed the explosion of agriculture and development in the dry reaches of central and Southern California.洛杉矶——当老埃德蒙·G·布朗(Edmund G. Brown Sr.)担任加州州长时,平均每天有1000人搬到该州。1962年,在布朗热情洋溢的主持下,加州庆祝了成为美国第一大州的那一刻。教堂钟声响起,为期四天的庆祝活动拉开帷幕。他是繁荣时期一位有魄力的州长:持建造公路、大学,以及最具深远影响的庞大供水网络,满足农业的迅速扩展,以及加州中南部干旱地区的发展。Nearly 50 years later, it has fallen to Mr. Brown’s only son, Gov. Jerry Brown, to manage the modern-day California that his father helped to create. The state is prospering, with a population of more than double the 15.5 million it had when Mr. Brown, known as Pat, became governor in 1959. But California, the seventh-largest economy in the world, is confronting fundamental questions about its limits and growth, fed by the collision of the severe drought dominating Jerry Brown’s final years as governor and the water and energy demands — from homes, industries and farms, not to mention pools, gardens and golf courses — driven by the aggressive growth policies advocated by his father during his two terms in office.大约50年后,轮到布朗唯一的儿子杰瑞·布朗(Jerry Brown)执掌当代加州,一个由他父亲参与创建的加州。加州繁荣发展,人口数达到了老布朗——又被称为帕特(Pat)——1959年担任州长时的1550万人口的两倍多。但作为世界第七大经济体,加州正面临有关限制及增长的根本问题,其原因来自两方面的碰撞。一方面是杰瑞·布朗州长任期最后几年出现大旱的情况,而另一方面就是家庭、工业及农场需要大量水和能源的现实,更不用说还有水塘、花园及高尔夫球场。而其父在两个任期内曾推出积极增长政策,从而促使上述领域快速发展。The stark challenge that confronts this state is putting a spotlight on a father and son who, as much as any two people, define modern-day California. They are strikingly different symbols of different eras, with divergent styles and distinct views of government, growth and the nature of California itself.该州面临的严峻挑战让大家的目光投向了这一对父子,他们比其他任何两人都更多地塑造了现代加州。他们来自不同时代,象征着截然不同的东西,风格迥异,并对政府、发展和加州本身的性质持有大不相同的看法。Pat Brown, who died in 1996 at the age of 90, was the embodiment of the post-World War II explosion, when people flocked to this vast and beckoning state in search of a new life. “He loved that California was getting bigger when he was governor,” said Ethan Rarick, who wrote a biography of Pat Brown and directs the Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service at the University of California, Berkeley. “Pat saw an almost endless capacity for California growth.”帕特·布朗于1996年逝世,享年90岁。他是二战结束后迅猛发展的体现。当时人们涌入这个幅员辽阔、极具吸引力的州,寻求一种新的生活。“他担任州长时,加州不断发展壮大,他喜欢这种感觉,”帕特·布朗的传记作者、加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)松井武男政治与公共务中心(Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service)负责人伊桑·拉里克(Ethan Rarick)说。“帕特认为加州拥有几乎无穷尽的发展能力。”Jerry Brown arrived in Sacramento for the first of two stints he would serve as governor in 1975 — just over eight years after Pat Brown was defeated for re-election by Ronald Reagan. He was, at 36, the austere contrast to his father, a product of the post-Watergate and post-Vietnam era, wary of the kind of brawny, interventionist view of government that animated Pat Brown. The environmental movement had emerged in the years between Pat Brown’s defeat and Jerry Brown’s arrival — the first Earth Day and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries oil embargo took place during that period — and among its most passionate adherents was Pat Brown’s son.杰瑞·布朗两度担任加州州长,他于1975年,也就是帕特·布朗在连任竞选中败给罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)的八年之后,到达萨克拉门托,开始了第一个任期。那时,36岁的布朗与其父形成鲜明对比,他是后水门事件时代及后越战时代的产物,不认同帕特·布朗所热衷的强大政府及其干涉主义行事风格。在帕特·布朗竞选失败与杰瑞·布朗首次上任之间的时间里,环保运动横空出世。在那段时间里,出现了第一个地球日(Earth Day)及石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)的石油出口禁令。当时,帕特·布朗的这个儿子是环保运动最热诚的拥护者之一。If Pat Brown wanted the stunningly ambitious California State Water Project that he muscled into law to “be a monument to me,” as he later said of what was the most expensive public works project in the state’s history, Jerry Brown championed the modest if intellectually provocative “Small Is Beautiful” viewpoint espoused by the economist E. F. Schumacher, which emphasized the dangers of depleting natural resources. (Mr. Brown flew to London to speak at Schumacher’s funeral in 1977.) As governor, Jerry Brown spoke of limits and respect for the fragility of the planet from the moment he took office.如果说帕特·布朗希望他强力推动、并使之成为法律的宏大的加州水资源计划(California State Water Project)成为“我留下的丰碑”——就像他后来提到该州历史上耗资最大的公共工程计划时说的那样,杰瑞宣扬的则是经济学家E·F·舒马赫(E.F. Schumacher)提出的“小即是美”(Small Is Beautiful)的观点,这个并不宏大的观点在知识界曾颇具争议性,强调了消耗自然资源的危险。(布朗于1977年飞往伦敦参加舒马赫的葬礼并发表讲话。)作为州长,杰瑞·布朗自上任伊始,就开始谈论这个脆弱星球面临的限制,以及对它的尊重。“He positioned himself as very, very different from my father,” said Kathleen Brown, who is Mr. Brown’s youngest sister. “Some looked at it as a psychological battle between father and son. I don’t think it was that at all. I think it was a coming-of-age in a different period. The consciousness that our resources were limited was just beginning to take hold in the broader community.”“他对自己的定位与先父完全不同,”布朗最小的凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“有人将这看作是父亲与儿子之间的心理战。我认为根本不是这么回事。我觉得这是成长于不同时期所造成的差异。当年,那种资源有限的意识刚刚开始在更广泛的人群中扎根。”Since taking office as governor for the second time, in 2011, Jerry Brown has again been the voice of limits — though this time, his view is informed less by the theories of environmentalists and more by the demands of trying to manage a drought of historic proportions. One month Mr. Brown is ordering a 25 percent reduction in the use of potable water in urban communities; the next he is pressing for a 40 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions to battle the choking pollution that is another byproduct of the heady growth.自杰瑞·布朗于2011年开始第二个任期以来,他再次提出资源有限的观点,尽管这次他的观点更多的不是受环保主义理论的影响,而是源自努力应对史上罕见旱情的需要。布朗刚刚要求城市社区的饮用水量减少25%,接下来就要求将温室气体排放量减少40%,以对抗令人窒息的污染,而污染是快速发展造成的另一个附带结果。“We are dealing with different periods,” Mr. Brown said in an interview. “The word ‘environment’ wasn’t used then: You talked about conservation. Environmentalism came in after my father left. There was this sense that we can become No. 1 ahead of New York — they rang church bells when we did — but now, you fast-forward 60 years later, and people are concerned about whether the water is available, the cost to the environment, how to pay for suburban infrastructure.”“我们应对的是不同时期的问题,”杰瑞·布朗接受采访时说。“当年人们还不怎么使用‘环境’一词,谈的都是保护。我父亲离开后才出现环保主义这个说法。当时有那种我们能超越纽约,成为第一的感觉。当我们做到这一点时,他们纷纷庆祝。但现在,快进到60年后的今天,人们担心的是,是否有水可用,对环境的影响,以及怎么付郊区基础设施建设的费用。”“All of these insights and concerns developed after most of his governorship,” Mr. Brown said of his father. “But they preceded mine — and they have intensified.”“在他的任期过了大半时间后,才出现这些深刻看法及担忧,”杰瑞·布朗提到他父亲时说。“但它们出现在我的任期之前,而且自那时起愈演愈烈。”The House That Pat Built帕特的功绩When Pat Brown, then 53 and the state attorney general, was elected governor in 1958, the Republicans controlled both houses of the Legislature and most statewide offices. He swept to victory in an election that signaled a new direction for California: Brown was a Republican turned Democrat who identified with the New Deal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt.1958年,时年53岁的州总检察长帕特·布朗当选为州长。当时,共和党控制着议会两院和全州范围内的大部分机构。他在一次选举中以压倒性优势获胜。那次选举标志着加州的新方向:布朗是一名从共和党转变而来的民主党人,认同富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)的“新政”(New Deal)政策。“He really in many ways built the modern California that we know,” said Raphael J. Sonenshein, the executive director of the Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles. “Even though he only had two terms, they were enormously consequential. I have to think that the California that we live in bears his stamp more than that of any other governor.”“他真的在很多方面打造了我们所知道的这个现代的加利福尼亚,” 加州大学洛杉矶分校埃德蒙·G·“帕特”·布朗公共事务研究所(Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles)的执行主管拉斐尔·J·索南沙因(Raphael J. Sonenshein)说。“只当了两届,但那两届影响巨大。我必须承认,他在我们现在所生活的加州留下的印记,比其他任何州长都多。”The new governor pledged in his inaugural address to follow “the path of responsible liberalism.” He rejected warnings from aides about the state’s deficit, and advocated tax increases to finance spending on school construction, parks and transportation. During his years in power, the state built three new campuses for the University of California and six more for the state college system — though that was not his top interest.那时,他作为新州长在就职演说中承诺,将遵循“负责任的自由主义道路”。他拒绝了助手有关该州赤字的警告,持增税,以便为学校建设、公园和交通运输开提供资金。在他当权的那些年里,该州为加州大学修了三个分校,并为该州高校体系建了六所学校。而这还不算是他最关心的领域。“Water was the No. 1 thing on his agenda,” said Martin Schiesl, a professor emeritus of history at California State University. In his first year in office, Pat Brown persuaded the Legislature to pass and send to voters a .75 billion bond to begin the state water project — a network of dams, pipes and an aqueduct designed to take water from the relatively wet north to Southern California, where 80 percent of the population lived.“水是他当时要处理的首要问题,”加州州立大学(California State University)历史学荣休教授马丁·席泽尔(Martin Schiesl)说。执政第一年,帕特·布朗说州议会通过了一项17.5亿美元的债券计划,并向选民兜售,以便开始州级水利项目——这是一个由水坝、管道和一条引水渠组成的网络,旨在把水资源从相对湿润的加州北部输送到州里80%的人口聚居的南部。Pat Brown was offering an ambitious vision of California as he campaigned across the state for the measure: California as its own vast and diverse nation, where the water of the north would feed the population and farm growth to the south. “He thought it was irresponsible not to plan for the growth that was coming,” Kathleen Brown said. “He used to say, ‘If you don’t want to manage and build for this growth today, we’ll have to do something else tomorrow.’ ”在州内各个地方为这项提案做宣传时,帕特·布朗勾画了一个关于加州的宏伟蓝图:加州本身就是个广阔而多元的地方,北部的水资源能够供养南部的人口,并保障那里的农业增长。“他认为,不为将来的增长做打算,是不负责任的行为,”凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“他常说,‘如果你今天不愿意为这种增长进行管理和建设方面的工作,我们明天就不得不去做额外的事情。’”In a letter cited in “California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown,” the biography by Mr. Rarick, Pat Brown argued that he had no choice. “What are we to do? Build barriers around California and say nobody else can come in because we don’t have enough water to go around?”拉里克撰写的传记《加州的崛起:帕特·布朗及其时代》(California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown)中引用了一封信。帕特·布朗在其中表示,自己别无选择。“我们该怎么办?用栅栏把加州团团围住,说其他人等不得入内,就因为我们没有足够的水资源?”A New Tone新基调Jerry Brown did not originally go into the family business, spending his years as a young man as a Jesuit studying for the priesthood. He spent three years in the seminary, before emerging to prepare for law school and what would prove to be an almost- unbroken lifetime in public office. When he became governor, he arrived in the shadow of his father, who had gone from having an outsize reputation to a second-term decline and defeat in 1966 as he struggled with student unrest at Berkeley and a conservative shift by the electorate.杰瑞·布朗刚开始并没有子承父业,年轻时曾作为耶稣会士而研习神职。他在神学院度过三年,后来才为进入法学院做准备,随后开始了几乎不曾间断的公职生涯。在他成为州长的时候,父亲的阴影随之而来。他父亲最初享有很高的声望,却在第二任期时人气急跌,后来因为疲于应对伯克利的学生运动,再加上选民朝保守主义的转变,他在1966年落败。Jerry Brown’s new tone was clear from his first inaugural address as he warned of “the rising cost of energy, the depletion of our resources, the threat to the environment, the uncertainty of our economy and the monetary system, the lack of faith in government, the drift in political and moral leadership.”杰瑞·布朗的新基调在第一次州长就职演说中就表现得很清晰,他对“日益增长的能源成本、资源的损耗、环境所受到的威胁、我们的经济和货币体系面临的不确定性、政府公信力的缺乏,以及政治和道德领导力方面的偏移”发出了警告。With one notable exception — he campaigned, unsuccessfully, to win voter support for another water tunnel to finish his father’s project, which to this day he calls essential to the state’s long-term health — this would not be an administration about building roads, bridges, dams or college campuses. Instead, Mr. Brown focused on policies that regulated growth.这将不是一届致力于修建道路、桥梁、大坝或大学校园的政府。布朗关注的是调控增长的政策。不过,还是有一个引人注意的例外:他曾试图赢得选民对又一条引水渠的持,从而完成父亲的工程,但未能成功。迄今为止,他一直说该工程对加州的长期健康发展至关重要。Still, if Jerry Brown is different as a governor from his father, he is different from what he was 40 years ago as well. Even as he talks about strains on California, he is championing the kind of big projects that his father was known for: a high-speed train line from San Francisco to Los Angeles and two massive underground pipelines. The pipelines would help convey water through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, east of San Francisco, to central and Southern California — the state water project his father began. Some of that, no doubt, reflects the consideration of a man who realizes he has only so many years left in office. “Jerry has appreciated, as time has passed, that leaving a legacy as a political figure often requires concrete,” Kathleen Brown said. “My father’s legacy is very much tied and identified with building. Jerry’s first term was very much more about ideas and fundamental shifts in the focus of government.”不过,如果说杰瑞·布朗作为州长与父亲有所不同,那么他与40年前的自己也不一样。就算会谈论加州面临的压力,他仍在持让他父亲闻名的那种大工程:从旧金山到洛杉矶的高铁线路,以及两个大型的地下管道项目。这些管道将把水从旧金山以东的萨克拉门托-圣华金河三角洲输送到加州的中部和南部——这属于他父亲开启的州级水利项目。毫无疑问,其中有些元素反映出他意识到了自己在任的时间有限。“随着时间的流逝,杰瑞已经体会到,作为一个政治人物,留下的政绩往往需要是有形的东西,”凯瑟琳·布朗说。“先父的政绩很大程度上与建筑工程密不可分。杰瑞的第一个任期更多地强调理念,以及政府关注点方面的根本性转变。”Still, Mr. Brown said he would have done what his father did if he had been governor during Pat Brown’s era — and expected that his father would be doing the same thing Jerry Brown is doing were he running the state today.不过,杰瑞·布朗表示,如果在帕特·布朗的时代担任州长,他会采取和父亲同样的做法,而且他认为,如果父亲在今天担任州长,也会做和自己同样的事。“What else could you do?” he said. “Who sets the agenda? The times set the agenda. It’s not like I don’t have a lot of things I want to do. There are a lot of challenges — you have to respond, whether it’s water or drought or education. Health. Immigration. Here they are — do something. That’s what I do. I think my father would do the same thing.”“还能有别的什么选择吗?”他问道。“谁来设定议程?是时代在设定议程。并不是说我自己没有很多想做的事情。是太多挑战了——你必须加以应对,无论是水利、干旱、教育,还是卫生、移民。问题就摆在那里——你得采取行动。我就是这么干的。我认为父亲也会做同样的选择。” /201505/376333The custom of Dragon Boat Festival端午节的习俗1.Dragon Boat Racing赛龙舟Because Chuese don’t want virtuous minister Qu Yuan died at that time, so there are a lot of people boating to save him after he jumping into river.当时楚人因舍不得贤臣屈原死去,于是有许多人划船追赶拯救。2.Eating zongzi on Dragon Boat Festival端午节吃粽子People boiled sticky rice or steamed reed on May 5 and then jumped it into the river, to sacrifice to Qu Yuan, with bamboo tube array sticky rice rolls for fear of fish to eat, gradually reed leaves maize replacing bamboo tube.人们在五月五日煮糯米饭或蒸粽糕投入江中,以祭祀屈原,为恐鱼吃掉,故用竹筒盛装糯米饭掷下,以后渐用粽叶包米代替竹筒。3.Wearing perfume satchel佩香囊Children wear perfume satchel on the Dragon Boat Festival can avoid devil.端午节小孩佩香囊,避邪驱瘟之意。4.Eating eggs吃蛋Some areas will boil tea eggs and brine eggs to eat on the Dragon Boat Festival. Eggs are henapple, duck eggs, goose egg. Painted red on eggshell, with colorful net bags, hanging in a child#39;s neck, for blessing children, and hopping them are safe.一些地区,端午节要煮茶蛋和盐水蛋吃。蛋有鸡蛋、鸭蛋、鹅蛋。蛋壳涂上红色,用五颜六色的网袋装着,挂在小孩子的脖子上,意为祝福孩子逢凶化吉,平安无事。5.Drinking Realgar Wine饮雄黄酒This custom is very popular in the Yangtze river area.此种习俗,在长江流域地区的人家很盛行。6.Wash all diseases游百病This custom is prevalent in part of Guizhou province on Dragon-Boat festival custom. Some people will go to swim as well.此种习俗,盛行于贵州地区的端午习俗有些人也会去游泳。7.Eat twelve red吃十二红Gaoyou and other places have the tradition of eating ;twelve red;. Twelve red refers to oil shrimp, Fried amaranth, salted duck egg yellow, cinnabar tofu and so on.高邮等地有吃“十二红”的习俗。十二红指油爆虾、炒红苋菜、咸鸭蛋黄、朱砂豆腐等。 /201506/381347

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