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济南紫荆花妇科医院看妇科好不好济南哪家医院做无痛人流好大概需要多少钱济南总院哪个医生比较好 Business商业报道Boots and Walgreens姿药房与沃尔格林药房A new prescription新处方Two huge pharmacy chains become even bigger两家大型医药连锁规模变得更大了OTHER American executives may be fretting about Europe.其他美国总裁们还可能在担忧欧洲的状况,Not so Greg Wasson, the chief executive of Walgreens, Americas biggest pharmacy chain.但美国最大的医药连锁沃尔格林药房总裁Greg Wasson不以为然。On June 19th his firm said it would buy 45% of Alliance Boots, Europes largest player in the drugs-distribution business.6月19日该公司宣布将购入欧洲最大的药品经销商英国联合姿药房45%的股份。And the .7 billion bid is only the first half of a bigger deal.而这67亿美元的出价仅仅是整个收购计划的上半场罢了。If all goes as planned, Walgreens will pay about .5 billion for the rest of Alliance Boots within three years—creating what the bosses of both firms call the first global pharmacy-led health and well-being enterprise.如果一切按计划进行,沃尔格林药房在三年内可再付95亿美元将剩下的股份一并收购。这将创造两家公司总裁称之为;第一家全球性医药和保健企业;The merged firm will indeed be more global than any pharmacy chain before.合并后的企业的确将比任何一家医药连锁都要全球化。Walgreens has 8,000 stores in America, with sales of billion in fiscal 2011.沃尔格林药房在美国拥有8000家门户,2011财年销售额为720亿美元。Alliance Boots is a giant in Europe and beyond.联合姿药房是欧洲及其它地区的巨头。The firm, which generated sales of 25 billion in fiscal 2011, operates in more than 25 countries and has more than 3,000 pharmacies.2011财年完成销售达250亿英镑,在超过25个国家经营业务,门店超过3000家。Together, Walgreens and Alliance Boots will be the worlds biggest buyer of prescription drugs.加在一起,沃尔格林药房和联合姿药房将是世界上最大的处方药采购商。For Walgreens, the deal follows a fitful year.对沃尔格林药房来说,这次收购发生在不太顺利的一年里。A spat with Express Scripts, which manages drug costs for employers, meant that Express Scripts customers had to fill their prescriptions elsewhere.和管理雇主药品成本的Express Scripts公司分道扬镳,意味着Express Scripts的顾客需要在其他公司购买处方药。Sales in the most recent quarter were 3.4% lower than in the same period last year, and the number of prescriptions filled dropped by 8.4%.销售额在最近的一季度同比下跌3.4%,处方药销售数量下降8.4%。Although too big to be considered a direct response to these problems, the deal with Alliance Boots gives Walgreens a path to growth after this rough patch.这次收购的金额显示这应该不是仅仅对这次分家的回应,而这次收购也给经过这次颠簸的沃尔格林药房指向了一条发展的明路。As for Boots, it is best known for its ubiquity in Britain.而姿药房则在英国以无所不在而闻名。In 2006 it merged with Alliance UniChem, a European drugs wholesaler and distributor.2006年姿药房并购了欧洲的药品批发经销商Alliance UniChem。One year later Stefano Pessina, the firms executive chairman, and KKR, a private-equity firm, took the company private.一年后公司执行主席Stefano Pessina与私募KKR公司一起将公司私有化。The leveraged buy-out, which was worth 11.1 billion, remains Europes biggest.通过价值111亿英镑的杠杆收购后,这单收购至今仍是欧洲最大的。The deal with Walgreens fulfils Mr Pessinas ambition to bring Boots to America.这次收购完成了Pessina带领姿药房进入美国的雄心壮志。The countrys drugs market is the worlds biggest and has formidable established pharmacy chains, including, in addition to Walgreens, CVS and Rite Aid.美国的药品市场是世界上最大的,同时也存在大得令人可怕的医药连锁商。It would be suicide to come in and compete with these guys, Mr Pessina told your correspondent in May. Now he does not have to.除沃尔格林药房外,还有CVS和Rite Aid。五月份Pessina跟您的记者描述,;进入这个市场跟这些人竞争简直就是自杀。;现在他或许不再需要了。The benefits of the merger are many, at least according to Messrs Wasson and Pessina.并购的好处有很多,至少根据Messrs Wasson和Pessina的说法。They say that they will use their combined expertise and strength to streamline distribution and squeeze discounts from generic drugmakers.他们将发挥联合以后的专业和特长以流程化配送并从通用制药商榨取更多折扣。Boots will be able to sell its products, such as the No7 beauty line, at Walgreens American stores.姿药房将获许在沃尔格林药房的商店销售自己的产品例如No7系列化妆品。Walgreens, meanwhile, will benefit from Bootss product-development teams and global reach.沃尔格林药房与此同时也将从姿药房的产品开发团队和全球化。Even without additional deals, the merged firm hopes to reach revenues of 0 billion by 2016, with about one-third coming from operations outside the ed States.哪怕该并购没有进入第二阶段,公司合并后营业额在2016年度将有望达到1300亿美元,其中大约三分之一来自在美国外的业务。Not everybody is convinced.但并不是所有人都信。It is hardly an opportune time to invest in Europe, sceptics say.持怀疑态度的称,现在并不是一个投资欧洲的机会。Walgreenss share price dipped by 5.9% on the day of the announcement.沃尔格林药房股票在宣布当天下跌5.9%。Standard amp; Poors, a ratings agency, worries about the debt Walgreens will shoulder.标普对沃尔格林药房所承担的债务表示担忧。In the first stage of the deal the firm will assume .5 billion;在收购的第一阶段,该公司将记帐35亿美元债务。in the second stage it will take on the rest of Alliance Bootss outstanding debt, which amounted to more than 7 billion in March.在第二阶段,该公司将承担联合姿药房所有的债务。截至今年三月份为止,金额达70亿英镑。The debate about the merits of the deal is likely to go on for some time.对这场收购有点的争论必定将持续一段时间。Yet there is aly one clear winner.但现已有一位赢家。KKR invested 1.2 billion in 2007.KKR在2007年投资了12亿英镑。In the first stage of the Walgreens deal, KKR will receive 1.2 billion and 140m in shares.而在沃尔格林药房收购的第一阶段,KKR将获得12亿英镑现金和价值1亿4千万英镑的股份。If the full acquisition proceeds as expected, the American firm will more than double its money—not bad for an investment framed by a financial collapse and the euro crisis.如果整个收购方案按计划进行,这家美国公司将使其投资翻番。对于一个在金融坍塌和欧元危机的大条件下,这份投资还是不错的。 /201307/247992The foreign-exchange market外汇市场Fixed rates固定汇率The money-spinners await their fate货币投机者只能等待赚钱的时机A CITY worker looking for a quiet place to nap nowadays could do worse than head for his banks foreign-exchange (FX) trading floor. Once noisy with activity as gesticulating dealers moved around billions of dollars, euros and yen, it is more likely now to be an oasis of calm. Bankers are plain bored. “The FX market has been exceptionally quiet,” moaned currency analysts at Citigroup recently. “In fact, its been so quiet that there was almost no point in writing this report.”如果一个市政工人想找个安静的地方打个盹儿,那他还不如去的外汇交易大厅。这里曾经很嘈杂,交易员们在这里做大笔的美元、欧元和日元的外汇交易;但是现在这里却像一片寂静的绿洲。家们简直是闲得无聊。“外汇市场安静得离谱!”花旗集团的一个货币分析师最近哀叹道:“实际上,外汇市场如此萧条,做这份报告几乎没有意义!”The summertime torpor disguises existential angst. Regulators across the world are probing the role of banks in currency trading, apparently convinced it is the latest financial market to have been fiddled. Around 30 bank staff, including many trading-floor bosses, have been suspended or fired. Hefty fines seem inevitable. Worse, reforms may tear the heart out of the FX market as it is presently constituted. Banks, which make money by offering to buy or sell currencies from or to their clients, could go from being central actors to bit players. The future of a business which used to reap annual revenues of 20 billion is at stake.夏季迟钝症掩盖了潜在的危机。全球的监管机构都在调查在货币交易中扮演的角色,显然他们认为这是又一个存在商业违规行为的金融市场。将近30名职员已经被停职或解雇了,其中包括许多交易大厅的老板。巨额罚款看来是不可避免的!更糟糕的是,改革可能会将外汇市场现在的核心业务分离出去。之前是通过向客户买卖外汇盈利的,但是改革之后它在外汇交易中可能将会由主角变为小角色。这个年收益200亿美元的差事儿已经岌岌可危。Not that such bounty is attainable these days anyway, given the placid state of the market. Currency-trading volumes have slumped. That is largely because the worlds big central banks have replaced yo-yo-ing interest rates—which in turn determine the levels of their currency—with a uniform near-zero level since the financial crisis. The upshot is that floating exchange rates have seldom been so stable: volatility has plunged to its lowest level in two decades.在如今这样冷淡的市场环境下,要想获得如此可观的收益是很困难的。货币交易量已经大幅下滑,这主要是因为金融危机之后,全世界的各大央行开始推出统一的接近于零的低利率政策,而放弃了之前随市场波动的浮动利率政策—利率反过来又影响着汇率水平。结果是浮动的汇率出现了罕见的稳定状态:其波动率已经将至了20年来的最低水平。As a result, once-keen users of banks FX services have learned to do without them. Multinationals that might once have tried to hedge their foreign-currency exposures now opt to live with the risk, assuming that exchange-rate movements will remain within a limited range. Financial firms, which make up over 90% of trading volumes, have also pared back. Hedge funds that wager on currencies have shrunk or left the market in recent years. And banks, whose traders sometimes also bet on market moves, are no longer keen to do so. Appetite for risk is non-existent: “This is not a time to try something clever in FX,” says a trading boss in London.这样一来,那些曾经喜欢在交易外汇的用户已经不再热衷于此了。假设汇率只在一个小范围内浮动,那些曾经忙于对冲外汇风险的跨国公司如今也不必为此头痛了。金融机构占据了90%的外汇交易,而现在交易量也下滑了。借助外汇进行投机的对冲基金近些年来也纷纷缩小规模或撤离市场了。对于,一些交易商以前经常进行市场投机,现在这些投机活动也很少了。市场已经不再偏好风险了;一个伦敦的交易大亨说:“现在不是在外汇市场上投机的好时机!”Volatility will eventually come back—British holidaygoers may have noticed the value of the pound rising and falling this week—as the worlds biggest economies recover and interest rates move around more. But the tidy profits once made by banks may not. Much of the market for major currency pairs, such as dollar-euro or pound-yen, is now conducted electronically. Anyone wanting to exchange less than 100m is unlikely even to speak to a human being these days. The sps on trades have become vanishingly thin. Even the profits to be made on making markets in more obscure emerging-market currencies, where sps were once wider, have evaporated. High-frequency traders are moving in, too, hobbling banks.汇率波动最终还是会恢复的--英国的度假者也许会注意到英镑在本周有所起伏--世界上最大的经济体会复苏,利率也会有更大范围的波动。但是过去的丰厚利润可能不复存在。主要货币组合大部分交易市场已经电子化,如美元-欧元、英镑-日元交易市场。现在,任何一个想兑换不足一亿美金外汇的交易商都不会把他的这笔交易告诉别人。交易商的利差将会逐渐缩小。即使是在无名的新兴货币市场,外汇交易的额外利润也会逐渐减少。高频交易商同时也在进军跛足的业。But the big worry is what regulators are likely to say and do. Although they have yet to detail their case against banks, their investigations are focusing on whether FX traders bilked clients by fiddling widely-used daily benchmarks. There is nothing sophisticated about the alleged fraud: clients looking to buy or sell FX from bank trading desks agreed to price currency deals at the price prevailing at 4pm London time, regardless of when the order was placed. Bankers soon found they could bend that price in their favour, and they did. Worse, they appear to have colluded in order to execute the scam. The transcripts of online chat rooms they used, dubbed “the Cartel” and “the Bandits Club”, are likely to amuse neither bank compliance officers nor regulators.但是,金融业最担心的还是监管机构的制裁。虽然金融监管机构暂时还未对案件做出详细报告,但是他们正在集中调查外汇交易商是否通过篡改每日基准利率来欺骗客户。这种涉嫌欺诈的行为很简单:无论什么时候下订单,客户依靠伦敦时间下午四点时的价格向买卖外汇;而家们很快就发现他们可以通过改变那个价格使得自己更有利可图,然后他们这么做了。更可怕的是,他们似乎是勾结起来共同谋划这个阴谋。他们网上聊天的记录被称为“卡特尔”和“土匪俱乐部”,这可能是合规人员和监管机构都不愿意看到的。Much of the errant behaviour happened after banks promised to clean up, having been caught tampering with LIBOR, an interest rate used to peg contracts worth trillions of dollars. Their most plausible defence is that some watchdogs knew about the way the market actually worked, including the collusion. The Bank of England, which oversees the worlds biggest FX centre in London, has suspended an employee.被调查出篡改伦敦同业拆借利率之后,商业承诺清理门户,但却做出了许多违规行为。他们看似最合理的为自己辩护的理由是:许多监管部门一直都知道市场的实际运作方式,包括间的相互勾结。英国央行监管着世界上最大的伦敦外汇中心,日前该已经有一名职员被停职。The fines for the currency fiddle could reach 26 billion globally, according to KBW, a bank. Cheated clients might sue for compensation, too. Many complain the market is no longer fit for purpose. The more powerful among them, including giant institutional investors and asset managers, might egg on regulators who want to change the way currencies are traded. The Financial Stability Board, a committee of global supervisors, has floated the idea of a “global utility” that would match supply and demand of currencies. Whatever that means—and few know for sure—it sounds like a way of sidelining bankers. More details are expected in time for a meeting of G20 leaders in November.根据KBW估计,全球范围内针对篡改货币利率的罚金可达到260亿美元。欺骗客户还可能会遭到赔偿起诉。许多人抱怨货币市场已经不再像以前那么容易控制了。包括大型机构投资者和资产管理者在内的金融从业者权利越大,就越有可能鼓动监管机构改变货币交易方式。金融稳定理事会是一个全球监督委员会,它提出了符合全球货币供求的“全球效用函数”的概念。不管这个概念具体是什么--也很少有人确切的知道--听起来这就像是一个削弱商业作用的措施。详情将会在十一月份的20国集团金融峰会上提出。Banks think a “fine-tuning” of the FX market and a stern reminder to traders not to be crooked would suffice. Some are paring back their currency activities, worried about profits being squashed between fixed costs and shrinking revenues—down to 13 billion this year, thinks Morgan Stanley, a bank. Those that remain may find it a harder environment to thrive in.商业认为一方面对外汇市场加以调整,另一方面郑重提醒客户防止受骗这两种措施就足以解决问题。根史坦利认为,许多正在削减他们的货币交易业务,因为担心由于成本固定而收入不断下降会使利润越来越少--今年已经下降到130亿美元。而那些保留货币交易业务的,必须在更加艰苦的市场环境中奋力求生。 /201408/323658淄博市妇幼保健院妇科人流

山东省肿瘤医院几点上班Business商业报道Companies and emissions企业使命Carbon copy复写本Some firms are preparing for a carbon price thatwould make a big difference一些公司准备使用碳价 这将带来极大的转变THE marketsfor CO2 have had about as good a year as Obamacare.对二氧化碳的市场管理就如同奥巴马医改一样,实施已有一年了。Europesemissions-trading system, the worlds largest carbon market, collapsed inApril.欧洲碳排放交易系统作为全球最大的碳市场在今年四月崩溃。Australiasnew government is killing off that countrys fledgling market.澳大利亚的新任政府正在遏止该国羽翼未丰的市场。Yet companiesare blithe.然而公司的经理人是很高兴的。Internal carbon prices, the price of a tonne of CO2 used for planning purposes within firms, are becoming an increasingly common business tool.Perhaps firms know something that markets and politicians do not.内部碳价作为用于公司内部计划目的的每吨二氧化碳的价格,正逐步成为一个常用的商业工具。或许企业的管理者知道与此相关的事物,而这却不在市场及政治家考虑的范围之内。A study byCDP, a research group, asked large firms based or operating in America whattools they had for managing risk; 29 said they used an internal carbon price.一个名为CDP的研究机构做了一项调查。该调查询问美国的公司或在美国经营的公司采用何种方式进行风险管理。29家公司表示他们用内部碳价进行风险管理。Anecdotally, more apply such a price but did not mention it as a risk-mitigation measure.更为让人惊奇的是,更多的公司运用这种策略却不称之为风险缓和措施。This is the first economy-wide picture of how farinternal carbon pricing has gone and what it is used for.这是第一幅展现内部碳价的作用的经济全景图。The pricesrange from 6-7 a tonne of carbon dioxide at Microsoft to 60 a tonne at ExxonMobil.每吨二氧化碳的定价根据公司不同而不同,从微软每吨6-7美元到埃克森美孚每吨60美元。The span is not surprising, since companies use carbon prices for different purposes.因为各个公司出于不同的目的制定碳价,这种差别并非惊人。As a rule, those whose assets have a long productive lifeand which might be affected by green policies far into the future use higher prices than consumer-goods firms whose products aremainly influenced by current policies.通常,那些生产较长寿命的设备的公司及在未来受环保政策影响的公司的碳价比那些主要受当前政策影响的消费品公司的高。For manycompanies the aim is to prepare themselves for future environmentallegislation.对许多公司来说,他们制定碳价的目的是为将来的应对环保立法做准备。AEP, a power supplier, says it uses the system because it assumesa price of carbon…will begin in the US by roughly 2020.美国电力公司这个电力供应商称他们利用该定价系统因为该公司人碳价…大约会在2020年在整个美国普及。Delta AirLines says it uses a price for evaluating flights to Europein anticipation of compliance with EU ETS.德尔塔航空公司称该公司利用定价机制评估飞往欧洲的航班,以期欧洲电信标准作出让步。This is notthe only reason.这并非唯一的原因。Many firms use an internal carbon price to calculate the valueof future projects and to guide investment decisions.许多公司利用内部碳价计算未来项目的价值从而指导投资决策。Conoco Phillips, an oilfirm, requires that capital projects worth over 75m calculate the cost ofemissions based on a price of between 8 and 46 a tonne, depending on the lifeof the project.康菲石油公司要求超过7500万美元的重要项目,必须根据项目的生命周期以每吨8-46美元的价格计算二氧化碳排放的成本。The forecast value of a new oilfield would be: estimated outputmultiplied by the estimated future oil price minus development costs and carbonemissions.估计一个新油田的价值将会是:预计产量+预估未来的油价-开发成本-碳排放成本。Shell,another oil company, applies a carbon price—40 a tonne—to some currentoperations, not only future ones.另一个石油公司英荷壳牌不仅仅对未来的项目,即便是当下运作的项目,也采取每吨40美元的碳价。The idea is to identify tall poppies.这一思想旨在确认最高碳价。The price implies that existing projectscould spend up to 40 to reduce a tonne of CO2.该定价暗示现有项目每减少一吨二氧化碳的排放需花费40美元。Angus Gillespie, Shells vice-president for CO2, says we applythe carbon price as much to spur mitigation as to quantify risks.英荷壳牌负责二氧化碳事宜的副总裁安格斯?吉莱斯皮称我们运用碳价来尽可能地缓解量化危机。Disney, amedia conglomerate, goes further still.媒体企业集团迪斯尼公司走得更深更远。It invests in schemes to offset orreduce carbon emissions and charges the cost of these to business units in proportionto how much they contribute to the companys overall emissions.该公司投资商业计划来抵消或减少碳排放并将碳排放的成本按照它们占公司总排放量的比例纳入商业单位。In effect, thisworks like an internal carbon tax.实际上,这就相当于一种内部碳税。Perhaps themost intriguing thing about the prices, though, is how high some of them are.可能碳价最吸引人的地方就是它们能达到多高。The market price of carbon is 4.90 per tonne of CO2 in the EU, 11.50in California.每吨二氧化碳排放的市场价在欧洲是4.9欧元,加利福尼亚是11.5美元。Big oil companies charge 34 or more. That is closer to the social cost ofcarbon—the damage from an extra tonne of CO2—than to the market price.大型石油公司定价为34美元或更多。这比市场碳价更接近社会碳成本—一吨碳导致的破坏。Americasadministration recently estimated the social cost at 37 a tonne.美国行政机构近期估计社会碳成本是每吨37美元。These priceschange behaviour.这些定价改变人们的行为。A huge amount of attention is paid to government action.人们更加重视政府的行动。But the sort of carbon price some companies are using for planning would, if itbecame a market price, have a much bigger impact than any of the policies thatgovernments are now talking about.但是某些公司运用这种碳价来制定商业计划,倘若该价格成为市场价格,将会比政府现在讨论的任何政策产生更大的影响。 /201312/269273肥城市中心医院做彩超B超价格 The future of cars汽车的未来Wireless wheels无线互联汽车Connected cars will make driving safer, cleaner and more efficient. Their introduction should be speeded up联网汽车将让驾驶更安全、环保、高效。应当加快介绍推广。SINCE Henry Ford turned it into a mass-market product a century ago, the car has delivered many benefits. It has boosted economic growth, increased social mobility and given people a lot of fun. No wonder mankind has taken to the vehicle with such enthusiasm that there are now a billion automobiles on the worlds roads.一个世纪之前,亨利福特实现了汽车的大规模生产,自那以后汽车就就给我们带来了诸多好处。它的出现促进了经济增长,增加了社会流动性,也给人们带来了很多乐趣。这也就难怪人们对汽车会如此情有独钟了,因而现在有十亿量汽车奔驰在世界各地的道路上。But the car has also brought many problems. It pollutes the air, creates congestion and kills people. An astonishing 1.24m people die, and as many as 50m are hurt, in road accidents each year. Drivers and passengers waste around 90 billion hours in traffic jams each year. In some car-choked cities as much as a third of the petrol used is burned by people looking for a space to park.但是汽车也带来了很多问题。它会污染空气,造成交通拥堵,带来人员伤亡。在每年发生的交通事故中死亡人数高达124万人,也有500万人因此受伤。每年驾驶员和行人因为交通堵塞浪费的时间约为900亿小时。在一些汽车密集的城市,有三分之一的汽油是用在了找停车位的路上。Fortunately, an emerging technology promises to make motoring safer, less polluting and less prone to hold-ups (seeTechnology Quarterly). “Connected cars”—which may eventually evolve into driverless cars but for the foreseeable future will still have a human at the wheel—can communicate wirelessly with each other and with traffic-management systems, avoid pedestrians and other vehicles and find open parking spots.幸运的是,一项新兴的科技使得汽车更加安全,更环保也不易造成交通堵塞(另见科技季刊)“联网汽车”可能最终会进化为无人驾驶,但是短时间内还是需要人来驾驶,并且能通过无线网络去其他车辆和交通管制系统和相连,还能规避行人、车辆,找到开放的空车位。Get smart智能化Some parts of the transformation are aly in place. Many new cars are aly being fitted with equipment that lets them maintain their distance and stay in a motorway lane automatically at a range of speeds, and recognise a parking space and slot into it. They are also getting mobile-telecoms connections: soon, all new cars in Europe will have to be able to alert the emergency services if their on-board sensors detect a crash. Singapore has led the way with using variable tolls to smooth traffic flows during rush-hours; Britain is pioneering “smart motorways”, whose speed limits vary constantly to achieve a similar effect. Combined, these innovations could create a much more efficient system in which cars and their drivers are constantly alerted to hazards and routed around blockages, traffic always flows at the optimum speed and vehicles can join up into “platoons” on the motorways, travelling closer together, yet with less risk of crashing.转型中的某些部分已经到位。 许多新车都安装了新的设备,这些新设备能保持车距,并让车辆以一定的速度自动保持在高速公路车道内行驶,也能识别到空车位插入。这些汽车也搭载了移动电信链接设备:很快,如果欧洲新车的机载传感器检测到碰撞时,那么它们必须能够触发应急务。 新加坡在控制交通拥堵上走在了前面,通过浮动收费的方式保障高峰时段车流的顺畅通行; 英国则是采用“智能高速公路”的先驱,通过对汽车行驶速度的浮动限制达到与新加坡的方法类似的效果。 综合所有这些创新手段就可以创造一个更有效的系统,在这个系统下不论是汽车还是驾驶员都能不断的得到风险警告并避开拥堵路段,使得车流始终保持在最佳速度,所有车辆都能加入成排得行驶在高速公路上,车距小但是发生车祸的风险更小。Just as regulation has helped increase fuel efficiency, cut exhaust fumes and introduce anti-skid equipment, so government involvement is needed to get the connected car on the road. It is beginning to happen. Earlier this year, Europes standards-setting agencies agreed a common set of protocols for cars and traffic infrastructure to communicate. Others should follow. Governments should then set firm deadlines for all new cars to be fully connected and capable of platooning, and a date for existing cars to be retrofitted with a basic locator beacon and the ability to receive hazard warnings.正如监管有助于提高燃油效率,减少尾气排放并引进防滑设备,那么为了让更多的联网汽车上路,政府的参与也是必要的。 这也已经开始了。今年早些时候,欧洲的标准制定机构同意为汽车及交通基础设施之前的通信制定一个共同的协议。 其他的也都将按此执行。各国政府也应设定所有新车联网和成排管理的最后期限。并为现有的汽车设定一个期限完成基本的定位改装,能够接受危险警告。If cars are to connect, new infrastructure will have to be built. Roads and parking spaces will need sensors to monitor them; motorways will need dedicated lanes for platooning. But this will not necessarily be expensive. Upgrading traffic signals so they can be controlled remotely by a central traffic-management system is a lot cheaper than building new roads.如果汽车都连了网,那么也需要修建新的配套基础设施。 道路和停车位都需要传感器来来监控; 高速公路需要专用车道来成排管理。 但是这并不需要投入大量资金。更新交通信号使他们能够通过一个中央流量管理系统远程控制,这比起新建道路便宜不少。The sooner these changes are made, and cars are plugged into a smart traffic grid, the quicker Singaporean variable pricing—for parking as well as road use—can become the norm. Motorists will then have the incentive, as well as the ability, to avoid the busiest places at the busiest times, and the dful toll that roads take in human lives should start falling.如果能越早完成这些改进,将汽车连接到智能交通网格,那么新加坡施行的停车和道路浮动收费的方法将会成为常态。 那么驾驶员将有动力也有能力在高峰期避开拥堵路段。那么人们生活中可怕的交通费出也会下降。In the past, more people driving meant more roads, more jams, more death and more fumes. In future, the connected car could offer mankind the pleasures of the road with rather less of the pain.在过去,开车的人越多意味着更多路也更添堵。因为车祸死亡的人也会更多,尾气也更多。而在未来,联网汽车可以在让人们享受奔驰在路上的同时少一些痛苦。 /201409/327174平阴县输卵管再通术多少钱

济南市槐荫人民医院引产多少钱American spies in Germany美国间谍在德国Up pops another…and another一个一个冒出来The Americans are snooping even on Germanys anti-snooping committee美国人竟挑衅德国反监听委员会IF THE tawdry tale is confirmed, the Americans hired a German working for his countrys equivalent of the CIA as their double agent. A 31-year-old clerk sorting classified papers reportedly gave the Americans 218 documents in return for a paltry 25,000. Three concerned the committee in the Bundestag that is investigating revelations by Edward Snowden about American surveillance in Germany. So the Americans are spying on Germanys parliament even as it looks into American spying.像美国雇佣一名在德国相当于CIA部门工作的德国人做双面间谍这种低俗故事居然是真的。据报道一名整理机密文件的31岁员工将218份关于美国的文件排序分类以不到25000欧元的价格出售给美国。其中3份是关于西德联邦议会的一个委员会,这个委员会正在调查爱德华·斯诺登关于美国监视德国的启示书。所以美国监视德国议会就如同在调查美国间谍一样。This was followed on July 9th by news of a second American spy—though few details have been released. The downward spiral in German-American relations began with the Snowden affair and continued with news that America had tapped Chancellor Angela Merkels phone. It seems that the Americans collect German metadata on a vast scale. American surveillance has caught up a 27-year-old computer-science student in Bavaria named Sebastian Hahn: his mistake was merely to run a server belonging to a network that encrypts internet communications.这个美国第二个间谍的新闻于7月9日曝光,即使并没有什么细节被透露。德美关系呈螺旋形下降起于斯诺登事件,又因美国监听德国总理安吉拉·默克尔的电话而加剧。由此看来美国似乎收集了大量的德国元数据。美国的监管部门于巴伐利亚监控了一名27岁计算机科学专业的学生,其名叫斯巴斯蒂安·韩。他犯的错误仅仅是运营了一个务器,而这个务器隶属于一个将网络通信转化为密码的网络。Outrage over Americas behaviour is widesp. Joachim Gauck, Germanys president, called it “a gamble with friendship” between the two countries. “We have to say, enough!” As a former East German, like Mrs Merkel, Mr Gauck is sensitive about state spying and personal liberty. The interior and foreign ministers chimed in. The justice minister accused the Americans of “surveillance mania” and suggested he may prosecute them. The opposition has stepped up calls to give Edward Snowden, now in Russia, asylum in Germany in exchange for his testimony.对美国这种行为的愤怒正在德国蔓延。德国总统约阿希姆·高克称之为两国之间“友谊的冒险”。“我们受够了!”同默克尔一样,高克曾经也是东德人,他对国家监视和人身自由非常敏感。内政和外交部长也插手了。司法部长指控美国政府是“监控狂热”,并且暗示自己会起诉他们。反对党加紧提出要给现在俄罗斯的爱德华·斯诺登的德国政治庇护权来交换他的词。Mrs Merkel was in China when the news broke. She would have preferred not to comment there, but the timing left her little choice. The allegations are “very serious,” she said, standing next to a beaming Chinese premier. They “contradict everything that I understand to be a trusting co-operation between friendly partners.” Her counterpart, Li Keqiang, presented China and Germany as bonded in victimhood under a common American threat.当消息爆发时默克尔总理正在中国。她选择不对此作,但是时机让她别无选择。站在坦荡的中国总理旁边的她称这些断言是“非常严肃的”。这些监视行为“否定了我对友好伙伴之间的信任合作的理解。”与她相衬的李克强称中国和德国是在美国常见威胁下的牺牲品中紧密结合。Scenes like these should make American policymakers pause. Are the benefits of their spying worth the costs? In Berlin to plug her new book, Hillary Clinton, Americas former secretary of state, suggested the answer may be no. She offered an apology to Mrs Merkel for the phone-tapping. And she told interviewers that she would like senior American policymakers to visit Germany, to listen and to understand.这样的场景通常应该让美国的决策者们暂停行动。他们的监视所带来的益处与代价相比是否值得?在柏林美国前国务卿希拉里·克林顿宣传她的新书时,表示是不值得。她为窃听电话的事件像默克尔道歉。并且她还告诉采访者她希望美国高级决策人能来访问德国,来倾听和理解。Germany will stop short of granting Mr Snowden asylum or expelling American agents. The transatlantic free-trade talks, aly controversial in Germany, may survive. But a crucial Western alliance has been damaged. When members of Germanys anti-spying parliamentary commission meet now, they throw their mobile phones into a box and turn up the music—for fear of America, not Russia. That is what things have come to.德国将暂停授予斯诺登政治庇护和驱逐美国特工的提议。美国的自由贸易谈话原本在德国还存有争议,但如今也可以得以发展。但是一个重要的西方联盟关系已经被破坏了。如今当德国反监听议会委员会的成员见面时,他们将自己的手机扔进一个箱子里并且打开音乐,防的就是美国,而非俄罗斯。这就是事态的发展。 /201407/312936 Science and technology科学技术Drug research药物研究Toxic medicine毒类药品Snake venom is being used to cure, rather than kill蛇毒用于治病,不是杀伤THERE are no poisons, only poisonous doses.Thus did Paracelsus, the greatest of the alchemists, encapsulate an important piece of medical wisdom.曾经最伟大的炼金术士帕拉塞尔苏斯创立的一条重要的医学名言如是说:没有毒药,只有毒剂。In fact, that is only half the story,然而,这只说对了一半。for many materials which are toxic at high doses, when used sparingly and directed at specific targets, are not merely harmless, but actually beneficial.很多物质量大了以后就有毒性了。当计量后专用时,不仅无害,而且有益。Plant poisons, from digitalis to curare, are routinely employed as drugs.一些植物的汁液,都可用作常规药物。And now it is the turn of animal toxins, as researchers examine venoms secreted by snakes and lizards, to see if they, too, might be turned into treatments.而现在研究人员转向研究动物的毒液―蛇和蜥蜴分泌的毒汁,检验它们是否可用来治病。Snake venom, collected from farmed reptiles, has been used to make antisera for snake bites for decades by injecting it into mammals such as sheep and horses, and collecting the antibodies thus generated.圈养的蛇可收集蛇毒。几十年来,人们一直用蛇毒制作抗血清4治疗毒蛇咬伤,还把它注射到绵羊和马这样哺乳动物体内,收取抗体。Making drugs from the venom itself, however, is a fairly new idea.虽然蛇毒制药是一个全新的概念,But that is what Stefan Hailey of the University of Delaware and his colleagues hope to do.但特拉华州大学的史蒂芬?哈利和他们同事希望如此。In a paper published recently by Toxicon, they report how a protein called eristostatin, which can be extracted from the venom of the Asian sand viper, helps peoples immune systems fight malignant melanoma.最近,他们发表了一篇名为《毒素》的论文,介绍了从亚洲沙蝰的毒液中可以提取蛇毒蛋白质,这种蛋白质可激发人类免疫系统对抗恶性肿瘤。Previous studies have shown that eristostatin stops melanoma cells colonising the liver and lungs in mice.先前的研究发现蛇毒蛋白质能阻止黑色瘤细胞5在肝脏和肺的扩散。Dr Hailey is trying to work out how this happens.哈利正解密这一过程。Eristostatins day job is to stop victims blood clotting and thus plugging up damaged blood vessels after a bite.蛇毒蛋白质的功效是人被蛇咬伤后防止血液凝固堵塞血管。By increasing blood loss, it weakens victims.受伤者失血过多,逐渐虚弱。The molecule does this by glomming onto cellular fragments called platelets that are crucial to the process of clotting, thus disabling them.抗凝分子能抑制血小板这种在血凝过程中起关键作用的细胞碎片,使其失效。Dr Hailey hopes to make use of this tendency to encourage the immune system to attack melanoma cells.哈利希望利用这种性质趋向激发免疫系统对抗黑色瘤细胞。His idea requires eristostatin to be as attracted to cancer cells as it is to platelets.他的理论需要蛇毒蛋白像抑制血小板那样吸引癌细胞。Two observations suggest it could be.两项研究结果实了其可能性。One is that eristostatin has a particular affinity for melanoma cells, which presumably have a protein on their surfaces that is similar to the one which attracts eristostatin to platelets.一是蛇毒蛋白与黑素瘤细胞有一定的亲和性,黑素瘤细胞表面可能有一种蛋白质,类似于让蛇毒蛋白吸附血小板的蛋白。The other observation is that when eristostatin is attached to a cells surface it attracts the attention of T-lymphocytes.另一项是蛇毒蛋白附于细胞表面时,可吸引T形淋巴细胞6。These are immune-system cells whose job is to kill other body cells that have been infected with viruses, or which have turned cancerous.这些免疫系统细胞能吞噬被细菌感染的细胞或是癌化细胞。If melanoma cells could, in this way, be made especially attractive to T-lymphocytes, that might clear away the tumour completely.假如能让黑素瘤细胞像这样吸引T形淋巴细胞,那么就可能完全消除肿瘤。Dr Hailey and his colleagues used a technique called atomic-force microscopy to study the interactions between melanoma cancer cells and eristostatin.哈利和其同事用原子力显微镜7技术研究黑素次瘤癌细胞与蛇毒蛋白的相互作用。This technique allows the force required to pull the two apart to be measured precisely, to see whether there is a genuine attraction—which he found that there is.这种技术可以调节原子力把两者分开进行精确测量,看看是否真的存在吸引―经他实是存在的。If eristostatin does prove an effective means to treat cancer, it will join a growing stable of medicines derived from reptile toxins.假如蛇毒蛋白真能有效地治疗癌症,就会把它归到不断扩大的蛇毒提取药类里。Tirofiban, for instance, is a modified version of another anticoagulant—in this case from the venom of the African saw-scaled viper.例如,欣维宁是从锯鳞8的毒液中提取的,是改良了的抗凝剂。It is given to people with angina, and also to those who have had heart attacks.欣维宁针对心绞痛患者以及心脏病患者。依泰德森是人工的唾液素4。Exenatide is the synthetic form of a hormone called exendin-4 that occurs naturally in the saliva of the Gila monster, a venomous North American lizard.自然状态下,存在于北美一种毒蜥―希拉毒蜥的唾液中。It works as a treatment for type-2 diabetes because it increases insulin production in those whose blood-sugar levels are high.唾液素4可用于治疗2型糖尿病10,因为它能增高高血糖患者体内的胰岛素含量。And captopril, a blood-vessel-relaxing agent widely used to treat hypertension, is based on teprotide, from Brazilian arrowhead vipers, which helps the other toxins in the venom circulate quickly, and thus reach their targets rapidly.卡托普利11―血管放松剂,广泛用于治疗高血压。它由替普罗肽组成,从巴西箭头毒蛇12提取,能加速毒液中毒素循环,迅速到达患处。The year of the snake蛇年There are other venom-based drugs in the pipeline, too.还有其它蛇毒提取药物在研发。Crotoxin, a protein from the South American rattlesnake, though not yet approved for use, may one day be employed to treat cancers.响尾蛇蛋白是从南美响尾蛇中提取的一种蛋白质,虽然还没有实临床效果,但有一天会用来治疗癌症。Crotoxin seems particularly attracted to cancer cells.响尾蛇蛋白表面看来特别能吸引癌细胞。One portion of the molecule recognises a protein on the cells membrane, and links to it.响尾蛇蛋白分子的一部分能识别细胞膜,并依附其上。The other portion damages the membrane, triggering a mechanism called apoptosis which causes the cell to kill itself.另一部分能破坏细胞膜,产生一种让细胞死亡13的机制。Celtic Biotech, based in Dublin, is running a series of tests using this molecule on cancer patients at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris.位于都柏林的凯尔特生物技术人员正进行一系列的实验,用这种分子来治疗巴黎皮蓬杜欧洲医院的癌症患者。This year, Celtic plans to try it on people with several different sorts of cancer, since the firms researchers believe it should be effective on all solid tumours.今年他们计划对患有不同种癌症的患者进行治疗,因为公司的研究人员相信治疗固体肿瘤很有效果。If those trials are successful, though, they then plan to concentrate on lung cancer, the largest market.假如成功,他们就会专攻肺癌的治疗。Perhaps the most astonishing toxin-derived drug of all, however, is hannalgesin, which is made from king-cobra venom.这是从眼镜蛇王毒素中提取,可能是蛇毒提取药中最疗效最神奇的。Kini Manjunatha of the National University of Singapore is developing this substance as a pain-relieving agent.新加坡国大的齐尼教授正把这种物质研发成镇痛剂。He claims it is between 20 and 200 times more effective than morphine.他说作用是吗啡的20到200 多倍不等。Moreover, unlike morphine, which is usually injected, hannalgesin can be taken by mouth.再者,Hannalgesin不像吗啡通过注射,可口。He is planning to run the first clinical trials at the end of 2013 or in early 2014.他计划于2013年底或2014年初进行首次临床试验。Venom, then, is proving to be a trove of useful molecules.经实毒素就是有用的分子的集合。At a time when drug companies are struggling to develop new products,让制药公司通过自然选择对原料进行验,研发新药。a novel source of raw materials that have been road-tested by natural selection, and merely need to be subverted from their original purposes rather than created afresh, must be welcome.这个新方法肯定受欢迎,因为不需要创新,而只是转换了药性。It is not turning base metals into gold, as Paracelsus and his kind once attempted.这个过程并不是像帕拉塞尔苏斯这样的术士们把贱金属转换成黄金,But as a transformation of matter, it is surely a far more valuable trick.但从物质转换的角度来讲,一定是价值连成。 /201310/261923济南中医院新地址山东第二附属医院生殖科



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