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TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201609/463941

In society, we have to follow laws that maintain order.在社会中,我们必须守法、守秩序Did you know all chemical matter follows certain laws as well?你知道化学物质也都遵守法则吗?In fact, we can describe those laws by looking at relationships.我们可以用交互关系来说明这些法则Some easy laws to begin with are the ones that govern the gases.关于气体的法则在最一开始是比较简单的。Back in 1662, Robert Boyle realized that gases had an interesting response when he put them into containers and changed their volume.1662年,波义耳发现了气体有一个有趣的性质,他把气体放进容器并改变体积。Take an empty bottle and put the cap on it, closing that container.拿个空瓶、盖上瓶盖、封住容器、Now squeeze your bottle, and what happens?挤压瓶子,结果发生了什么事?The pressure inside the bottle increases when the size of the container decreases.容器变小时,瓶内压力变大。You can only crush that container so much until the gases inside push back on your hand.当容器内气体对你的手施压时,就是瓶子能被挤压的最大限度。This is called an inverse proportion, and it changes at the same rate for every gas.这被称为反比例,对于任何气体,它都以一个相同的比率变化。Boyle#39;s law allows chemists to predict the volume of any gas at any given pressure because the relationship is always the same.波义耳定律让化学家可预测指定压力下任何气体的体积,因为关系都是相同的。In 1780, Jacques Charles noticed a different relationship between gases and their temperature.1780年,贾克·查理注意到不同气体和温度间的关系If you#39;ve ever seen a hot-air balloon, you#39;ve seen this law in action.如果你看过热气球,你就知道这个法则的效果。When the ballons are laid out, they#39;re totally flat.当气球平放的时候,它是完全平扁的Instead of blowing the balloon up like a party balloon, they use a giant flame to heat the air inside that envelope.他们用巨大的火焰来加热气球内部,而不是像吹普通气球一样。As the air is heated up, the balloon begins to inflate as the gas volume increases.当空气被加热,气体体积增大,气球开始变鼓The hotter the gas becomes, the larger the volume, and that#39;s Charles#39; law.气体温度越高,体积就越大,这就是查理定律。Notice this law is different from Boyle#39;s. Charles#39; law is a direct relationship.注意,这条定律和波义耳定律有所不同。查理定律中的变量有着直接关系。As the temperature increases, the volume increases as well.随着温度的升高,体积也会增大。The third law is also easily demonstrated. When you#39;re blowing up party balloons, the volume increases.第三条法则也可以被简单的说明。当你吹派对上的气球的时候,其体积会增大As you are blowing, you#39;re forcing more and more gas particles into the balloon from your lungs.在你吹的时候,你把越来越多的气体从你的肺里面转移进气球。This causes the balloon volume to increase. This is Avogadro#39;s law in action.这导致了气球的体积增加。这就是阿伏伽德罗定律的实际应用。As the number of particles of gas added to a container are increased, the volume will increase as well.当气体粒子的数量在容器中增加时,体积也会随之增加。If you add too many particles, well, you know what happens next.如果你加入了太多的粒子,你知道接下来会发生什么。Laws are everywhere, even in the tiniest particles of gas.自然法则无处不在,即便是在最微小的气体粒子中。If you squeeze them, the pressure will increase as the particles are pushed together.如果你挤压它们,当粒子们被挤到一起时,气压就会增加。Low volume means a high pressure because those particles push back.小体积意味着需要大的气压,因为这些粒子会压回来。As the temperature increases, gases move away from one another, and the volume increases as well.当温度上升时,气体会互相远离,体积也会随之增加。Finally, if you add gas to a closed container, that container#39;s volume will expand.最后,如果你把气体放在密封的容器里,容器的体积会被撑大。But be careful not to add too much, because otherwise you could end up with a burst balloon.但要小心不要加太多,否则气球会爆炸。 Article/201707/516332

You asked for it. So in this American English pronunciation ,你们要求过这个,所以,在这个美式英语发音视频里,we#39;re going to do a Ben Franklin exercise where we take real American English conversation我们会选取一个真实的美式英语对话,把它做成一个本·富兰克林练习,and analyze the American accent to improve listening comprehension and pronunciation skills.然后分析美式发音,提高听力理解和发音技巧。First, let#39;s listen to the whole conversation.首先,我们来听一下整个对话。HaQuyen, this is Tom. Hi. Hi. Nice to meet you. How are you? Nice to meet you, too.HaQuyen,这是Tom。 你好。 你好。 见到你很高兴。 你好吗?见到你我也很高兴。Have you guys met before? Um...你们之前见过吗? 呃......I don#39;t think so. No, not, not in person. But you#39;ve told me about him.我想应该没有。 没有,没有见过真人。但是你跟我说过他。Okay. It seems like you have because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but... Yeah.好吧。看起来你们好像见过,因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是...... 是啊。Never overlapped. Yeah, well, it#39;s about time!从没有过交集。 是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!Now for the analysis.现在开始分析。HaQuyen, this is Tom.HaQuyen,这是Tom。Did you notice how the second syllable of ;HaQuyen; and the syllable ;Tom; were the most stressed?你注意到了吗?“HaQuyen”的第二个音节和“Tom”这个音节是最重的。They had that up down shape. Especially ;Tom;, which came down in pitch at the end of the sentence.它们都有先升后降的形状。尤其是“Tom”,它的音调在句尾降了下来。HaQuyen, this is Tom.HaQuyen,这是Tom。We want this shape in our stressed syllables. The two words ;this is; were flatter and quicker.我们在重读音节里会有这样的形状。而“this is”这两个单词就更平,更快。HaQuyen, this is Tom. (loop two times) Hi. Hi.HaQuyen,这是Tom。(循环两次) 你好。 你好。Both words, ;hi, hi, hi;, had that up down shape. ;Hi. Hi.;这两个“hi”都有先升后降的形状,“hi, hi, hi”, 你好。 你好。Hi. Hi. (loop three times) Nice to meet you.你好。 你好。(循环三次) 见到你很高兴。These two phrases happened at the same time.这两句话是同时说出来的。HaQuyen said, ;Nice to meet you.; What#39;s the most stressed word there? Nice to meet you. (loop two times)HaQuyen说,“Nice to meet you.”这里最重的单词是哪个呢?Nice to meet you. (循环两次);Meet;. ;Nice; also had some stress, a little longer. ;Nice to meet you.;是“Meet”。“Nice”也有一些重音,稍微长一点。“Nice to meet you.”The word ;to; was reduced. Rather than the OO vowel, we have the schwa. ;Nice to, to, to.;单词“to”被略读了。我们把它读成了弱读音,而不是OO元音。“Nice to, to, to.”Nice to meet you. (loop two times)见到你很高兴。(循环两次);Nice to meet you.; What did you notice about the pronunciation of this T?见到你很高兴。你注意到这个T的发音了吗?Nice to meet you. (loop two times)见到你很高兴。(循环两次)It was a Stop T. ;Meet you.; There was no release of the T sound.这是个顿音T。“Meet you.”T音没有被发出来。Nice to meet you. (loop two times)见到你很高兴。(循环两次)Tom#39;s phrase, ;How are you? How are you?;Tom的句子, 你好吗? 你好吗?How are you? (loop two times)你好吗?(循环两次)He stressed the word ;are;. ;How are you?;他重读了单词“are”。“How are you?”How are you? (loop two times)你好吗?(循环两次)You#39;ll also hear this with the word ;you; stressed. ;How are you?;你还会听到单词“you”被重读。“How are you?”How are you? Nice to meet you, too.你好吗?见到你我也很高兴。Tom really stressed the word ;too;.Tom还重读了单词“too”。Nice to meet you, too. (loop two times)见到你我也很高兴。(循环两次)It was the loudest and clearest of the sentence.它是句中音最重最清晰的单词。Nice to meet you, too. (loop two times)见到你我也很高兴。(循环两次)He, like HaQuyen, also reduced the word ;to; to the schwa. ;To, nice to, nice to meet you.;他像HaQuyen一样也把单词“to”略读成了弱读音。“To, nice to, nice to meet you.”Nice to meet you, too. (loop two times)见到你我也很高兴。(循环两次)Also, again like HaQuyen, he made a Stop T here. He did not release the T sound. ;Meet you.;像HaQuyen一样,他这里也把T读成了顿音。他没有把T音发出来。“Meet you.”Nice to meet you, too. (loop two times) Have you guys met before?见到你我也很高兴。(循环两次)你们之前见过吗?I put a little break here, between ;guys; and ;met;, while I thought about what I was going to say.在“guys”和“met”之间,我停顿了一下,想了想我要说什么。Have you guys met before?你们之前见过吗?Did you notice my pronunciation of T? A Stop T.你注意到我发的T音了吗?是个顿音T。Met before?见过吗?We tend to make T#39;s Stop T#39;s when the next word begins with a consonant.当后面的单词以辅音开头时,我们会把T发成顿音T。Or, when the word is at the end of a thought or sentence.或者,当这个单词是在一句话或一个观点的结尾时,我们也会把它发成顿音T。Met before? (loop two times) Have you guys met before?见过吗? (循环两次) 你们之前见过吗?What do you notice about the intonation of the sentence? How does it end?你注意到这句话的语调了吗?它是怎样结尾的?Have you guys met before?你们之前见过吗?;Before?; It goes up in pitch.“Before?” 它的语调上升。Have you guys met before?你们之前见过吗?That#39;s because this is a yes/no question. A question that can be answered with yes or no goes up in pitch at the end.这是因为它是一个简单疑问句。简单疑问句的语调在句尾要上升。Other questions, and statements, go down in pitch.其他的问句和陈述句语调要下降。I don#39;t think so.我想应该没有。;I don#39;t think so, I don#39;t think so.; Again, there was a clear stop in sound here. ;I don#39;t think so.;我想应该没有。我想应该没有。这里又有一个很明显的顿音。“I don’t think so.”I don#39;t thinks so. (loop two times)我想应该没有。(循环两次);I don#39;t think so.; The words were not connected. ;I don#39;t, I don#39;t, I don#39;t think. I don#39;t think so.;我想应该没有。单词之间没有连接。“I don’t, I don’t, I don’t think. I don’t think so.”;Think; was the most stressed word there. ;I don#39;t think so.;“Think”是这里最重的单词。我想应该没有。Feel your energy go towards it and then away from it in the sentence. ;I don#39;t think so.;你的能量要用到这个单词上,然后在句子中慢慢减弱。“I don’t think so.”I don#39;t think so. No, not, not in person.我想应该没有。 没有,没有见过真人。The first ;not; was a Stop T, as HaQuyen did not continue. ;Not, not. Not in person.;第一个“not”是一个顿音T,因为HaQuyen没有继续发音。 没有,没有见过真人。The second T, though, was a Flap T because it links two vowels together. The AH vowel, and the IH as in SIT vowel.而第二个“not”则是一个浊音T,因为它连接了两个元音。AH元音和SIT里的IH元音。Most Americans will make the T between vowels a Flap T, which sounds like a D between vowels. ;Not in (loop three times). Not in person.;大多数美国人会把元音之间的T发成浊音T,它听起来就像元音之间的D音。“Not in (循环三次). Not in person.”Not in person. (loop two times)没有见过真人。(循环两次);Person; is a two syllable word. Which syllable is stressed?“Person”是一个双音节词,哪个音节被重读了呢?Not in person. (loop two times)没有见过真人。(循环两次)The first syllable. ;PER son.;重读的是第一个音节。“PER son.”The second syllable doesn#39;t really have a vowel in it. It#39;s the schwa sound.第二个音节里其实并没有元音,它是一个弱读音。But when the schwa is followed by N, you don#39;t need to try to make a separate vowel, ; son, son, person, person.;但当弱读音后面是N的话,你就不用再去发一个单独的元音了。“ son, son, person, person.”Not in person, (loop two times) but you#39;ve told me about him.没有见过真人。(循环两次)但是你跟我说过他。How is the T pronounced in ;but;?“but”里的T音是怎样发音的呢?But you#39;ve told me about him. (loop two times)但是你跟我说过他。(循环两次)It#39;s a Stop T, ;but you#39;ve, but you#39;ve;. What#39;s the most stressed, the most clear word in this phrase?它是一个顿音T,“but you’ve, but you’ve”。这句话里音最重,最清晰的单词是哪个呢?But you#39;ve told me about him. (loop two times)但是你跟我说过他。(循环两次)It#39;s the verb ;told;. ;But you#39;ve told me about him.; The sentence peaks with that word.是动词“told”。“But you’ve told me about him.”这句话的高潮在这个单词这里。但是你跟我说过他。(loop two times)但是你跟我说过他。(循环两次)HaQuyen dropped the H in ;him;.HaQuyen把“him”里的H省略了。We do this often with the words ;him;, ;he;, ;his;, ;her;, for example. Also, ;have; and ;had;.我们通常会在单词“him”, “he”, “his”, “her”里这样做,还有“have”和“had”。But you#39;ve told me about him. (loop two times)但是你跟我说过他。(循环两次)Now the T comes between two vowels. What#39;s that going to be?现在T出现在了元音之间,要怎么做呢?A Flap T. ;About him, about him.; Just flap the tongue on the roof of the mouth.它要变成浊音T。“About him, about him.”用舌头拍打上颚。But you#39;ve told me about him. (loop two times) Okay.但是你跟我说过他。(循环两次)好吧。I didn#39;t really pronounce the OH diphthong here, it was more like a schwa, ;okay, okay.;我并没有把复合元音OH发出来,它更像一个弱读音,“okay, okay.”; Kay; had the shape of a stressed syllable. ;Okay.;“ Kay”具有重读音节的形状。“Okay.”Okay. (loop two times) It seems like you have...好吧。(循环两次) It seems like you have...In the first part of this sentence, what is the most clear, the most stressed syllable?在这句话的第一部分里,音最清晰,最重的音节是哪个呢?It seems like you have (loop two times)看起来你们好像见过(循环两次)It#39;s the word ;seems;. ;It seems like you have.; (loop two times)是单词“seems”。看起来你们好像见过(循环两次)It seems like you have (loop two times) because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but.看起来你们好像见过 (循环两次)因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是......What about in the second half of the sentence. What#39;s the most stressed syllable?那么在这句话的第二部分里,最重的音节是哪个呢?because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but. (loop two times)因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是......(循环两次);Known.; ;Because I#39;ve known both of you for so long.; ;Long; is also stressed, it#39;s also a longer word.是单词“Known”。因为我已经认识你们两个很久了“Long”也是重读单词,音也更长一些。because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but. (loop two times)因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是......(循环两次)Even though this sentence is very fast, it still has longer stressed words, ;seems;, ;known;, ;long;.即使这句话非常快,它还是有音更长的重读单词,“seems”, “known”, “long”。It#39;s important to keep your stressed words longer, even when you#39;re speaking quickly. This is what#39;s clear to Americans.即使你说话很快,也要把重读单词读得更长一些,这一点很重要,对于美国人来说也很明显。because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but. (loop two times)因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是......(循环两次)The less important words, the function words, will be less clear and very fast. And sometimes, we#39;ll change the sounds.次要的单词,虚词,它们会不那么清晰,也会更快。有时,我们会改变它们的发音。For example, in the word ;for;. That was pronounced with the schwa, ;for, for, for;. It#39;s very fast.比如单词“for”。它被读成了弱读音,“for, for, for”,非常快。For so long, (loop two times) but.For so long, (循环两次) but.How did I pronounce the T in ;but;?我是怎样发“but”里的T音的呢?For so long, but. (loop two times)For so long, but.(循环两次)It was the end of my thought, it was a Stop T. ;But, but.; I stopped the air.它位于我观点的结尾,是一个顿音T。“But, but.”我停顿了一下。For so long, but. (loop two times) Yeah.很久了,但是......(循环两次) 是啊。Tom#39;s interjection, ;yeah; : stressed. Up down shape. ;Yeah, yeah, yeah.;Tom的插入语,“yeah”:重读,先升后降的形状。“Yeah, yeah, yeah.”Yeah. (loop two times) Never overlapped.是啊。(循环两次) 从没有过交集。Can you tell which is the stressed syllable in ;never;? Which is longer?你能分辨出“never”里面哪个是重读音节吗?哪个音更长?Never overlapped. (loop two times)从没有过交集。(循环两次)It#39;s the first syllable. ;Ne ver.; What about in the next word?是第一个音节。“Ne ver.”那么下一个词呢?Never overlapped. (loop two times)从没有过交集。(循环两次)Again, it#39;s the first syllable. ;O verlapped. Never overlapped. Uh uh. Never overlapped.;也是第一个音节。“O verlapped. Never overlapped. Uh uh. Never overlapped.”Never overlapped. (loop two times)从没有过交集。(循环两次)Notice the –ed ending here is pronounced as a T, an unvoiced sound. That#39;s because the sound before, P, was also unvoiced. ;Overlapped, overlapped.;注意这里的 ed结尾读成T,不发音。这是因为前面的P也是不发音的。“Overlapped, overlapped.”Never overlapped. (loop two times) Yeah, well, it#39;s about time.从没有过交集。(循环两次) 是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!Did you notice that Tom didn#39;t really make a vowel here. ;Tsabout, tsabout.; He connected the TS sound into the next sound.你注意到了吗?Tom在这里并没有发出元音。“Tsabout, tsabout.”他把TS音与后面的音连了起来。Well, it#39;s about time. (loop two times)不过,现在是时候认识了!(循环两次)How is this T pronounced?这个T是怎么发音的呢?Well, it#39;s about time. (loop two times)不过,现在是时候认识了!(循环两次)A Stop T, because the next sound is a consonant.它是一个顿音T,因为后面的音是辅音。Well, it#39;s about time.不过,现在是时候认识了!Let#39;s listen again, following along with our marked up text.让我们跟着我们做过标记的文本再听一遍。You#39;ll hear two different speeds, regular pace, and slowed down.你会听到两种速度,常速和慢速。HaQuyen, this is Tom. Hi. Hi. Nice to meet you. How are you? Nice to meet you, too.HaQuyen,这是Tom。 你好。 你好。 见到你很高兴。 你好吗?见到你我也很高兴。Have you guys met before? Um...你们之前见过吗? 呃......I don#39;t think so. No, not, not in person. But you#39;ve told me about him.我想应该没有。 没有,没有见过真人。但是你跟我说过他。Okay. It seems like you have because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but... Yeah.好吧。看起来你们好像见过,因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是...... 是啊。Never overlapped. Yeah, well, it#39;s about time!从没有过交集。 是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!HaQuyen, this is Tom. Hi. Hi. Nice to meet you. How are you? Nice to meet you, too.HaQuyen,这是Tom。 你好。 你好。 见到你很高兴。 你好吗?见到你我也很高兴。Have you guys met before? Um...你们之前见过吗? 呃......I don#39;t think so. No, not, not in person. But you#39;ve told me about him.我想应该没有。 没有,没有见过真人。但是你跟我说过他。Okay. It seems like you have because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but... Yeah.好吧。看起来你们好像见过,因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是...... 是啊。Never overlapped. Yeah, well, it#39;s about time!从没有过交集。 是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!We#39;ll listen one last time. This time, you#39;ll repeat.我们来最后听一遍,这次,你来重复。You#39;ll hear each sentence or sentence fragment three times.每句话或句子片段听三遍。Repeat exactly as you hear it, paying attention to intonation, sounds, and stress.根据你听到的内容来重复,注意语调,发音和重音。HaQuyen, this is Tom. (loop three times)HaQuyen,这是Tom。(循环三次)Hi. Hi. (loop three times)你好。 你好。(循环三次)Nice to meet you. How are you? (loop three times)见到你很高兴。 你好吗?(循环三次)Nice to meet you, too. (loop three times)见到你我也很高兴。(循环三次)Have you guys met before? (loop three times)你们之前见过吗?(循环三次)Um... I don#39;t think so. (loop three times)呃......我想应该没有。(循环三次)No, not, not in person. (loop three times)没有,没有见过真人。(循环三次)But you#39;ve told me about him. (loop three times)但是你跟我说过他。(循环三次)Okay. (loop three times)好吧。(循环三次)It seems like you have (loop three times)看起来你们好像见过(循环三次)because I#39;ve known both of you (loop three times)因为我已经认识你们两个(循环三次)for so long, but... (loop three times)很久了,但是......(循环三次)Yeah. (loop three times)是啊。(循环三次)Never overlapped. (loop three times)从没有过交集。(循环三次)Yeah, well, it#39;s about time! (loop three times)是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!(循环三次)Now the conversation, one more time.现在再来听一遍对话。HaQuyen, this is Tom. Hi. Hi. Nice to meet you. How are you? Nice to meet you, too.HaQuyen,这是Tom。 你好。 你好。 见到你很高兴。 你好吗?见到你我也很高兴。Have you guys met before? Um...你们之前见过吗? 呃......I don#39;t think so. No, not, not in person. But you#39;ve told me about him. Okay. It seems like you have because I#39;ve known both of you for so long, but... Yeah.我想应该没有。 没有,没有见过真人。但是你跟我说过他。 好吧。看起来你们好像见过,因为我已经认识你们两个很久了,但是...... 是啊。Never overlapped. Yeah, well, it#39;s about time!从没有过交集。 是啊,不过,现在是时候认识了!Great job. If you liked this , be sure to sign up for my mailing list for a free weekly newsletter with pronunciation s sent straight to your inbox.做得好。如果你喜欢这个视频的话,一定要报名我的邮件列表,这样你的邮箱就可以每周收到免费的发音视频。Also, I#39;m happy to tell you my book American English Pronunciation is available for purchase.还有,很高兴告诉你我的美式英语发音书已经开售了。If you want an organized, step by step resource to build your American accent, click here to get the book, or see the description below. I think you#39;re going to love it.如果你想要系统的,按部就班的资源来练习你的美式发音,点击这里来买书,或者阅读下面的介绍。我觉得你会喜欢的。That#39;s it, and thanks so much for using Rachel#39;s English.这次的学习就到这里,非常感谢使用Rachel#39;s English。 Article/201706/513773

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201610/470036


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